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Full text of "Bulletin of Wake Forest University"

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Photography Credits: Will Mclntyre— Cover; Melvin Herndon—page 51; Lee Runion- 
pages 17, 51, 71, 120, 145, 152, 157, 170, 194, 204, 229, 278 



BULLETIN of Wake Forest University (USPS 078-320) is published seven times a year in 
March, April, Mav, June (2 issues), July and November by the University Editor's Office, 
Wake Forest University, P.O. Box 7205 Reynolda Station, Winston-Salem,' NC 27109-7205. 
Second class postage paid at Winston-Salem, NC, and additional mailing offices. POST- 
MASTER: Send address changes to BULLETIN of Wake Forest University, Director of 
Admissions, Box 7305 Reynolda Station, Winston-Salem, NC 27109-7305. 



New Series 



June 1996 



Volume 91, Number 3 



Wake Forest College 

and 

The Wayne Calloway School of 
Business and Accountancy 



The Undergraduate Schools 
of Wake Forest University 






m 

* Ms 




Announcements for 

1996-97 

This bulletin represents a record of the year 1995-96. 



The Academic Calendar 



Fall Semester 1996 



August 21 

August 22-27 
August 24 

August 25 

August 26-27 
August 28 
September 
September 11 
September 25 
October 16 
October 18 
November 26 
Nov. 27-Dec. 1 
December 2 
December 6 
December 9-14 
December 14 
Dec. 15-Jan. 12 



Wednesday 

Thursday-Tuesday 
Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday-Tuesday 

Wednesday 

(date to be announced) 

Wednesday 

Wednesday 

Wednesday 

Friday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday-Sunday 

Monday 

Friday 

Monday-Saturday 

Saturday 

Sunday-Sunday 



Spring Semester 1997 



January 11 
January 13-14 
January 15 
January 20 
January 29 
February 12 
February 
March 7 
March 8 
March 8-16 
March 15 
March 17 
March 28 
April 30 
May 1-2 
May 3-10 
May 11 
May 18 
May 19 



Saturday 

Monday-Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Monday 

Wednesday 

Wednesday 

(date to be announced) 

Friday 

Saturday 

Saturday-Sunday 

Saturday 

Monday 

Friday 

Wednesday 

Thursday-Friday 

Saturday-Saturday 

Sunday 

Sunday 

Monday 



Move-in day for new students; residence 

halls open 8 a.m-5 p.m. 
Orientation for new students 
Residence halls open for returning 

students, 8 a.m.-5 p.m. 
Residence halls open for returning 

students, noon-5 p.m. 
Valida tion / Registra tion 
Classes begin 
Opening Convocation 
Last day to add courses 
Last day to drop courses 
Midterm grades due 
Fall holiday 

All residence halls close at 7 p.m. 
Thanksgiving holiday 
Classes resume 
Classes end 
Examinations 

All residence halls close at 7 p.m. 
Christmas recess 



Residence halls open at 9 a.m. 

Validation of registration for all students 

Classes begin 

Martin Luther King Jr. Day — no classes 

Last day to add courses 

Last day to drop courses 

Founders' Day Convocation 

Midterm grades due 

All residence halls close at 7 p.m. 

Spring recess 

Residence halls reopen at 11 a.m. 

Classes resume 

Good Friday — no classes 

Classes end 

Reading days 

Examinations 

Residence halls close for non-seniors at 7 p.m. 

Baccalaureate 

Commencement 

Residence halls close for seniors at 7 p.m. 



Table of Contents 



The Academic Calendar 2 

The University 7 

Buildings and Grounds 8 

Information Systems 9 

Telecommunication Services 10 

Libraries 11 

Recognition and Accreditation 12 

The Undergraduate Schools 12 

Wake Forest College 13 

Statement of Purpose 13 

Honor System 14 

Student Complaints 15 

History and Development 16 

Chronological History of Wake Forest University 16 

Presidents of Wake Forest University 17 

Procedures 18 

Admission 18 

Application 18 

Early Decision 19 

Admission of Handicapped Students 19 

Advanced Placement and CLEP 20 

Admission of Transfer Students 20 

Expenses 20 

Tuition 21 

Room Charges 21 

Food Services 21 

Other Charges 22 

Refunds 22 

Pro-Rata Refund 23 

Federal Refund Calculation 24 

Distribution Requirements 24 

Housing 25 

Academic Calendar 25 

Orientation and Advising 25 

Registration 26 

Classification 26 

Class Attendance 26 

Auditing Courses 27 

Dropping a Course 27 

Withdrawal from the College 28 

Examinations 28 

Grading 28 

Grade Reports and Transcripts 29 



Dean's List 29 

Graduation Distinctions 29 

Repetition of Courses 30 

Probation 30 

Requirements for Continuation in the College 30 

Requirements for Readmission 31 

Summer Study 32 

Transfer Credit 32 

Scholarships and Loans 33 

Scholarships 33 

Federal Financial Aid Programs 46 

Exchange Scholarships 47 

Loans 47 

Concessions 48 

Other Financial Aid 49 

Outside Assistance 49 

Special Programs 50 

Honors Study 50 

Open Curriculum 50 

Study at Salem College 50 

International Studies 51 

Office of International Studies 51 

International Students 51 

Residential Language Centers 51 

International Studies House 52 

Foreign Area Studies 52 

Opportunities for Study Abroad 52 

England (London) 52 

Italy (Venice) 52 

France (Dijon) 53 

Spain (Salamanca) 53 

Institute of European Studies 53 

China (Beijing) 53 

Japan (Hiratsuka) 53 

Russia 54 

Experiment in International Living 54 

Study Abroad in Non-Wake Forest Programs 54 

Requirements for Degrees 55 

Degrees Offered 55 

General Requirements 55 

Basic Requirements 56 

Divisional Requirements 56 

Requirement in Health and Exercise Science 58 

Proficiency in the Use of English 58 

Basic and Divisional Requirements 58 



Declaring a Major 58 

Maximum Number of Courses in a Department 59 

Options for Meeting Major Requirements 59 

Double Majors and Joint Majors 60 

Minors 60 

Interdisciplinary Minors 60 

Foreign Area Studies 61 

Senior Testing 61 

Combined Degrees in Medical Technology 61 

Degrees in the Physician Assistant Program 62 

Degrees in Dentistry 63 

Degrees in Engineering 63 

Degrees in Forestry and Environmental Studies 63 

Courses of Instruction — Wake Forest College 64 

American Ethnic Studies (Interdisciplinary Minor) 64 

Anthropology 65 

Art 68 

Asian Studies (Interdisciplinary Minor) 72 

Biology 74 

Chemistry 81 

Classical Languages 84 

Communication 88 

Cultural Resource Preservation (Interdisciplinary Minor) 92 

Early Christian Studies (Interdisciplinary Minor) 93 

East Asian Languages and Literatures 94 

East Asian Studies (Foreign Area Study) 95 

East European Studies (Foreign Area Study) 96 

Economics 96 

Education 101 

English 108 

Environmental Studies (Interdisciplinary Minor) 113 

German and Russian 114 

German Studies (Foreign Area Study) 118 

Health and Exercise Science 118 

History 123 

Humanities 129 

Interdisciplinary Honors 134 

International Studies (Interdisciplinary Minor ) 136 

Italian Studies (Foreign Area Study) 137 

Journalism (Minor) 139 

Latin American Studies (Interdisciplinary Minor) 140 

Linguistics (Interdisciplinary Minor) 141 

Mathematics and Computer Science 143 

Medieval Studies (Interdisciplinary Minor) 150 

Military Science 151 



Music 154 

Natural Sciences 162 

Philosophy 163 

Physics 167 

Politics 171 

Psychology 177 

Religion 181 

Romance Languages 187 

Sociology 198 

Spanish Studies (Foreign Area Study) 202 

Theater 203 

Dance 207 

Urban Studies (Interdisciplinary Minor) 208 

Women's Studies (Interdisciplinary Minor) 208 

Overseas Courses 211 

Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy 221 

Mission 221 

Programs 222 

Objectives 222 

Admission 223 

Transfer of Credit from Other Schools 223 

Requirements for Continuation 224 

Requirements for Graduation 224 

Senior Honors Program 225 

Beta Gamma Sigma, National Honor Society 225 

Courses of Instruction 225 

Business 225 

Accountancy 230 

Enrollment , 233 

Governing and Advisory Boards 234 

The Board of Trustees 234 

The Board of Visitors 235 

The Board of Visitors, W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy 236 

The Administration 237 

The Undergraduate Faculties 250 

Emeriti 273 

The Committees of the Faculty 279 

Index 284 

Bulletins of Wake Forest University 288 



The University 



Wake Forest University is characterized by its devotion to liberal learning 
and professional preparation for men and women, its strong sense of 
community and fellowship, and its encouragement of free inquiry and 
expression. 

Founded in 1834 by the Baptist State Convention of North Carolina, the school opened 
its doors on February 3 as Wake Forest Institute, with Samuel Wait as principal. It was 
located in Wake County, North Carolina, on the plantation of Calvin Jones, near which 
the village of Wake Forest later developed. 

Rechartered in 1838 as Wake Forest College, it is one of the oldest institutions of higher 
learning in the state. It was exclusively a college of liberal arts for men until 1894, when 
the School of Law was established. The School of Medicine, founded in 1902, offered a 
two-year medical program until 1941. In that year, the school was moved from the town 
of Wake Forest to Winston-Salem, became associated with the North Carolina Baptist 
Hospital, and was renamed the Bowman Gray School of Medicine. In 1942, Wake Forest 
admitted women as regular undergraduate students. 

A School of Business Administration was established in 1948. In 1969, the undergradu- 
ate school was succeeded by the Department of Business and Accountancy and the 
Department of Economics in Wake Forest College; at the same time the Babcock Graduate 
School of Management was established. In 1980, the undergraduate program in business 
and accountancy was reconstituted as the School of Business and Accountancy. The 
Division of Graduate Studies, established in 1961, is now organized as the Graduate 
School and encompasses advanced work in the arts and sciences on both the Reynolda 
arid Hawthorne campuses in Winston-Salem. 

In 1946, the trustees of Wake Forest College and the Baptist State Convention of North 
Carolina accepted a proposal by the Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation to relocate the non- 
medical divisions of the College to Winston-Salem. The late Charles H. Babcock and his 
wife, the late Mary Reynolds Babcock, contributed a campus site, and building funds were 
received from many sources. Between 1952 and 1956, the first fourteen buildings were 
erected in Georgian style on the new Winston-Salem campus. In 1956, the College moved 
all operations, leaving the 122-year-old campus in the town of Wake Forest to the 
Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary. 

In 1967, the College's augmented character was recognized by the change in name to 
Wake Forest University. Today, enrollment in all schools of the University stands at over 
5,000. Governance remains in the hands of the Board of Trustees, and development for 
each of the six schools of the University is augmented by advisory boards of visitors. A 
joint board of University trustees and trustees of the North Carolina Baptist Hospital is 
responsible for the Medical Center, which includes the hospital and the medical school. 

Wake Forest's relationship with the Baptist State Convention is an important part of 
the school's heritage. Wake Forest and the Convention have a fraternal, voluntary 
relationship under which Wake Forest is autonomous in governance. 

The College, Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy, Babcock Gradu- 
ate School of Management, School of Law, and the Graduate School are located on the 
Reynolda Campus in northwest Winston-Salem. The Bowman Gray School of Medicine 



is about four miles away, near the city's downtown, on what is known as the Hawthorne 
Campus. The University also offers instruction regularly at Casa Artom in Venice, at 
Worrell House in London, and in other places around the world. 

The College offers courses in more than forty fields of study leading to the baccalau- 
reate degree. The Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy offers courses 
of study leading to baccalaureate degrees in business, analytical finance or mathemati- 
cal business (in cooperation with the Department of Mathematics and Computer 
Science); and a combination baccalaureate and master of science degree in accoun- 
tancy through the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences of the University. The School 
of Law offers the juris doctor degree and the Babcock Graduate School of Management, 
the master of business administration degree. Both schools also offer a joint JD/MBA 
degree. In addition to the doctor of medicine degree, the Bowman Gray School of 
Medicine offers, through the Graduate School, programs leading to the master of science 
and doctor of philosophy degrees in biomedical sciences. The Graduate School confers 
the master of arts, master of arts in education, master of arts in liberal studies, and master 
of science degrees in the arts and sciences and the doctor of philosophy degree in biology, 
chemistry, and physics. 

Buildings and Grounds 



The Reynolda Campus of Wake Forest is situated on approximately 340 acres; its physical 
facilities consist of over thirty buildings, most of which are of modified Georgian 
architecture and constructed of Old Virginia brick trimmed in granite and limestone. The 
Reynolda Gardens annex, consisting of about 150 acres and including Reynolda Woods, 
Reynolda Village, and Reynolda Gardens, is adjacent to the campus. The Graylyn 
International Conference Center, an educational conference center, is nearby. 

Wait Chapel, named in memory of the first president of the College, seats 2,300. The 
Wait Chapel tower contains the Janet Jeffrey Carlisle Harris Carillon, an instrument of 
forty -eight bells. Wingate Hall, named in honor of President Washington Manly Wingate, 
houses the Department of Religion, the offices of the University chaplaincy and the Wake 
Forest Baptist Church, and other classrooms and offices. 

Reynolda Hall, across the upper plaza from Wait Chapel, houses most of the adminis- 
trative offices for the Reynolda Campus as well as Information Systems. The Benson 
University Center is the central hub for student activities and events. The Z. Smith Reynolds 
Library and its Edwin Graves Wilson Wing house the main collection of books and 
documents on the Reynolda Campus. Along with eight floors of open stacks, with a 
capacity for over 1 ,000,000 volumes, it has reading and reference rooms for study. Carswell 
Hall houses the departments of Communication, Economics, and Sociology. 

Winston Hall houses biology and psychology; Salem Hall, the chemistry department. 
Both buildings have laboratories as well as classrooms and special research facilities. The 
Olin Physical Laboratory is the facility for the physics department. Harold W. Tribble 
Hall accommodates primarily humanities departments, and has seminar rooms, a phi- 
losophy library, and a larger lecture area, DeTamble Auditorium. The Museum of 
Anthropology houses the anthropology department and the Museum. The Wayne 



Calloway School of Business and Accountancy and the Department of Mathematics and 
Computer Science are in Calloway Hall. 

The James R. Scales Fine Arts Center is of contemporary design appropriate to the 
functions of studio art, theater, musical and dance performances, and instruction in art 
history, drama, and music. Off its lobby is a large gallery for special exhibitions. In the art 
wing are spacious studios for drawing, painting, sculpture, and printmaking, along with 
a smaller gallery and classrooms. In the theater wing are design and production areas and 
two technically complete theaters, the larger of traditional proscenium design and the 
smaller for experimental ring productions. The music wing contains Bremile Recital 
Hall for concerts and lectures, classrooms, practice rooms for individuals and groups, and 
the offices of the music department. 

The Worrell Professional Center for Law and Management houses the School of Law and 
Babcock Graduate School of Management under one roof. 

The William N. Reynolds Gymnasium has classrooms for instruction in health and 
exercise science, courts for indoor sports, a swimming pool, and offices for the depart- 
ments of Health and Exercise Science and Military Science. Adjacent are tennis courts, 
sports fields, the Campus Stadium, an Indoor Tennis Center, and the Athletic Center tor 
intercollegiate athletics. 

The Wake Forest campus has a wide variety of housing options available to students. 
There is one residence hall which houses only male students: Taylor House. Two residence 
halls house only female students: Babcock and Bostwick halls. Collins Hall, Davis House, 
Efird Hall, Huffman Hall, Johnson Hall, Kitchin House, Inter Hall, North Hall, Palmer Hall, 
Piccolo Hall, Poteat House, and the Student Apartments are coeducational by floor, wing, 
or apartment. Substance-free living environments are available in some residence 
halls. First-year students live in Bostwick, Collins, Johnson, Kitchin, Palmer, Piccolo, and 
Taylor. Upper class students may choose to live in one of a variety of theme houses 
including the Fine Arts House, French House, German House, International Studies House, 
NIA House, Volunteer Services House, and WAKE Radio House, or others that are currently 
being developed. Student housing is available in the townhouse apartments and several 
small houses owned by the University. On the edge of the main campus are apartments 
for faculty and staff, as well as graduate students. 

Information Systems 



Information Systems supports University instruction, research, and administrative 
needs. The University has one multi-node IBM SP2 computer complex serving 
courseware and network services such as electronic mail; a number of Windows NT- 
based network servers providing login, file and print services; and seven Hewlett- 
Packard midrange computers providing a variety of services under the UNIX oper- 
ating system. These systems are available twenty-four hours a day through dial-in 
connectivity providers, from workstations in the microcomputer labs and across the 
campus computer network. 

The campus computer network which consists of ten megabit Ethernet connectiv- 
ity combined with a 100 megabit FDDI network backbone, offers high speed connec- 
tivity from all residence rooms, all offices, and many classrooms. The campus 



10 



computer network also offers network access through a variety of wireless access 
points in locations such as the Z. Smith Reynolds Library and the Benson University 
Center. These access points allow students and faculty with IBM laptop computers to 
use the computer network without the limitations of plugging into the wall. 

All first-year students are issued IBM ThinkPad computers. These laptop comput- 
ers contain a standard suite of powerful programs that allow students easier access to 
research and class materials; provide students with tools for doing classwork; and 
offer the ability to interact with faculty, staff, and other students through the campus 
computer network. These programs include Microsoft Office, Lotus Notes, electronic 
mail, and Internet and library browsing and research tools. 

In addition to resources provided by Information Systems, many other depart- 
ments maintain discipline specific computing resources. For example, physics and 
chemistry share a high-performance DEC Alpha computing cluster via the high speed 
FDDI network backbone, and mathematics and computer science maintains Sun 
workstations for their students. The Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accoun- 
tancy, the Department of Education and the Department of Psychology maintain their 
own computing labs for specialized instruction and applications. 

Wake Forest also has access to computing resources outside the University. The 
University is a member of the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social 
Research (ICPSR), located at the University of Michigan. ICPSR membership pro- 
vides faculty and students with access to a large library of data files, including public 
opinion surveys, cross-cultural data, financial data, census data, and election surveys. 
The University is also a member of EDUCOM, a national consortium of colleges and 
universities concerned with computing issues. In addition, Wake Forest has full 
access to the World Wide Web, and has facilities for participation in the North 
Carolina Information Superhighway. 

There are eight general purpose microcomputer labs available for student use. 
These labs are connected to the campus network and have full access to standard 
University software and services. Each lab offers dot matrix and laser printing. Laser 
printing is available on a purchased copy basis. Five of the labs are available 24 hours 
a day. All but one of these labs are accessible through a security card entry system. The 
Information Systems Help Area is located in the Z. Smith Reynolds Library. It is 
staffed with microcomputer assistants Monday through Thursday, from 8:30 a.m. to 
midnight; Friday, 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m.; Saturday, noon until 5 p.m.; and Sunday, noon 
until midnight. 

The Information Systems Help Area provides assistance by telephone and sup- 
ports walk-in customers during normal business hours. Information Systems also 
supports an extensive Online Information System which includes documentation, 
class schedules, University-wide activity calendars, and the electronic version of the 
Old Gold and Black. 

Telecommunication Services 



Telecommunication Services provides telephone and cable television services to the 
students, faculty, and staff of Wake Forest University. All residence hall rooms are 



11 



equipped with telephone jacks and cable TV connections. Local dial service for the 
campus and Winston-Salem area is provided as part of the housing package. Students 
who wish to place long distance calls over the University network can apply for services 
at the telecommunications department located in Room 20, Reynolda Hall. 

Cable television, while providing a recreational outlet, plays an important role by 
providing access to campus information and educational offerings. Cable channel 2 is the 
Wake Forest University information channel, providing information and a calendar of 
campus events. WAKE Radio, a student-run station, provides background music for this 
channel. Channel 17 carries SCOLA, which provides domestic and foreign educational 
programming. 

Libraries 

The libraries of Wake Forest University support instruction and research at the under- 
graduate level and in the disciplines awarding graduate degrees. The libraries of the 
University hold membership in the Association of College and Research Libraries, and 
the Association of Southeastern Research Libraries, and rank among the top schools in the 
Southeast in library expenditures per student. 

Facilities in the Z. Smith Reynolds Library include an Information Technology Center 
with multimedia viewing and editing and a lab for student use. All-night study rooms are 
available to students with a key-card. Group study rooms are provided for student use. 
A Professional Center Library, combining the Law Library and the Babcock Management 
Library, is housed in the Worrell Professional Center, which opened in 1993. 

Reynolda Campus libraries share an online catalog which may be consulted at 
terminals in the buildings, from the campus network or remotely through a modem. The 
Reference Department of the Z. Smith Reynolds Library provides a complete range of 
reference services including online searching, tours, first-year student orientation, 
presentation to individual classes, and assistance with directed and independent studies. 
Reference tools are available in electronic and print formats. Lnterlibrary loan service is 
available for Wake Forest students, faculty, and staff. Books, photocopies, and other 
materials may be borrowed from other libraries at no charge. 

The Wake Forest libraries hold over one million volumes in print, many thousands 
of subscriptions to periodicals and serials, over one and a half million microforms, 
more than 150,000 government documents, as well as a growing video collection. 

Special collections in the Reynolds Library include the Rare Books Collection and the 
Ethel Taylor Crittenden Baptist Historical Collection. The Rare Books Collection, greatly 
enhanced by the donation of rare and fine books of the late Charles H. Babcock, 
emphasizes American and British authors of the late nineteenth and early twentieth 
centuries. Among such collections are those of Mark Twain, Gertrude Stein, William 
Butler Yeats and T.S. Eliot. There is also an extensive Anglo-Irish literature collection. The 
Baptist Historical Collection contains significant books, periodicals, manuscripts, and 
church records relating to North Carolina Baptists as well as a collection of the personal 
papers of prominent ministers, educators and government officials. The Wake Forest 
College /University Archive also is maintained in this area. The library houses a major 
collection on The Holocaust, as well. 



12 



Recognition and Accreditation 



Wake Forest University is accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern 
Association of Colleges and Schools (1866 Southern Lane, Decatur, Georgia; tele- 
phone number [404] 679-4501) to award bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees. 

The Bowman Gray School of Medicine is a member of the Association of American 
Medical Colleges and is on the approved list of the Council on Medical Education of the 
American Medical Association. The School of Law is a member of the Association of 
American Law Schools and is listed as an approved school by the Council of the Section 
of Legal Education and Admissions to the Bar of the American Bar Association and by the 
Board of Law Examiners and the Council of the North Carolina State Bar. The Babcock 
Graduate School of Management and the Wayne Calloway School of Business and 
Accountancy are accredited by the American Assembly of Col legia te Schools of Business. 
The program in counseling leading to the master of arts in education degree is accredited 
by the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education. 

Wake Forest University is a member of many institutional organizations and associa- 
tions at the national, regional, and statewide levels, including the following: the American 
Council on Education, the Association of American Colleges, the National Association of 
Independent Colleges and Universities, the Council of Graduate Schools in the United 
States, the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, the Southern Universities 
Conference, the Council of Southern Graduate Schools, the North Carolina Association 
of Colleges and Universities, and the North Carolina Association of Independent Colleges 
and Universities. In addition, many offices of the University are members of associations 
which focus on particular aspects of university administration. 

Wake Forest has chapters of the principal national social fraternities and sororities, 
professional fraternities, and honor societies, including Phi Beta Kappa and Sigma Xi. 
There is an active chapter of the American Association of University Professors on 
campus. 

The Undergraduate Schools 



There are two undergraduate schools at Wake Forest University: Wake Forest College and 
the Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy. The undergraduate schools 
are governed by the Board of Trustees, the University administration, and by their 
respective faculties. Responsibility for academic administration is delegated by the 
president and trustees to the provost, who is the chief academic officer of the University. 
The deans of the schools report to the provost and are responsible for academic planning 
and administration for their schools. 



13 



Wake Forest College 



Wake Forest College is the undergraduate school of arts and sciences of Wake 
Forest University. It is the center of the University's academic life; through it, 
the University carries on the tradition of preparing men and women for personal 
enrichment, enlightened citizenship, and professional life. 

Wake Forest College is a place of meeting. Its teachers and students are of diverse 
backgrounds and interests, and that diversity is crucial to the distinctive character of the 
College. Wake Forest continually examines its educational purpose and evaluates its 
success in fulfilling it. A formal statement of purpose was prepared as part of the school's 
decennial reaccreditation process and was adopted by the Board of Trustees. 

Purpose 



Following is the official statement of purpose of Wake Forest College. 
Statement of Purpose 



Wake Forest is a university dedicated to the pursuit of excellence in the liberal arts and in 
graduate and professional education. Its distinctiveness in its pursuit of its mission derives 
from its private, coeducational, and residential character; its size and location; and its 
Baptist affiliation. Each of these factors constitutes a significant aspect of the unique 
character of the institution. 

The University is now comprised of six constituent parts: two undergraduate institu- 
tions, Wake Forest College and the Wayne Cal loway School of Business and Accountancy; 
the Graduate School; and three professional schools: the School of Law, the Bowman Gray 
School of Medicine, and the Babcock Graduate School of Management. It seeks to honor the 
ideals of liberal learning, which entail commitment to transmission of cultural heritages; 
teaching the modes of learning in the basic disciplines of human knowledge; developing 
critical appreciation of moral, aesthetic, and religious values; advancing the frontiers of 
knowledge through in-depth study and research; and applying and using knowledge in the 
service of humanity. 

Wake Forest has been dedicated to the liberal arts for over a century and a half; this 
means education in the fundamental fields of human knowledge and achievement, as 
distinguished from education that is technical or narrowly vocational. It seeks to encourage 
habits of mind that ask "why," that evaluate evidence, that are open to new ideas, that 
attempt to understand and appreciate the perspectives of others, that accept complexity 
and grapple with it, that admit error, and that pursue truth. Wake Forest College has by far 
the largest student body in the University, and its function is central to the University's 
larger life. The College and the Graduate School are most singularly focused on learning for 
its own sake; they therefore serve as exemplars of specific academic values in the life of the 
University. 

Beginning as early as 1894, Wake Forest accepted an obligation to provide professional 
training in a number of fields, as a complement to its primary mission of liberal arts 
education. This responsibility is fulfilled in the conviction that the humane values embod- 



14 



ied in the liberal arts are also centrally relevant to the professions. Professional education 
at Wake Forest is characterized by a commitment to ethical and other professional ideals 
that transcend technical skills. Like the Graduate School, the professional schools are 
dedicated to the advancement of learning in their fields. In addition, they are specifically 
committed to the application of knowledge to solving concrete problems of human beings. 
They are strengthened by values and goals which they share with the College and Graduate 
School, and the professional schools enhance the work of these schools and the University 
as a whole by serving as models of service to humanity. 

Wake Forest was founded by private initiative, and ultimate decision-making authority 
lies in a privately appointed Board of Trustees rather than in a public body. "Funded to a 
large extent from private sources of support, [Wake Forest] is determined to chart its own 
course in the pursuit of its goals. As a coeducational institution it seeks to 'educate together' 
persons of both sexes and from a wide range of backgrounds — racial, ethnic, religious, 
geographical, socio-economic, and cultural... Its residential features are conducive to 
learning and to the pursuit of a wide range of co-curricular activities. It has made a conscious 
choice to remain small in overall size; it takes pride in being able to function as a community 
rather than a conglomerate. Its location in the Piedmont area of North Carolina engenders 
an ethos that is distinctively Southern, and more specifically North Carolinian. . . As it seeks 
further to broaden its constituency and to receive national recognition, it is also finding 
ways to maintain the ethos associated with its regional roots." 

Wake Forest is proud of its Baptist and Christian heritage. For more than a century and 
a half, it has provided the University an indispensable basis for its mission and purpose, 
enabling Wake Forest to educate thousands of ministers and laypeople for enlightened 
leadership in their churches and communities. Far from being exclusive and parochial, this 
religious tradition gives the University roots that ensure its lasting identity and branches 
that provide a supportive environment for a wide variety of faiths. The Baptist insistence 
on both the separation of church and state and local autonomy has helped to protect the 
University from interference and domination by outside interests, whether these be 
commercial, governmental, or ecclesiastical. The Baptist emphasis upon revealed truth 
enables a strong religious critique of human reason, even as the claim s of revelation are put 
under the scrutiny of reason. The character of intellectual life at Wake Forest encourages 
open and frank dialogue and provides assurance that the University will be ecumenical and 
not provincial in scope, and that it must encompass perspectives other than the Christian. 
Wake Forest thus seeks to maintain and invigorate what is noblest in its religious heritage. 

Honor System 

Through the honor system, Wake Forest University and its students embrace the ideals 
of honor and integrity. The honor system is an integral part of the Student Government 
of the College, as adopted by the students and approved by the faculty. The essence of 
the honor system is that each student's word can be trusted implicitly and that any 
violation of a student's word is an offense against the entire University community. The 
honor system binds the student in such matters as he/she must neither give nor receive 
aid upon any examination, quiz or other pledge work; he/she must have complete 
respect for the property rights of others; he/she must not give false testimony, lie, or 



15 



deceive; he/she must not engage in any activities commonly referred to as deception, 
stealing, cheating, plagiarism, or other forms of academic misconduct. Further details 
appear in the Student Government Constitution and Statutes. 

It is the duty of the Honor Council to receive, investigate, bring charges, and arrange 
hearing proceedings in all charges of violations of the honor system. The minimum 
penalty for a violation of the honor system shall be probation. The penalty may be as 
severe as expulsion from the College. All actions of the Council shall be reported to the 
dean of the College. 

Any student convicted of violating the honor system is ineligible to represent the 
University in any manner whatsoever until the period his/her punishment is com- 
pleted and the student is returned to good standing. 

Students enforcing the honor system are protecting the integrity of this community, 
their individual rights, and their reputations. They thereby enjoy the confidence of one 
another, the faculty, the administration, and the public. 

Student Complaints 

Situations may arise in which a student believes that he or she has not received fair 
treatment by a representative of the University or has a complaint about the perfor- 
mance, actions or inaction of the staff or faculty affecting a student. The procedure for 
bringing these issues to the appropriate person or body is outlined below. Students are 
encouraged to seek assistance from their advisers or another member of the faculty or 
staff in evaluating the nature of their complaints or deciding on an appropriate course 
of action. 

A complaint should first be directed as soon as possible to the person or persons 
whose actions or inactions have given rise to the problem — not later than three months 
after the event. For complaints in the academic setting, the student should talk 
personally with the instructor. Should the student and instructor be unable to resolve 
the conflict, the student may then turn to the chair of the involved department (the dean 
in the Calloway School) for assistance. The chair (or dean) will meet with both parties, 
seek to understand their individual perspectives, and within a reasonable time, reach 
a conclusion and share it with both parties. Finally, a student may appeal to the 
Committee on Academic Affairs which will study the matter, work with the parties, 
and reach a final resolution. 

Students having complaints outside the academic setting, and who have been 
unable to resolve the matter with the individual directly involved, should process the 
complaint in a timely manner through the administrative channels of the appropriate 
unit. Students uncertain about the proper channels are encouraged to seek advice from 
faculty advisers, deans' offices, or the office of the dean of student services. Complaints 
which rise to the level of a grievance (as determined by the earlier steps in the process) 
may be heard as a final appeal before a committee chaired by the assistant to the 
president, which will include a representative of the faculty and a member of the 
student body. The grievance must be filed in writing. Grievances not deemed frivolous 
by the committee will be heard. The student may be assisted during the hearing by a 
member of the University community. 



16 



The complaint/grievance process outlined on page 15 is meant to answer and 
resolve issues arising between individual students and the University and its various 
offices from practices and procedures affecting that relationship. In many cases, there 
are mechanisms already in place for the reporting and resolution of specialized 
complaints (harassment and discrimination for instance) and these should be fully 
utilized where appropriate. Violation of student conduct rules or the honor system 
should be addressed through the judicial process specifically designed for that purpose. 

History and Development 



Since 1834, Wake Forest College has developed its distinctive pattern of characteristics: 
tenacity, independence, a fierce defense of free inquiry and expression, and a concern that 
knowledge be used responsibly and compassionately. That these characteristics have 
served the school well is displayed by its growth from a small sectarian school to one of the 
nation's significant small private universities. 

A brief history of Wake Forest is useful in understanding the University as it is today and 
appreciating the process through which it developed. 

Chronological History of Wake Forest University 



1834 Founded in the town of Wake Forest, N.C., as Wake Forest Manual Labor Institute 

in cooperation with the N.C. Baptist State Convention 
1838 Named Wake Forest College 
1894 School of Law established 
1902 School of Medicine founded 
1921 First summer session 
1936 Approval of the School of Law by the American Bar Association 

1941 Relocation of the School of Medicine to Winston-Salem and eventual change of name 
to Bowman Gray School of Medicine and association with the North Carolina Baptist 
Hospital 

1942 Women admitted as undergraduate students 

1956 Move to Winston-Salem in response to an endowment from the Z. Smith Reynolds 

Foundation 
1961 Graduate studies instituted 
1967 Became Wake Forest University 
1969 Babcock Graduate School of Management established 
1976 James R. Scales Fine Arts Center opened 
1984 Sesquicentennial anniversary 
1986 Redefined the relationship with the N.C. Baptist State Convention 

1989 Olin Physical Laboratory opened 

1990 Clifton L. Benson University Center opened 

1992 Edwin Graves Wilson Wing of Z. Smith Reynolds Library dedicated 

1993 Worrell Professional Center for Law and Management opened 

1994 Centennial anniversary — School of Law 

1995 Change of name to Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy 



17 



Presidents of Wake Forest University 



1834 Samuel Wait 

1845 William Hooper 

1849 John Brown White 

1854 Washington Manly Wingate 

1879 Thomas Henderson Pritchard 

1884 Charles Elisha Taylor 



1905 William Louis Poteat 

1927 Francis Pendleton Gaines 

1930 Thurman D. Kitchin 

1950 Harold Wayland Tribble 

1967 James Ralph Scales 

1983 Thomas K. Hearn Jr. 




The Scales Fine Arts Center, which houses the art, music and theater departments, will be the site 
for numerous events in 1996-97 to commemorate Wake Forest's Year of the Arts. 



18 



Procedures 



All students are responsible for familiarizing themselves with the portions of this 
bulletin which pertain to their course of study. Statements concerning courses 
and expenses are not to be regarded as irrevocable contracts between the student 
and the institution. The University reserves the right to change the schedule of classes and 
the cost of instruction at any time within the student's term of residence. 

Admission 

Candidates for admission must furnish evidence of maturity and educational achievement. 
The Committee on Admissions carefully considers the applicant's academic records, scores 
on tests, and evidence of character, motivation, goals, and general fitness for study in the 
College. The applicant's secondary school program must establish a commitment to the 
kind of broad liberal education reflected in the academic requirements of the College. 

Admission as a first-year student normally requires graduation from an accredited 
secondary school with a minimum of sixteen units of high school credit. These should 
include four units in English, three in mathematics, two in history and social studies, two 
in a single foreign language, and one in the natural sciences. An applicant who presents at 
least twelve units of differently distributed college preparatory study can be considered. A 
limited number of applicants may be admitted without the high school diploma, with 
particular attention given to ability, maturity, and motivation. 

North Carolina law and Wake Forest University require that all new, transfer, readmit, 
unclassified or visiting students submit proof of immunization against tetanus and 
diphtheria (Td), polio, rubeola, rubella, and mumps before registration. The Student Hand- 
book has a detailed statement. A certificate from the student's high school, physician, or 
county health department director containing the approved dates is acceptable proof of 
immunization. The Student Health Service will furnish a form for this purpose. North 
Carolina law requires that students who do not submit proper proof of immunization 
within thirty days of enrollment cannot attend Wake Forest University until these immu- 
nizations have been documented. 

Application 

An application is secured from the Office of Admissions in person or by mail (P.O. Box 7305 
Reynolda Station, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27109-7305). It should be completed and 
returned to that office no later than January 15 for the fall semester. Most admissions 
decisions for the fall semester are made by April 1, with prompt notification of applicants. 
For the spring semester, applications should be completed and returned no later than 
November 15. Except in emergency, the final date for applying for the fall semester is 
August 1 and for the spring semester, January 1. Application on this last-date basis is 
primarily for nonresident students. 

Wake Forest accepts the Common Application in lieu of its own form and gives equal 
consideration to both. Students may obtain copies of the Common Application from their 
high schools. 



19 



The admission application requires records and recommendations directly from second- 
ary school officials. It also requires test scores, preferably from the senior year, on the SAT 
I: Reasoning Test of The College Board. SAT II: Subject Test scores are optional. All test 
scores should be sent directly to the University by Educational Testing Service. A $40 fee 
to cover the cost of processing must accompany an application. It cannot be applied to later 
charges for accepted students or refunded for others. The University reserves the right to reject 
any application without explanation. 

A $200 admission deposit is required of all students accepted and must be sent to the 
Office of Admissions no later than May 1 following notice of acceptance. It is credited 
toward first semester fees and is non-refundable. Students notified of acceptance after May 
1 for the fall semester or November 1 for the spring semester should make a non-refundable 
admission deposit within two weeks of notification. Failure to make the admission deposit 
is taken as cancellation of application by the student. No deposit is required for summer 
session enrollment. 

Early Decision 

An early decision plan is available to well-qualified high school students who decide, by the 
close of their junior year, to apply only to Wake Forest University. An early decision 
agreement is required with the application, which is sent to the Office of Admissions after 
completion of the junior year and not later than November 15 of the senior year. Along with 
the high school record, recommendations, and scores on the SAT I: Reasoning Test, at least 
one SAT II: Subject Test (preferably the SAT II Writing Test) is recommended. 

Candidates for early decision are normally expected to have completed, or be enrolled 
in courses to complete, all the natural science, foreign language, literature, and mathematics 
requirements of the secondary school. Decisions are based upon junior year grades and test 
scores; SATs taken in the fall of the senior year cannot be considered for early decision. 

Early decision applicants with completed applications are notified of acceptance on a 
rolling basis and not later than December 15 for the fall semester, and the non-refundable 
admission deposit is required by January 1. Applicants not admitted are asked to submit 
a senior year Scholastic Aptitude Test score and first semester senior year grade record, or 
are advised to apply elsewhere. 

Admission of Handicapped Students 



Wake Forest College will consider the application of any qualified student, regardless 
of handicap, on the basis of the selection criteria established by the University which 
include personal and academic merit. Upon matriculation, all students will be 
required to meet the same standards for graduation. Programs at Wake Forest are 
accessible to all of its students. 

The University endeavors to provide facilities which are in compliance with all 
laws and regulations regarding access for disabled individuals. Additionally, 
special services are available to reasonably accommodate disabled students. For 



20 



more information on assistance for undergraduate students, please contact G. 
Dianne Mitchell, director of the Learning Assistance Program at (910) 759-5929 or 
Gloria C. Agard, assistant director of human resources and director of equal employ- 
ment opportunity at (910) 759-4814. 

Advanced Placement and CLEP 



Advanced placement credit for college level work done in high school is available on the 
basis of the Advanced Placement Examination of The College Board and supplementary 
information. Especially well-qualified applicants for advanced standing may also be 
exempt from some basic and divisional courses with credit on the authorization of the 
department concerned. Credit by advanced standing is treated in the same manner as credit 
transferred from another college. 

Under certain conditions, especially well-prepared applicants may be granted limited 
college credit through the subject tests of the College Level Examination Program (CLEP) 
of the Educational Testing Service. Such credit may be assigned with the approval of the 
department concerned or the dean of the Wayne Calloway School of Business and 
Accountancy. 

Admission of Transfer Students 



The number of transfer students who can be admitted each year depends upon the 
availability of space in the first-year (second semester), sophomore, and junior classes. An 
applicant for admission who has attended another college must be a graduate of a standard 
junior college or furnish a certificate of honorable dismissal stating eligibility in all respects 
to enter the college last attended, and must have an overall average of at least C on all college 
work attempted. A student who is admitted from another college before fully meeting the 
prescribed admissions requirements for entering first-year students must remove the 
entrance conditions during the first year at Wake Forest. 

Courses satisfactorily completed in other accredited colleges are accepted subject to 
faculty approval. In general, no credit is allowed for courses not found in the Wake Forest 
curriculum. The niinimum residence requirement for a baccalaureate degree is two 
academic years, the senior and one other. 

Expenses 

Statements concerning expenses are not to be regarded as forming an irrevocable contract 
between the student and the University. The costs of instruction and other services 
outlined herein are those in effect on the date of publication of this bulletin, and the 
University reserves the right to change without notice the cost of instruction and other 
services at any time. 

An admission deposit of $200, which is applied toward tuition and fees for the semester 
for which the student has been accepted, is required to complete admission. Charges are 



21 



due in full on August 1 for the fall semester and December 15 for the spring semester. Faculty 
regulations require that student accounts be settled in full before the student is entitled to 
receive a grade report, transcript, or diploma, or to register for the following semester or 
term. 

Tuition 

Per Semester Per Year 

Freshmen students (twelve or more credits) $9,250 $18,500 

Full-time (twelve or more credits-excluding $7,750 $15,500 

freshmen students) 
Part-time $475 per credit 

Students should expect an average increase of about eight percent yearly in tuition. 
However, admittance to the undergraduate college is not based on financial resources. The 
University meets the demonstrated financial needs of all qualified students. 

Students enrolled in the College or in the Wayne Calloway School of Business and 
Accountancy for hill-time residence credit are entitled to full privileges regarding libraries, 
laboratories, athletic contests, concerts, publications, the Student Union, the University 
Theater, and the health service. Part-time students are entitled to the use of the libraries and 
laboratories but not to the other privileges mentioned above. They may secure a part-time 
student ID card, admissions to games and concerts, and publications by paying an activity 
fee of $166 per semester. 

Room Charges 

Per Semester Per Year 

Double occupancy $1,380 $2,760 

Most first-year students will pay either $1,180 or $1,380 per semester depending upon 
room assignment location. Other room rentals range from $1,180 to $1,530. 

Food Services 

A cafeteria and table sendee dining room are located in Reynolda Hall; there is a food court 
in the Benson University Center. A debit card system is used in which the student is 
charged only for the items selected at the time of purchase. A suggested range from 
$1,720 to $5,000 per year is offered depending on the student's needs. The card may be 
used at any University food services facility, and it allows a great deal of flexibility for 
eating off campus. 

First-year students living in residence halls are required to participate in both the fall and spring 
semesters in one of the board plans. 



n 



Other Charges . 



Admission application fee of '$40 is required with each application for admission to cover 
the cost of processing and is nonrefundable. 

Admission deposit of $200 is required of each student entering for the first time or returning 
after a period of non-attendance and must be sent to the director of admissions. The 
deposit is credited to the student's charges for the semester for which he or she has been 
accepted for admission. 

Individual instruction music fees are required in addition totuition for students enrolling for 
individual study in applied music in the Department of Music and are payable in the 
controller's office. The fee for one credit per semester is $175; for more than one credit per 
semester, $300. 

Hospital charges, made when the student is confined to the Student Health Service, are 
$100 per day. Additional charges are made for medications, laboratory tests, and special 
supplies. Students must have hospital insurance. A group plan is available through the 
University for those not covered by a family plan. 

Late registration fee of $10 is charged to students registering after the dates set by the 
faculty. 

Library fines are charged for lost books and for violation of other library regulations and 
are payable in the library. 

A tuition deposit of $200 is required, at a date set by the Office of the Controller, of students 
enrolled in the spring semester who expect to return for the fall semester. It is credited to 
the student's University charges and is non-refundable. 

Room change fee of $25 is charged for any unauthorized change. 

Motor vehicle registration is $75 and traffic fines are $20 to $50. All students operating a 
vehicle on campus (including student apartments, theme, and satellite houses) must 
register vehicles they are operating day or night, whether or not owned by the operator. 
All vehicle registrations must be completed within twenty-four hours from the first time 
the vehicle is brought to campus or the next business day. Proof of ownership must be 
presented to verify a license plate when applying for vehicle registration. Fines are 
assessed against students violating parking regulations; copies of the violations are 
obtainable from the Office of Parking Management. Please inform your visitors of 
parking rules and regulations. 

Transcripts of a student's record are issued in the registrar's office at a cost of $4 
each. 

Refunds 

During the academic year, students, full-time and part-time, who do not receive Title 4 
federal financial aid receive tuition refunds according to the following schedule. This 
policy applies to students dropping courses as well as those withdrawing. Withdrawals 
must be official and students must return their ID cards before claiming refunds. There is 
no refiind of room rent or parking decals that have been placed on vehicles. 



23 



Number of Weeks Attendance Percentage of Total Tuition 

(Including first day of registration) to be Refunded 

1 week Total tuition less $200 

2 weeks 75 percent 

3 weeks 50 percent 

4 weeks 25 percent 

Fees for individual instruction in the Department of Music will be refunded on the 
following basis: If a student drops the course before the fifth lesson, the fee will be one- 
fourteenth the full semester's instruction fee times the number of lessons the student has 
had. There is no refund after the fifth lesson. 

Based on the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended by Congress in July 1992, and 
upon the regulations issued by the U.S. Department of Education with an effective date 
of November 29, 1994, two special refund conditions now apply instead of the normal 
refund policy. These conditions apply only to recipients of Title 4 (federal) financial aid: 
Pell Grants, SEOG, FWS, Perkins Loans, Stafford Loans, and PLUS Loans. For purposes 
of determining inclusion of a student in the special group for refund calculation, Wake 
Forest defines "recipient" to include all students who have submitted an official federal 
output document to the University and have been awarded federal aid under one of the 
above programs, regardless of whether funds have actually been disbursed at the time 
of withdrawal. 

Title 4 recipients who are enrolled at Wake Forest for the first time during the 
semester of their withdrawal will have the refund amount calculated and distributed 
according to the pro-rata refund policy outlined below. All other withdrawing Title 4 
recipients will have a refund calculated under the requirements of 668.22(d) of federal 
refund regulations, modified in week one in order to make it in every case equal to or 
larger than normal WFU refund policy, and distributed according to the distribution 
policy outlined below. 

In making the required refund calculations, initial refunds are reduced by "unpaid 
scheduled cash payments" as shown on the worksheets. In calculating this data 
element, any state aid from NCLTG or NC SCSF will be net amounts remaining after 
appropriate refunds to those programs are made under normal WFU tuition refund 
policy. 

Pro-Rata Refund 

Unearned tuition, room rent, and meal plan charges, less any unpaid scheduled 
cash payment by the student, will be refunded based upon the number of weeks 
of enrollment, according to federal regulations. After 60 percent of the semester 
has ended, no refund will be made other than unused board. The percentage of 
charges refunded is calculated by the number of weeks remaining in the semester, 
rounded down to the nearest 10%. The semester is 16 academic weeks long, 
beginning on the first day of classes. A week is a period of 7 days, during which 



24 



at least one day is devoted to class, examinations, or preparation for examinations. 
Only full weeks are considered as part of the period remaining. Thus: 

If withdrawal Refund this percentage of tuition, room 

occurs within: rent, and meal -plan charges, less any unpaid 

scheduled cash payment due from the student: 

Week 1 90% 

Week 2 80% 

Week 3 80% 

Week 4 70% 

Week 5 60% 

Week 6 60% 

Week 7 50% 

Week 8 50% 

Week 9 40% 

Week 10 and after 0% 

Federal Refund Calculation 

Refundable charges under federal rule 668.22(d) are unearned tuition and unused 
board. Room rentals are not refundable after classes begin, since cancellation of room 
rents must occur prior to the opening of classes in order for rents to be refunded. 



If withdrawal 


Refund this percentage of 


occurs within: 


tuition plus unused board: 


1 week 


Tuition less $200 


2 weeks 


90% 


4 weeks 


50% 


8 weeks 


25% 



Distribution Requirements 

After determining total refund amount, the refund is applied first to financial 
aid programs and then any remaining funds are refunded to the student. Aid 
programs are reimbursed, up to the full amount disbursed to the student's account 
from each, in the following precise order: 

Unsubsidized Federal Stafford Loans (WFU check to lender) 

Subsidized Federal Stafford Loans (WFU check to lender) 

Federal PLUS Loans (WFU check to lender) 

Federal Perkins Loans 

Federal Pell Grants 

Federal SEOG Grants 

Other Title 4 aid (i.e., NCSIG, etc.) 



2S 



If any amount of the calculated refund amount remains after federal Title 4 aid 
program refund requirements are satisfied, it will be paid into Wake Forest aid 
programs, up to the amount disbursed to the student for each. The order in which 
each Wake Forest program of aid is refunded will be determined on a case by case 
basis by the financial aid office, with the guiding principle being to refund to those 
University accounts most likely to be used by other students in future terms. 

If any amount of the calculated refund amount remains after Wake Forest aid 
program refund requirements are satisfied, it will be paid to satisfy any specific federal 
or private program requirements; if no such requirements exist, the remaining portion 
will be paid to the student. 

Questions should be directed to student accounts in the controller's office. 

Housing 

All unmarried first-year students are required to live in the residence halls, except (1) 
when permission is given by the associate vice president /dean of student services for 
the student to live with parents or a relative in the Winston-Salem area; (2) by special 
arrangement when space is not available on campus; (3) the student is admitted as a day 
student; or (4) if the student has lost residence hall space because of a Residence Halls 
Agreement violation or disciplinary action. Fifth-year and part-time students are 
ineligible for campus housing except when permitted to do so by the assistant director 
of residence life and housing for facilities and operations. Married students are not 
permitted to live within the residence halls. Residence halls are supervised by the 
director of residence life and housing, associate and assistant directors of residence life 
and housing, and professional and graduate student hall directors. 

The charges for residence hall rooms for 1996-97 will range from approximately 
$2,560 per year for a triple room to $3,060 for a single room. 

Academic Calendar 

The academic calendar of the College and the Wayne Calloway School of Business and 
Accountancy includes a fall semester beginning in late August and ending before Christ- 
mas, a spring semester beginning in January and ending in May, and two five-week 
summer sessions. Semesters usually last fifteen weeks. 

Orientation and Advising 



A five-day orientation period for new students in the College precedes registration for the 
fall semester. A faculty adviser and an upperclass student provide guidance during and 
between registration periods throughout the student's first and second years. Advisers 
meet with students both individually and in small groups. Students are encouraged to 
take the initiative in arranging additional meetings at any time they feel a need for advice 
or other assistance. The adviser suggests and approves courses of instruction until the 



2c 



student declares a major(s) in a field of study toward the end of the second year. At that 
time, a new adviser is assigned from the department or departments concerned. 

Registration 

A registration period for all students in the College arid the Wayne Calloway School of 
Business and Accountancy opens the fall semester and the spring semester. Registration 
involves (1 ) payment of all tuition and fees in full to the controller, (2) obtaining a summary 
of prior record from the registrar, (3) consultation with the academic adviser, and (4) 
sectioning into courses. In certain semesters, part of the process is accomplished ahead of 
time through preregistration. 

Classification 

Classification of students by class standing and as full-time or part-time is calculated in 
terms of credits. Most courses in the College and the Wayne Calloway School of Business 
and Accountancy have a value of four credits, but others vaiy from one credit to five. The 
normal load for a full-time student is eighteen credits per semester, with a maximum of 
twenty permitted on registration day. A student wishing to register for more than twenty 
credits per semester must seek the permission of the academic adviser and the appropriate 
dean after registration day. Non-business or non-accounting majors wishing to take 
courses in the Calloway School must have met the specific courses's prerequisites and 
have permission of the instructor. Enrollment in the course is subject to space availability. 

Twelve credits per semester constitute minimum full-time registration. (Recipients of 
North Carolina Legislative Tuition Grants must be enrolled by the tenth day of classes for 
at least fourteen credits each semester. Recipients of veterans' benefits, grants from state 
government, and other governmental aid must meet the guidelines of the appropriate 
agencies.) A student may not register for fewer than twelve credits without specific 
permission from the Committee on Academic Affairs to register as a part-time student. 

A full-time student in the fall semester of any year may not be a part-time student in the 
spring semester immediately following. Any student who petitions for part-time status 
within the semester in which he or she wishes to gain such status is not eligible for a tuition 
refund. 

The requirements for classification after the first year are as follows: sophomore — the 
removal of all entrance conditions and the completion of no fewer than 29 credits toward 
a degree, with a minimum of 58 grade points; junior — the completion of no fewer than 60 
credits toward a degree, with a minimum of 120 grade points; senior — no fewer than 108 
credits toward a degree, with a minimum of 216 grade points. 

Class Attendance 

Attendance regulations place the responsibility for class attendance on the student, who is 
expected to attend classes regularly and punctually. A vital aspect of the residential college 



27 



experience is attendance in the classroom; its value cannot be measured by testing 
procedures alone. Students are considered sufficiently mature to appreciate the necessity 
of regular attendance, to accept this personal responsibility, to demonstrate the self- 
discipline essential for such performance, and to recognize and accept the consequences of 
failure to attend. Students who cause their work or that of the class to suffer because of 
absence or lateness may be referred by the instructor to the dean of the College or to the dean 
of the Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy for suitable action. Any 
student who does not attend classes regularly or who demonstrates other evidence of 
academic irresponsibility is subject to such disciplinary action as the Committee on 
Academic Affairs may prescribe, including immediate suspension from the College or from 
the Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy. 

The Office of the Dean of the College maintains a list of students who have missed class 
while acting as duly authorized representatives of the College. Such absences are consid- 
ered excused and a record of them is available to the student's instructors upon request. The 
instructor determines whether work missed may be made up. For policies pertaining to 
absences resulting from illness, please see the statement on the Student Health Service and 
class excuses in the Student Handbook. 



Auditing Courses 



When space is available after the registration of regularly enrolled students, others may 
request permission of the instructor to enter the course as auditors. No additional charge 
is made to full-time students in the College or the Wayne Calloway School of Business and 
Accountancy; for others the fee is $100 per course. Permission of the appropriate dean, as 
well as that of the instructor, is required. An auditor is subject to attendance regulations and 
to other conditions imposed by the instructor. Although an auditor receives no credit, a 
notation of audit is made on the final grade report and entered on the record of regularly 
enrolled students who have met the instructor's requirements. In no case may anyone 
register for an audit course before the first meeting of the class. An audit course may not be 
changed to a credit course, and a credit course may not be changed to an audit course. 

Dropping a Course 

The last day in each term for dropping a class without a grade of F is listed in the calendar 
in the front of this bulletin. A student who wishes to drop any course before this date must 
obtain the necessary form from the registrar and confer with his or her facility adviser. 
After this date, a student who wishes to drop a course must consult his or her faculty adviser, 
the course instructor, and the dean of the College or the dean of the Wayne Calloway School 
of Business and Accountancy, as appropriate. If the dean approves the request, he or she 
authorizes the student to discontinue the course. Except in cases of emergency, the grade 
in the course will be recorded as F. 

If, at any time, a student drops any course without prior written approval of the 
appropriate dean, the student will be subject to such penalties as the Committee on 
Academic Affairs of the faculty may impose. 



28 



Withdrawal from the College 



A student who finds it necessary to withdraw from the College or the Wayne Calloway 
School of Business and Accountancy must do so through the office of the appropriate dean. 
With the approval of the dean of the College or the dean of the Wayne Calloway School of 
Business and Accountancy, no grades are recorded for the student for that semester, but the 
student's standing in courses at the time of the withdrawal may be taken into consideration 
when readmission is sought. If withdrawal is for academic reasons, failing grades may be 
assigned in all courses in which the student is doing unsatisfactory work. A student who 
leaves the College or the Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy without 
officially withdrawing is assigned failing grades in all current courses, and the unofficial 
withdrawal is recorded. 

Examinations 

Final examinations are given at regularly scheduled times. All examinations are conducted 
in accordance with the honor system adopted by the student body and approved by the 
faculty. Under it, the student is expected to refrain from unfairness in any form and to report 
to the Honor Council any student whom he or she knows to be cheating. 

Grading 

For most courses carrying undergraduate credit, there are five final and two conditional 
grades: A (exceptionally high achievement), B [superior), C (satisfactory), D (passing but unsatis- 
factory), E (conditional failure), F (failure), and I (incomplete). 

Grade ofE . The grade of E entitles the student to reexamination at any regular examination 
period wi thin a year, or during the first week of the fall semester. A permit for reexamination 
must be obtained in advance from the registrar, and no grade hi gher than D may be a ssigned 
as a result of reexamination. A student who does not remove a conditional failure by 
reexamination must repeat the course to obtain credit for it. 

A candidate for graduation in the final semester who has received a grade of E in the 
previous semester may apply to the registrar for reexamination thirty days after the 
opening of the final semester but no later than thirty days before its close. All conditions, 
including the grade of E, must be removed no later than thirty days before the end of the 
term in which the student graduates. The name of a candidate who has a condition after that 
date is dropped from the list of candidates. A candidate who receives a grade of E in the final 
semester or term of the graduation year is not allowed reexamination before the next 
examination period. 

Grade of I. The grade of I may be assigned only when a student fails to complete the work 
of a course because of illness or some other emergency. If the work recorded as I is not 
completed within thirty days after the student enters for his or her next semester, the grade 
automatically becomes F. The instructor must report the final grade to the registrar within 
forty-five days after the beginning of that semester. 



29 



Grade Points. Grades are assigned grade points for the computation of academic aver- 
ages, class standing, and eligibility for continuation, as follows: for each credit of A, four 
points; for each credit of B, three points; for each credit of C, two points; for each credit of 
D, one point; for each credit of E or F, no points. 

Pass/Fail. To encourage students to venture into fields outside their major areas of 
competence and concentration, the undergraduate schools make available the option, 
under certain conditions, of registering in courses on a pass /fail basis rather than for a letter 
grade. Courses taken under the pass /fail option yield full credit when satisfactorily 
completed but, whether passed or not, they are not computed in the grade-point average. 
In no case may a student change from grade to pass /fail mode, or from pass /fail to grade 
mode, after the last day to add a course, listed in the calendar at the front of this bulletin. 

A student may count toward the degree no more than twenty-four credits taken on a 
pass/fail basis. First- and second-year students are not eligible to elect the pass/ fail mode, 
but may enroll for courses offered only on a pass / fail basis. Third- and fourth-year students 
may elect as many as sixteen credits on a pass /fail basis, but no more than five credits in a 
given semester. Courses used to fulfill basic, divisional, major, or minor requirements may 
not be taken on a pass /fail basis unless they are offered only on that basis. Courses in the 
major(s) not used for satisfying major requirements may be taken on a pass/fail basis if the 
department of the major does not specify otherwise. 

No courses in the Calloway School can be taken pass/fail except for Business 100, 
which is open only to sophomores and juniors and which requires Accounting 111 as 
a corequisite or prerequisite 

Grade Reports and Transcripts 



A midterm report arid a final report of grades are issued to students by the registrar in the 
fall and spring semesters. A final report of grades is issued for each summer term. 

Copies of a student's cumulative record are issued by the registrar, but only on the written 
authorization of the student and payment of $4 per transcript. 

Dean's List 

The Dean's List is issued at the end of the fall and spring semesters. It includes all full-time 
students in the College and the Wayne Calloway School of Business arid Accountancy who 
have a grade-point average of 3.0 or better for the semester and who have earned no grade 
below C during the semester. 

Graduation Distinctions 



Graduation distinctions are determined by the grade-point system. A degree candidate 
with a cumulative average of not less than 3.80 for all courses attempted is graduated with 
the distinction summa cum laude. A candidate with a cumulative average of not less than 3.60 
for all courses attempted is graduated with the distinction magna cum laude. A candidate 
with a cumulative average of not less than 3.40 for all courses attempted is graduated with 



30 



the distinction cum laude. The entire record of a student is considered, with the understand- 
ing that a student offering transfer work for credit may receive no distinction which requires 
a grade-point average greater than that earned at Wake Forest University. Details are 
available in the Office of the Registrar. 



Repetition of Courses 



A student may not repeat a course in which he or she has received a grade of C or higher. 
A student may, however, repeat at Wake Forest a Wake Forest course for which he or she 
has received a grade of D or F. In this case, all grades received will be shown on the 
transcript, but the course may be counted only one time for credit. If a student fails a course 
previously passed, the credit originally earned will not be lost. For purposes of determin- 
ing the grade-point average, a course will be considered as attempted only once, and the 
grade points assigned will reflect the highest grade received. These provisions do not 
apply to any course for which the student has received the grade of F in consequence of 
an honor violation. 

Probation 

Any student who is placed on probation because of honor code or conduct code violations 
may be placed on such special academic probation as the Committee on Academic Affairs 
imposes. The Committee on Academic Affairs may at any time suspend or place on 
probation any student who has given evidence of academic irresponsibility, as, for 
example, by failing to attend class regularly or to complete papers, examinations, or other 
work on time. 

If poor academic performance is attributable to circumstances over which the student 
clearly had no control (e.g., serious injury or illness), the student may, after consultation 
with one of the academic deans, petition the Committee on Academic Affairs for further 
consideration of his or her status. 

In deciding whether to permit exceptions to the foregoing eligibility requirements, the 
Committee on Academic Affairs will take into account such factors as convictions for 
violations of the College honor code or social conduct code, violations of the law, and any 
other behavior demonstrating disrespect for the rights of others. 

Any student convicted of violating the honor code is ineligible to represent the 
University in any way until the period of suspension or probation is completed and the 
student is returned to good standing. Students who are on probation for any reason may 
not be initiated into any fraternity or sorority until the end of their probationary period. 

Under the law, the University has the right to inform parents of dependent students and 
certain other qualified individuals of the contents of educational records. 

Requirements for Continuation in the College 



Whether a student is academically eligible to continue is determined by the number 
of course credits passed and the grade-point average. The number of credits passed 



31 



is the sum of the credits transferred from other institutions and the credits earned in 
the undergraduate schools of the University. The grade-point average is computed 
only on work attempted in the undergraduate schools of the University and excludes 
both non-credit and pass /fail courses. 

Students are expected to make reasonable and systematic progress toward the 
accomplishment of their degree programs. To be eligible to continue in the College, 
students must maintain 

for credits passed: a minimum cum. GPA of: 
1-36 1.45 

37-72 1.60 

73-108 1.75 

109 and above 1.90 

Students are responsible for knowing their academic standing at all times. Any 
student whose GPA falls below the required minimum shall have a grace period of one 
semester to raise the average to the required level. Students also have the option of 
attending summer school at Wake Forest in an effort to raise the average. 

The Committee on Academic Affairs will suspend students who earn 8 or fewer 
grade points in any given semester in courses other than Education 353; military science 
courses; Music 111-121 (ensemble courses); Dance 120-129 and 131; and elective 100- 
level courses in health and exercise science. In cases where failure was due to circum- 
stances beyond the students' control, they may appeal to the Committee for an 
exception. 

Any student who is in academic difficulty is urged to seek advice and counsel from 
his or her academic adviser, from the Office of the Dean of the College, from the 
Learning Assistance Program office, and from the University Counseling Center. 

Because the basic and divisional requirements are intended to introduce the student 
to various fields of knowledge and to lay the foundation for concentration in a major 
subject, students are expected to take as many of the basic and divisional courses as is 
feasible each semester. As many of the requirements as possible should be take in the 
first two years in the College. 

A student who has or develops a health problem which, in the judgment of the director 
of the Student Health Service, creates a danger to the safety and well-being of the student 
or others may be required to withdraw until the problem is resolved. 

Requirements for Readmission 



The Committee on Academic Affairs oversees the readmission of former students. In 
making a decision on whether to readmit, the Committee considers both the academic and 
non-academic record of the student. Students who have been ineligible to continue for 
academic reasons must present to the Committee a list of steps they plan to take to raise their 
academic standing to acceptable standards. Non-academic grounds for denial may include 
convictions for violations of the honor system or the social conduct code, for violations of 
the law, and other behavior showing disrespect for the rights of others. 



32 



Summer Study 



In addition to regular courses, a number of special summer programs for credit are 
described in the bulletin of the summer session. 

In order to be eligible to take summer courses at another college or university, the student 
must have a cumulative grade-point average of no less than 2.0, and must obtain advance 
approval of the head of the department concerned, the registrar, and in some cases, the 
Office of the Dean of Wake Forest College or the dean of the Wayne Calloway School of 
Business and Accountancy. Courses taken elsewhere on the semester-hour plan are 
computed as transfer credit at 1.125 credits for each approved semester hour. If a student 
plans to seek approval for transfer courses after completion of the sophomore year, 
such courses must be taken in an approved four-year institution. 

Courses taken outside the U.S. require, in addition, prior approval from the Office of 
International Studies. Students must obtain a transfer of credit form from the Office of 
International Studies. 

Transfer Credit 

All work attempted in other colleges and universities must be reported to the registrar of 
Wake Forest University. Students wishing to receive transfer credit for work to be 
undertaken elsewhere must have a cumulative grade-point average of no less than 2.0 and 
must obtain faculty approval in advance. For enrolled Wake Forest students, transfer 
work can be accepted only from approved four-year institutions. In order to be 
accepted for transfer credit, the grade in any course must be C or better. 

Students who wish to receive academic credit for courses taken outside the U.S., need to 
obtain prior approval from the Office of International Studies and then faculty approval. 
The Approval Form for Study Outside the United States is available in the Office of 
International Studies. 



33 



Scholarships and Loans 



Any student regularly admitted to Wake Forest College who demonstrates 
financial need will receive assistance commensurate with that need. 
By regulation of the Board of Trustees, all financial aid must be approved by 
the Committee on Scholarships and Student Aid. Applications should be requested from 
the committee at P.O. Box 7246 Reynolda Station, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27109- 
7246. Scholarships supported by funds of the undergraduate schools are not granted to 
students enrolled in other schools of the University. To receive consideration for financial 
aid, the applicant must either be enrolled as an undergraduate or have been accepted for 
admission. The financial aid program comprises institutional, state, and federal scholar- 
ship, loan, and work funds. Students enrolled at least part-time are eligible to apply for 
federal funds. Half-time and part-time students are eligible to apply for limited institu- 
tional funds. 

The University offers a number of scholarships based upon merit. Those with a stipend 
based upon tuition will increase as tuition increases; those with a dollar stipend remain 
fixed for the four years of enrollment. 

Need is a factor in the awarding of most financial aid, and each applicant must file an 
annual financial statement with the application for financial aid. After reviewing the 
standard financial analysis, the Committee on Scholarships determines aid awards, and 
aid is credited, by semester, to the student's account in the Office of the Controller. The 
calculation of need, and therefore the amount of an award, may vary from year to year. 
The Committee on Scholarships reserves the right to revoke financial aid for unsatisfac- 
tory academic achievement or for violation of University regulations or federal, state, or 
local laws. To be eligible for renewal of aid, a student must remain enrolled on a normal 
full-time basis and be in good standing, making satisfactory progress toward a degree. 
The committee does not award institutional scholarships to students earning less than a 
2.0 grade average on all work attempted at Wake Forest. Need-based scholarship support 
is extended for a maximum of eight semesters, prorated for transfer students. 

Scholarships 



The Reynolds Scholarships are awarded each year to five extraordinarily capable men and 
women entering the College as first-year students. Made possible through a grant from 
the Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation in honor of Nancy Susan Reynolds, these scholarships 
cover the cost of tuition, room, and board, and include an allowance for books and 
personal expenses. Scholars may receive up to $1,500 each summer for travel or study 
projects approved by the Reynolds Committee. The Reynolds Scholarships are awarded 
without regard to financial need and will be renewed annually through the recipient's 
fourth year of college, subject to satisfactory performance. A separate application is 
required by December 1. 

The Graylyn Scholarship provides in alternate years one full tuition renewable scholar- 
ship to a student who applies for the Reynolds or Carswell Scholarship and who possesses 
extraordinary academic and leadership skills. The Graylyn Scholarship is provided by the 



34 



Graylyn International Conference Center in support of undergraduate excellence. The 
fund also provides for leadership awards to the medical, law and business schools. 

The O. W. Wilson Scholarship, created under the will of O. W. Wilson of Yancey County, 
N.C., is awarded to an individual who demonstrates outstanding qualities of intellectual 
promise and leadership. The scholarship has a value equivalent to annual tuition and 
provides summer grant opportunities to encourage individual study projects. No sepa- 
rate application is required. 

The Doctor George E. and Lila C. Bradford Fund awards a renewable full-tuition academic 
scholarship annually to a student possessing outstanding leadership and aptitude who 
intends to pursue a premedical course of study. No separate application is required. 

The Guy T. Carswell Scholarships, made possible by and established in honor of the late 
Guy T. Carswell and his wife Clara Carswell of Charlotte, N.C., have an annual value 
ranging from a minimum stipend of $7,500 to a maximum stipend of full demonstrated 
need. Each scholar may apply for at least one summer grant of up to $1,000 to fund travel 
and study projects of the student's design. A Carswell scholar must be a student applying 
to the College who possesses outstanding qualities of intellect and leadership. Up to forty 
scholars are selected annually. A separate application is due by January 15. 

ThePresideiitial Scholarships/or Distmguished Achievement, establishedby\he\Jniversty 
alumni, award twenty renewable $7,500 scholarships on the basis of exceptional talent 
and leadership. Candidates must be students who will enrich and add to the diversity of 
life at Wake Forest through their special talents in the areas of the fine arts (including 
music, art, theater, dance, film, and other arts), debate and public speaking, writing, 
leadership, public service, and entrepreneurial achievement. A separate application must 
be submitted by December 15. 

Thejosqjh Gordon and Wake Forest Black Student Scholarships, established by endowment 
from the University's Sesquicentennial Fund and gifts from the Z. Smith Reynolds 
Foundation, recognize the outstanding achievements of black students and are awarded 
each year to entering first-year students who demonstrate academic promise and 
leadership potential. This program provides seven full-tuition scholarships and three 
$2,000 per year scholarships. All scholarships are renewable annually through the 
recipient's fourth year. Awards are made without regard to financial need. A separate 
application is required by January 15. 

The William Louis Poteat Scholarships, valued at $7,500 per year, are awarded to seventeen 
entering first-year students. To be eligible, a student must be an active member of a 
church affiliated with the Baptist State Convention of North Carolina or the General 
Baptist State Convention of North Carolina and must be likely to make a significant 
contribution to church and society. A separate application is required by December 15. 

Wake Forest Honor Scholarships provide an annual renewable grant of $3,000 to students 
who apply for the Reynolds or Carswell Scholarships and who demonstrate exceptional 
academic ability and leadership. 

The George Foster Hankins Scholarships, made possible by the late Colonel George Foster 
Hankins of Lexington, N.C., for residents of North Carolina or children of alumni living 
in other states with preference given to residents of Davidson County, have an annual 
value of up to full demonstrated need. Recipients must demonstrate need as well as 
academic promise. A separate application is due by January 15. 



35 



The Robert P. and Dorothy Caldwell Scholarships, given by family and friends of Robert P. 
and Dorothy Caldwell, provide up to three scholarships annually on the basis of outstand- 
ing academic achievement, demonstrated leadership ability, record of community service, 
and a commitment to helping others. A portion of these funds gives preference to students 
from Gaston and Catawba (N.C.) counties who need assistance in order to attend Wake 
Forest. 

The Holding Scholarship, provided by a gift from the Robert P. Holding Foundation in 
memory of Mr. Holding, a member of the Class of 1916, offers one full tuition renewable 
scholarship annually to a student of exceptional leadership and academic promise, who is 
in residence at least one year in North Carolina. Separate application is not required, but the 
student must complete an application for either the Nancy Susan Reynolds or Carswell 
Scholarship. 

The Junius C. and Eliza P. Brown Scholarships are designed to recognize excellence among 
North Carolina students demonstrating financial need in order to attend Wake Forest. 
Preference for selection is given first to students from the Madison area of Rockingham 
County, second to students from the Reidsville area of Rockingham County, and third to 
other applicants from Rockingham County. A separate application is due by January 15. 

National Achievement Scholarships are awarded to four finalists in the achievement 
scholarship program. The minimum of $3,000 ($750 annually for four years) will extend up 
to $2,000 annually depending on need. Students must select Wake Forest as their first- 
choice college in the NASC program; recipients are chosen by the Scholarship Committee, 
usually by April 1. 

National Merit Scholarships are awarded to four finalists in the merit scholarship program. 
The minimum award of $3,000 ($750 annually for four years) will extend up to $2,000 
annually depending on need. Students must note Wake Forest as their first-choice college 
in the NMSC testing program; recipients are chosen by the Scholarship Committee, usually 
by April 1. 

For all the following scholarships, there is no separate application required except 
where noted. Students who complete the Financial Aid PROFILE of the College 
Scholarship Service, will be considered for appropriate scholarships. 

The Page W. Acree Humanities in Science Scholarship Fund was established to provide 
support for students majoring in chemistry, physics, biology, or mathematics/computer 
science, who have career objectives in medicine or science-related fields that require human 
service, and who wish to take unrequired academic work in the humanities. A separate 
application to the Dean of the College is required. 

The Alcoa Foundation Scholarship, donated by the Alcoa Foundation, is available to a first- 
year student from the Piedmont area of North Carolina who is majoring in chemistry. The 
scholarship has a value of $2,000 and is awarded on the basis of need. 

The Charles I. and Loinse Allen Scholarship Fund, established under the will of Louise 
Lambeth Allen, is awarded on the basis of ability and need to a student who may be 
interested in pursuing a medical career. 

The Army Reserve Officers' Training Corps (AROTC) Scholarships are awarded for aca- 
demic and personal achievement. These four-, three-, and two-year scholarships annually 



36 



pay: (1) $12,000, $8,000, or $5,000 for tuition; (2) a flat rate for texts, equipment, and 
supplies (presently $450) and (3) a subsistence allowance of up to $1,500 ($150 per month 
for the months spent in school). All benefits are tax-free. Recipients must enroll and fully 
participate in Army ROTC. Four-year AROTC scholarships are applied for during the 
latter part of the junior or the early part of the senior year of high school. Two- and three- 
year AROTC scholarships are applied for during the sophomore and freshman years, 
respectively, through the Department of Military Science. 

The Arthur Andersen Accounting Leadership Award is presented to a senior accounting 
major who has demonstrated excellence in the areas of academic performance, leader- 
ship, and civic /community responsibility. 

The Teresa Mae Arnold Scholarship is awarded on the basis of ability and need to a student 
enrolled in Wake Forest College. 

The Camillo Artom Fund for Italian Studies was established in 1976 in honor of Camillo 
Artom, professor of biochemistry from 1939 to 1969. Scholarship aid is made available, 
usually to one or two students each semester, to assist with their expenses. Wei 1-qualified 
students who can demonstrate need are eligible to apply. (Interested persons should 
apply to the Office of the Provost.) 

The Hubbard and Lucy Ball Scholarship Fund, established by Robert T. Ball, is awarded on 
the basis of need. 

The Donald Alan Baur Memorial Scholarship is awarded on the basis of leadership, 
dedication, competitiveness, and citizenship, with preference given to members of Delta 
Nu Chapter, Sigma Chi Fraternity. 

The Beach Scholarship, established in memory of the Reverend Benjamin Beach, provides 
funding for the Poteat Scholarship winner from the congressional district encompassing 
Caldwell County, N.C. 

The Becton Family Scholarship Fund is awarded on the basis of academic ability and 
financial need to a pre-medical student. Preference is given to students from Augusta, Ga., 
and secondly to other students from Georgia. 

The George M. and Daisy Olive Beavers Scholarship Fund, donated by Lydia Beavers in 
memory of her parents, is for one scholarship awarded on the basis of leadership, good 
citizenship, and excellence of character. 

The}. Irvin Biggs Scholarship is awarded to needy and deserving undergraduates, with 
preference given to students from Lumberton or Robeson County, North Carolina. 

The Charles Spurgeon and Inez Black Scholarship provides one annual scholarship to that 
chemistry major having the second highest academic record in the given year. 

The Robert D. Bridger Jr. Scholarship, donated by George R. Bridger in honor of his father, 
is made to a senior major in the Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy. 
Selection of the recipient is based on demonstrated academic ability and financial need, 
with preference given to students from Bladen County or southeastern North Carolina. 

The William D. Brigman Scholarship Fund is awarded to a student in the Wayne 
Calloway School of Business and Accountancy on the basis of academic ability and 
outstanding leadership potential. 

The Claude U. Broach Scholarship is awarded to a first-year student or upperclassman 
with preference given to students from St. John's Baptist Church of Charlotte. 



37 



The Gov. J. Melville and Alice W. Broughton Scholarship Fund, established in honor of 
Governor, Senator, and Wake Forest Trustee J. Melville Broughton and his wife, Alice W. 
Broughton, by the Broughton family of Raleigh, N.C., awards one scholarship annually 
to a North Carolina student on the basis of academic ability and financial need. 

The Dean D. B. Bryan Memorial Scholarship Fund was established in honor of D. B. Bryan, 
dean of Wake Forest College from 1923 to 1957. It awards a partial or full-tuition 
scholarship to a student who plans to pursue a career in education, and who demonstrates 
financial need and academic ability. The recipient must pledge to work in the education 
field for a minimum of five years following graduation or must repay the scholarship to 
the University. 

The Jack Buchanan Scholarship is awarded on the basis of financial need and academic 
ability, with preference given to students from western North Carolina planning a 
business major. 

The Lib and Joi/ner Burns Scholarship is awarded on the basis of both ability and need, with 
preference given first to students having a physical handicap and second to students from 
Forsyth or Guilford County, N.C. 

The Wayne Calloway Scholarship Fund is intended to provide scholarships for students 
attending the Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy Management 
Program for liberal arts majors. 

The John Douglas Cannon Scholarship is awarded on the basis of academic ability and 
need. 

The J. G. Carroll Memorial Athletic Scholarship, donated in memory of J. G. Carroll, former 
associate professor of mathematics, is made to a deserving athlete who is not on a regular 
athletic scholarship, for a value of approximately $100. 

The James Lee Carver Memorial Scholarship, donated by Jean Freeman Carver with her 
children, James Lee Carver II and Elizabeth Jeanine Carver, in memory of her husband, 
James Lee Carver, is for deserving and promising students who demonstrate a need for 
financial assistance, with preference given to students from the Oxford Orphanage in 
Oxford, N.C. 

The J. D. Cave Memorial Scholarship is awarded to a North Carolina male student who 
demonstrates strong character, a willingness to grow intellectually, and evidence of need, 
for an approximate annual value of $600. 

The Neal M. Chastain Memorial Scholarship, established by Mrs. June Booth of Charlotte 
in memory of her son, is awarded to a senior business major exhibiting Christian ideals 
and good academic achievement. 

The Wake Forest College Scholarships, in the amount of $100 to $10,800 each, are available 
to first-year students and upperclassmen presenting satisfactory academic records and 
evidence of need. 

The Howard F. and Ruby C. Costello Scholarship Fund was created under the will of Ruby 
C. Costello to benefit financially needy students. 

The William Hewy Crouch Scholarship for ministerial students has been established by 
the Providence Baptist Church of Charlotte in honor of its pastor. The scholarship is 
valued at $3,000 per year and is available for a North Carolina Baptist ministerial student 
or students based upon merit or need. 



38 



The O. B. Crowell Memorial Scholarship Fund, donated by Louise T. Crowell of 
Hendersonville, N.C., in memory of her husband, O. B. Crowell, is awarded on the basis of 
character, need, and promise. 

The Gary Franklin Culler Scholarship Fund, donated in memory of Gary Franklin Culler, is 
awarded on the basis of academic ability and outstanding leadership potential, with 
preference given to students from High Point, N.C. 

TheEgbertL. Davisjr. Scholarship, providedby the Davis family in honor of Egbert L. Davis 
Jr., noted Wake Forest alumnus and benefactor, provides merit and need assistance to one 
or more students demonstrating outstanding academic performance, diligence, integrity, 
character, leadership, and reasonable athletic competence. Awards are renewable on the 
basis of a B average, exemplary personal conduct, and participation in the religious life of 
the University. 

The Eleanor Layfield Davis Art Scholarship Fund awards a scholarship to a student with 
interest and ability in studio art, who has been recommended by the chair of the art 
department, to exemplify the talents and interests of Eleanor Layfield Davis. 

The Mrs. Paul Price Davis Scholarship Fund was established by Jessie Leigh Davis Boney 
and Betty Davis Bri tt to assist North Carolina students. Preference is given to students who 
have been residents of Baptist Children's Homes of North Carolina. 

The Thomas H. Davis Business Scholarship, established by employees of the former 
Piedmont Aviation Inc. in honor of its founder and retired chair, is awarded to a senior 
business major based on academic achievement, financial need, and potential for business 
leadership. 

The Deal Family Scholarship provides funding for the Carswell Scholarship program, 
with preference first to students from Catawba, Caldwell, Burke, and Alexander 
counties, N.C; second to other North Carolinians; and third to other students. 

The Justus and Elizabeth S. Drake Scholarship is awarded to an English major who 
demonstrates academic ability and financial need, upon the recommendation of the chair 
of the English department. 

The Fred H. Duvall Scholarship provides funds for needy students. 

The Douglas Esherick Award Fund is used annually for a member of the Sigma Chi 
fraternity. 

The Bobbie Fletcher Memorial Scholarship is awarded on the basis of academic ability and 
uncommon leadership qualities to a female student from North Carolina. Recipients will 
possess the qualities of kindness, thoughtfulness, unselfishness, patience, and determina- 
tion which distinguished Bobbie Fletcher. Preference will be given to students demonstrat- 
ing financial need. 

The Lecaitseif P. and Lida H. Freeman Scholarship, donated by Mr. and Mrs. G. H. Singleton 
of Raleigh, in memory of the parents of Mrs. Singleton, is available to a first-year student, 
sophomore, or junior whose home is within the West Chowan Baptist Association of North 
Carolina, with preference given to Bertie County students, on the basis of need and ability. 
Residents of the Roanoke Association may be considered for the scholarship. 

The Wallace G. Freeman Memorial Scholarship is awarded to premedical students in Wake 
Forest College. 



39 



The Charles A. Frueauff Scholarships are provided annually by the Charles A. Frueauff 
Foundation for middle-income students who live outside North Carolina. Amounts vary 
according to need. 

The F. Lee Fulton Scholarship Fund, established by friends and associates of F. Lee Fulton, 
is awarded on the basis of leadership, citizenship, moral character, academic ability, and 
need. 

The James Walker Fulton Jr. Scholarship is awarded on the basis of need and merit, with 
preference to students who meet one or more of the following conditions: North 
Carolina resident, evangelical Christian, member of Kappa Alpha, or varsity basketball 
player. 

The Gaddy Scholarship Fund awards a need-based scholarship each year to a North 
Carolina student, with preference given to residents of Alison, Union, and Wake counties. 

The Lewis Reed Gaskin Scholarship Fund, established by E. Reed Gaskin and Jean H. 
Gaskin in honor of Lewis Reed Gaskin, is awarded to a first-year student or upperclass- 
man with preference given to a premedical student. The award shall be made on the basis 
of academic ability and potential as a physician. Recipients shall be known as Lewis Reed 
Gaskin scholars. 

The Daniel Eugene and Beulah B. Gateivood Scholarship, given by Beulah B. Gatewood in 
honor of her husband, is awarded to an undergraduate accounting major based on 
academic merit and financial need. 

The A. Royall Gay Scholarship is awarded on the basis of scholarship, character, and high 
ideals. Preference is given to graduating seniors from Youngsville, N.C. 

The James W. Gill Scholarship, donated by Ruth R. Gill in memory of her husband, James 
W. Gill, provides a scholarship for a deserving student, with preference given to students 
from Montgomery and Prince Georges counties, Md. 

The Samuel T. Gladding Scholarship Fund for Leadership provides scholarships for 
students on the basis of merit, demonstrated leadership ability, and community 
service. Preference is given to students from Alabama. 

The Eugene Basil Glover Memorial Scholarship is awarded to an incoming or enrolled 
student based on ability and need, with slight preference given to students from Halifax 
County, N.C. 

The Wallace Barger Goebel Scholarship, made possible through a donation from Miriam 
M. Goebel, is based upon ability and financial need, with first preference given to a student 
with an interest in literature, second preference to a student with an interest in history, and 
third preference to a student enrolled in the premedical program. 

The Goody's Scholarship Fund provides scholarships for children of alumni on the 
basis of need. 

The Stanlei/ McClayton Guthrie Scholarship Fund awards one scholarship each year to a 
needy student, with preference given to students from Halifax County, Va. 

The John Locksley Hall Scholarship Fund provides scholarships on the basis of need to 
North Carolinians interested in business careers. Preference is given to intercollegiate 
athletes. 

The Fuller Hamrick Scholarship, created under the will of Everett C. Snyder of Wake 
Forest, N.C, in memory of Fuller Hamrick, is used to educate students from the Mills 
Home in Thomasville, N.C. 



40 



The George G. and Georgine M. Harper Charitable Trust awards scholarships of varying 
stipends annually to students with high academic potential and financial need, with 
preference to a North Carolinian. 

The Henry Russell and Clara Stephenson Harris Scholarship Fund, established by Elizabeth 
Harris in memory of her parents, provides a scholarship awarded on the basis of academic 
ability and financial need to a senior business major who plans to pursue a career in 
banking. 

The M. Elizabeth Harris Music Scholarship Fund provides an annual scholarship for a 
music major, with preference given to a student whose primary interest is church music. 
The award is made on the basis of academic ability and financial need. 

The Margaret S. Hasty Memorial Scholarship Fund, established by Judge Fred H. Hasty in 
memory and honor of his beloved wife, is for one or more female undergraduate 
student(s) with good academic ability and financial need. The scholarship is renewable 
if the student places in the upper third of her class. 

The Louise Patton Hearn Scholarship for Human Service is awarded to a student who has 
demonstrated exceptional service to improve the well-being of other people and who 
shows interest and potential in leading others to make similar contributions to humanity. 

The Frank P. Hobgood Scholarship, donated by Kate H. Hobgood of Reidsville, N.C., in 
memory of her husband, is available to those who qualify on the basis of character, 
purpose, intelligence, and need, with preference given to those who plan to enter the 
ministry, do religious work, become teachers, or become lawyers, the preference being in 
the order named, for the residents of the Reidsville area recommended by the deacons of 
the First Baptist Church of Reidsville. 

The Holbrook Scholarship is awarded on the basis of need. 

The W. D. and Alberta B. Holleman Memorial Scholarship Fund, established by Robert D. 
Holleman in memory of his parents, is awarded on the basis of academic ability, need, 
Christian commitment, and leadership to a student from Durham County. 

The Forrest H. Holli field Scholarship, donated by Mr. and Mrs. H. H. Hollifield in memory 
of their son, Forrest H. Hollifield, is awarded to upperclassmen with evidence of character 
and need, with preference given to natives of Rowan and Rutherford counties, N.C., and 
to members of the Delta Nu Chapter of Sigma Chi Fraternity. 

The Murray A. Honeycutt Scholarship is awarded on the basis of need to a male 
student. 

The Hubert Humphrey Studies Abroad Scholarship is awarded on the basis of need and 
merit to undergraduate students participating in Wake Forest's programs in London 
or Venice. 

The Jeanette Wallace Hyde Scholarship, donated by Jeanette Wallace Hyde of Raleigh, is 
awarded on the basis of financial need and academic ability. Preference is given, but not 
limited to, students from Yadkin County. 

The Stanton B. Ingram Scholarship Fund provides assistance to needy students. Prefer- 
ence is given first to students from Alabama, second to students from Mississippi, 
Georgia, Louisiana, Tennessee, or Florida. 

The Jones-Holder Business Scholarship Fund, awarded upon the recommendation of the 
dean of the Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy, recognizes a rising 
senior business major who has demonstrated a high level of achievement. 



41 



The Dyeann B. and Henry H. Jordan II Theater Scholarship! Fund supports junior and senior 
theater majors. A separate application to the department is required. 

The John Council Joyner Sr. Scholarship is awarded on the basis of merit and need to 
a student from North Carolina. 

The J. Lee Keiger Sr. Scholarship is an academic scholarship awarded annually to a North 
Carolina student, with preference given to students living in the ALLTEL-Carolina 
Telephone Company service region. 

The Sarah C. and C.A. Kent Scholarships are awarded to first-year students and upper- 
classmen on the basis of leadership, academic merit, and financial need, without regard 
to race, religion, sex, or geographical origin. 

The Kirkpatrick-Hozuell Memorial Scholarship Fund, donated by the Delta Nu Chapter of 
Sigma Chi Fraternity, makes available one or two scholarships, with preference given to 
members of the Sigma Chi Fraternity, upon recommendation of the Kirkpatrick-Howell 
Memorial Scholarship Board, for a value of approximately $800. 

The Roena B. and Petro Kulynych Scholarship provides aid to students on the basis of 
ability and need with preference first to students from Wilkes County, N.C., and second 
to students from Avery County, N.C. 

The Kutteh Family Scholarship is awarded as a part of the Hankins Scholarship 
program, with strong preference given first to students from Iredell County, and 
second to students from counties contiguous to Iredell Countv. 

The Charles L. Little Scholarship Fund, established by Charles L. Little, is given to 
upperclass students. Preference is given to premedical students from Anson County and 
immediately adjacent counties in North Carolina who provide satisfactory evidence of a 
willingness to give serious consideration to practicing medicine in Wadesboro or Anson 
County. 

The Thomas D. and Betty H. Long Scholarship Fund is awarded on the basis of need, 
with preference first to students from Person County, N.C. and second to other North 
Carolinians. 

The Loivden Family Scholarship Fund provides scholarships as part of the Hankins 
Scholarship program, with preference first to students from Montgomery County and 
second to students from Anson, Stanley, Davidson, Randolph, Moore, or Richmond 
counties, N.C. 

The Lowe 's Food Fund provides scholarships on the basis of merit and demonstrated 
leadership qualities to students in the Wayne Calloway School of Business and 
Accountancy, with preference to students from North Carolina and Virginia. 

The Dr. George C. Mackie Sr. Fund is awarded to a junior or senior premedical student 
on the basis of need and merit. 

The Burke M. McConnell Management Excellence Scholarship, established by Pace Com- 
munications, Inc. of Greensboro, is given to the senior in the Wayne Calloway School of 
Business and Accountancy who holds the highest grade-point average for his or her first 
three years at the University. 

The Wilma L. McCurdy Memorial Fund Scholarship is awarded on the basis of character, 
academic standing, and need. 

The Thane Edward McDonald and Marie Dayton McDonald Memorial Scholarship Fund, 
made possible by the late Thane Edward McDonald, professor of music, is available to a 



42 



deserving and qualified music student. Applications must be made to the Department of 
Music. 

The James McDougald Scholarship provides assistance to students first from Robeson 
County and second from Scotland County, N.C. 

The McGladrei/ & Pullen Scholarship, granted by the public accounting firm, McGladrey 
& Pullen, is awarded to a senior accounting major designated by the accounting faculty 
on the basis of merit, financial need, and interest in public accounting, and has a value of 
$750. 

The Robert A. and Margaret Pope Mclntyre Scholarship is awarded annually, with 
preference given to students from Robeson County, N.C. 

The Lex Marsh Scholarship is awarded on the basis of academic ability and financial 
need to a student from North Carolina. 

The Robert Lee Middleton Scholarship, donated by Sarah Edwards Middleton of Nash- 
ville, Term., in memory of her husband, is awarded on the basis of character, purpose, 
intelligence, and need, with preference given to the student planning to enter the field of 
literature, accounting, teaching, or the gospel ministry or other full-time religious work. 

The Mildred Bronson Miller Scholarship Fund, donated by Mildred B. Miller of Atlanta, 
Ga., is awarded to students on the basis of leadership, dedication, competitiveness, and 
citizenship. 

The Hiram Abif Myers III Scholarship Fund, established in memory of Hiram Abif ("Bif") 
Myers who died early in his first year at Wake Forest, awards one scholarship to a senior 
from Roswell High School, Roswell, Ga., who best exemplifies the ideals and character- 
istics of Bif Myers. The candidate is recommended by the Roswell High School principal. 

The Myers Memorial Scholarship is awarded to preministerial students or to students 
contributing to Christianity. 

The George Thompson Noel, M.D., Memorial Scholarship is awarded on the basis of 
academic ability and financial need, with preference given to students from Cabarrus 
County and North Carolina. The Noel Scholarship is renewable for succeeding school 
years, provided the recipient demonstrates continuing need and ranks in the top third of 
his or her class. 

The Norfleet Scholarships, donated by Mr. and Mrs. Eustace Norfleet of Wilmington, 
N.C, in memory of his parents, John A. and Mary Pope Norfleet, are available to 
deserving and promising students needing financial assistance. 

The North Carolina Scholarships are made available by the North Carolina General 
Assembly and are awarded on the basis of financial need to full-time students who are 
bona fide residents of North Carolina. 

North Carolina Student Incentive Grants are available to undergraduate residents of 
North Carolina with exceptional financial need who require these grants in order to 
attend college, for a value up to $1,500 per year. The amount of assistance a student may 
receive depends upon need, taking into account financial resources and the cost of 
attending the college chosen. 

The Curtis Eugene Overby Sr. Scholarship is awarded on the basis of academic ability, 
financial need, and outstanding leadership potential to a North Carolina junior or senior 
majoring in communication, with an interest in broadcasting. Preference is given to 
students from Forsyth, Rockingham, and Caswell counties. 



43 



The Benjamin Wingate Parhmn Scholarship, donated by Kate J. Parham of Oxford, N.C., 
in memory of her husband, is awarded on the basis of ability and need and may be 
renewed for succeeding years. 

The H. Franklin Perritt III Memorial Scholarship Fund provides a scholarship of at least 
$1,000 annually to one or more sophomores enrolled in the Reserve Officers' Training 
Corps. Selection is based upon outstanding leadership potential. 

The Thomas F. Pettus Scholarships, administered by the North Carolina Baptist Founda- 
tion under the terms of the will of the late Thomas F. Pettus of Wilson County, N.C., make 
two or more scholarships available each year in memory of Mr. Pettus and are awarded 
on the basis of merit and need, with preference given to North Carolina Baptist students. 

The Mark Christopher Pruitt Scholarship Fund is awarded to a junior or senior pre- 
medical student on the basis of need and merit. 

The H. Ray Pullium Scholarship Fund, established by Mrs. H. Ray Pullium in honor of her 
husband, is awarded on the basis of ability and need. Preference is given to students from 
North Carolina Baptist Children's Homes. 

The Kenneth Tyson Raynor Scholarship, donated by friends of the late Kenneth Tyson 
Raynor, professor of mathematics, is awarded annually by the mathematics faculty. The 
award is made on the basis of academic ability to an individual majoring in mathematics 
who has achieved junior standing. 

The Oliver D. and Caroline Revell Scholarship is awarded to needy preministerial students 
or needy students entering full-time Christian service. 

The Revelle Family Scholarship provides financial assistance to students from Northampton 
and Hertford counties, with second preference to students from other areas of northeast- 
ern N.C. 

The Leroy and Teresa Robinson Scholarship Fund is awarded on the basis of financial 
need, with preference first to graduates of East Montgomery High School, second to 
other Montgomery County residents, and third to other North Carolina students. 

The George D. Rovere Scholarship Fund awards a scholarship annually to a student 
planning to become an athletic trainer. 

The William Roi/all Scholarship Fund, given by family and friends of William Royall, 
provides a scholarship award for excellence in classical studies, with preference given to 
students planning to travel abroad to classical sites. Applications must be made to the 
Department of Classical Languages. 

The William Lee Rudd and Ruth Crosby Rudd Scholarship is awarded to worthy and needy 
students majoring in religion. 

The W.D. Sanders Scholarships, in the amount of $750 to $2,000 each, are awarded 
annually for language study in Germany or Austria. Sophomores, juniors, or seniors who 
have completed German 153 or above are eligible. The scholarships are designated, in 
order of priority, for summer language study, semester or year programs with the 
Institute of European Studies (IES), or junior year abroad programs with other institu- 
tions. Applications should be made to the Department of German and Russian. 

The Sara Jo Broumlow Shearer Scholarship is awarded to students specializing in the area 
of learning disabilities. 



44 



The Franklin R. Shirley Debate Scholarship, established in honor of the late Franklin R. 
Shirley, professor emeritus of speech communication, is awarded to a student who has 
debate experience and who successfully participates in the University's debate program. 

The James F. Slate Fund provides an annual scholarship or loan to a student who plans 
a ministerial career. It is renewable upon evidence of a continuing need and interest in the 
ministry. 

The Joseph Pleasant and Marguerite Nutt Sloan Memorial Scholarship, established by 
Patricia Sloan Mize in honor of her parents, is awarded annually to an applied music 
student on the basis of academic ability. It has a value of approxima tely $500. Applications 
must be made to the Department of Music. 

The Robert Forest Smith III Scholarship Fund, donated by the Rev. and Mrs. Robert Forest 
Smith Jr. and other citizens of Hickory, N.C., in memory of Robert Forest Smith III, is 
awarded to an entering first-year student who qualifies on the basis of need and 
distinction in high school government. Preference is given to those who plan to enter 
government service, with strong preference given to students exemplifying positive 
Christian principles. It has a value of $1,000. 

The Gilbert T. Stephenson Scholarship, established by Grace W. Stephenson in memory of 
her husband, is awarded on the basis of ability and need to a student from Kirby Township 
or Northampton County, N.C. 

The Sigmund Sternberger Scholarships, donated by the Sigmund Sternberger Foundation, 
are for needy North Carolinians, with preference given to undergraduate students from 
Greensboro and Guilford County. 

The John Belk Stevens Scholarship in Business, donated by the Belk Foundation in honor 
of John Belk Stevens, is given to senior business majors with particular interests in 
retailing or marketing and is based on academic merit and financial need. 

The Edna and Ethel Stowe Scholarship is awarded to a first-year student or an upperclass- 
man, with preference given to female students who have a physical handicap. 

The J. W. Straughan Scholarship, donated by Mattie, Mable, and Alice Stiaughan in 
memory of their brother, J. W. Straughan, of Warsaw, N.C, with preference given to 
students from Duplin County, N.C, who are interested in pursuing a medical career 
(especially in the field of family practice), is for those who need financial assistance to 
continue their education. 

The Saddye Stephenson and Benjamin Louis Sykcs Scholarship, donated by Charles L. Sykes 
and Ralph J. Sykes in memory of their mother and father, is awarded on the basis of 
Christian character, academic proficiency, and financial need, with preference given to 
first-year students from North Carolina. It is renewable. 

The Walter Lowe Tatwn Scholarship in Mathematics provides in alternate years a renew- 
able merit scholarship. The stipends of $500 each for the first two years are replaced by 
$5,000 awards in each of the last two years, provided that the Tatum Scholar fulfills the 
expectation to enroll in and maintain a major in mathematics in the Department of 
Mathematics and Computer Science. Given by the late Samuel Tatum, a life trustee from 
Greensboro, and named in honor of his late brother, Dr. Walter Lowe Tatum, the Tatum 
Scholarship is renewable with a minimum 3.00 grade-point average (3.30 in mathematics) 
and an exemplary record of honor and conduct. 



4^ 



The Augustine John Taylor and Roby Ellis Taylor Accountancy Scholarship is awarded to 
accounting students, with preference given to students whose permanent residence is 
within 50 miles of Winston-Salem. 

The Russell Taylor Scholarship is awarded to a high school senior with a distinguished 
record in citizenship and scholarship. Preference is given to students planning careers in 
the areas of religion or law, students exemplifying positive principles of the Christian 
faith, needy students, and students from Iredell County, N.C. 

The Harold Wayland and Nelle Futch Tribble Scholarship Fund, established to honor the late 
President Emeritus and Mrs. Tribble, provides a scholarship to students enrolled in the 
College who demonstrate superior academic ability. 

The Kenneth Monroe Tucker Scholarship is awarded on the basis of academic merit, with 
preference given to students from Wilkes, New Hanover, or Brunswick counties, North 
Carolina. It may be renewed provided the recipient's cumulative average is in the upper 
twenty percent of his or her class. 

The Tyner-Pitman Scholarship Fund, donated by Cora Tyner Pitman, makes available at 
least one scholarship for needy North Carolina students. 

The John W. Ward Jr. Scholarship is awarded on the basis of demonstrated need, with 
preference given to students from Robeson County, N.C. 

The Ware Foundation Scholarship is awarded on the basis of academic ability and financial 
need, with preference given first to students from Oxford Orphanage or other children's 
homes and second to students from Granville or Vance counties, N.C. 

Tlie Brian James Watkins Scholarship Fund is awarded on the basis of demonstrated 
leadership ability, community involvement, and character, with preference to stu- 
dents from North Carolina, Mississippi, and Delaware. 

The Watkins-Richardson Scholarship is awarded on the basis of academic ability and 
outstanding leadership potential to students from the southeastern United States. Watkins- 
Richardson Scholarship awards are renewable for succeeding school years, provided the 
recipient ranks in the top third of his or her class and continues to display leadership 
potential. 

The Lettie Pate Whitehead Scholarships provide support to needy Christian women 
students from the nine Southeastern states. 

The Alexander Hines Whitlei/ Jr. Scholarship is awarded to qualified students selected by 
the Committee on Scholarships and Student Aid. 

The Jesse A. Williams Scholarships, created under the will of the late Jesse A. Williams of 
Union County, N.C, give preference to deserving students of Union County. 

The Leonidas Polk Williams Sr. Scholarship Fund was established to provide aid to 
students from Chowan and Camden counties, N.C, on the basis of merit. 

The John G. Williard Scholarship is awarded to middle income students, with preference 
given to students from Davie County, N.C. 

The James Bennett Willis Scholarship Fund, established by James B. Willis of Hamlet, N.C, 
gives preference to North Carolina Baptist students interested in the ministry and 
Christian education. It is awarded on the basis of need. Applications must be made to the 
Departments of Religion or Philosophy. 

The Marie Thornton Willis and Miriam Carlyle Willis Scholarship Fund, established by 
James B. Willis in memory of his wife and daughter, gives preference to North Carolina 



46 



Baptist students who are interested in all phases of the ministry of music. It is awarded 
on the basis of need. 

The Charles Littell Wilson Scholarship, created under the will of Jennie Mayes Wilson in 
memory of her husband, Charles Littell Wilson, is for a first-year student. 

The O. W. Wilson-Yancei/ County Scholarships, created under the will of O. W. Wilson of 
Yancey County, N.C., are awarded to students from Yancey County who have excellent 
academic records and who demonstrate need. 

The Phillip W. Wilson/Peat Manvick Memorial Scholarship, established as a memorial to 
Phillip W. Wilson by his friends, colleagues, and family, is awarded to a senior accoun- 
tancy major who has demonstrated leadership skills, outstanding interpersonal skills, 
and a strong commitment to the community and the accounting profession. The recipient 
must also be in the top fifth of his or her class based on grade-point average within the 
Calloway School of Business and Accountancy. 

The William H. and Anne M. Woody Memorial Scholarship is awarded on the basis of 
character, scholastic achievement, and financial need, with preference given to students 
from Person County, N.C., and to students intending careers in medicine, education, or 
ministry. 

The William Luther Wyatt III Scholarship Trust, donated by Mr. and Mrs. William L. 
Wyatt Jr. of Raleigh, in memory of their son, William Luther Wyatt III, with preference 
given to a male student entering the junior year who has shown an interest and an ability 
in the field of biology, is based on need and ability. 

The Matthew T. Yates Scholarship Fund awards scholarships to the children of mission- 
aries of the Foreign Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Convention on the basis of merit 
and need. The applicant must notify the Office of Financial Aid of his or her eligibility to 
be considered for this award. 



Federal Financial Aid Programs 



The federal government, through the Department of Education, sponsors a number of aid 
programs to help pay college costs. Among these programs are Federal Pell Grants, 
Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grants (FSEOG), Federal Work-Study 
(FWS), Federal Perkins Loans, and Federal Family Education Loans (including Federal 
Stafford Loans, both subsidized and unsubsidized, Federal PLUS Loans, Federal Supple- 
mental Loans for Students (FSLS), and Federal Consolidation Loans). 

To receive assistance through these programs, a student must complete the necessary 
applications, meet basic eligibility requirements, and maintain satisfactory academic 
progress, earning a minimum of 12 credits per semester of enrollment with a grade-point 
average at or above the published minimum level for continued enrollment. A copy of the 
full policy on satisfactory academic progress is available upon written request from the 
financial aid office. 

Federal aid programs are described more fully in the Wake Forest University brochure, 
''Need-Based Financial Aid Information" and in the federal publication, "The Student 
Guide," available upon request from the Financial Aid Office and the U.S. Department of 
Education. 



47 



Exchange Scholarships 



The German Exchange Scholarship, established in 1959 with the Free University of Berlin, 
is available to a student with at least two years of college German or the equivalent, who 
has junior standing by the end of the semester in which application is made, but who need 
not be a German major. It provides 850 German marks per month for ten months, 
remission of fees, 200 marks per semester for books, and 300 marks per month for rent. 
(Interested students should communicate with the chair of the Department of German.) 

The Spanish Exchange Scholarships are available for study at the University of the Andes 
in Bogota, Colombia, and at the University of Salamanca in Spain. The Bogota scholarship 
may be awarded to two students for one semester's study each or to one student for two 
semesters. Applicants must have completed at least two years of college Spanish or the 
equivalent. Scholarships provide remission of fees and the cost of books, board, and 
accommodations. (Interested students should communicate with Professor Candelas 
Newton in the Department of Romance Languages.) 

The Trench Exchange Scholarship, established with the University of Burgundy, France, 
is available to a graduating senior, who receives a graduate teaching assistantship at a 
lycee in Dijon for two semesters. (Interested students should communicate with the chair 
of the Department of Romance Languages.) 

Loans 

The James T. and Maty Z. Bryan Foundation Student Loan Plan is for residents of North 
Carolina enrolled full-time for a value of up to $7,500 for undergraduate study. The 
amount of each loan is determined by the College Foundation, with an interest rate of 1 
percent during the in-school and grace periods and 7 percent during the repayment 
period. 

The Bushnell Baptist Church Loan Fund, established in 1945 with funds supplied by the 
Bushnell Baptist Chvirch of Fontana Dam, N.C., is for needy students. 

The Council Fund, established in 1935 by C. T. Council of Durham, is for the aid of senior 
students. 

The James W. Denmark Loan Fund, originated in 1875 by James William Denmark of 
Dudley, N.C., is available to qualified students, with preference given to students from 
North Carolina, for an amount not exceeding $2,500 each year and $10,000 during the 
entire period of enrollment. 

The Olivia Dunn Student Loan Fund, established under the will of Birdie Dunn of Wake 
County, N.C., in memory of her mother, is for needy students. 

The Duplin County Loan Fund, donated in 1942 by anonymous friends of the College, is 
limited to students from Duplin County, N.C. 

The Elliott B. Earnshaw Loan Fund, established by the Board of Trustees, is a memorial 
to the former bursar. 

The Friendly Student Loan Fund, established in 1948 by Nell E. Stinson of Raleigh, in 
memory of her sister, Mary Belle Stinson Michael, is for the benefit of worthy students 
who need financial aid. 



The George Foster Hankins Loan Fund, established under the will of George Foster 
Hankins of Lexington, gives preference to applicants from Davidson County, N.C. 

The Harris Memorial Loan Fund, established by the late J. P. Harris of Bethel, N.C, in 
memory of his first wife, Lucy Shearon Harris, and his second wife, Lucy Jones Harris, is 
for students who have demonstrated ability to apply educational advantages to the 
rendition of enriched and greater Christian service in life and who require financial 
assistance to prevent the disruption of their education. 

The Hutchins Student Loan Fund, originated by Robert W. Hutchins Jr. on behalf of 
himself and his late wife, Nancy D. Hutchins of Winston-Salem, is in honor of members 
of the Hutchins' family who have attended Wake Forest and is for the benefit of needy 
undergraduate students. 

The Edna Tyner Langston Fund, established in 1942by Henry J. Langston of Danville, Va., 
m memory of his wife, is available to a student agreed upon by the donor and the College. 

The Watts Norton Loan Fund, established in 1949 by L. Watts Norton of Durham, is for 
worthy students enrolled with the Department of Religion who need financial assistance. 

The Powers Fund, established in 1944 by Frank P. Powers of Raleigh, in memory of his 
parents, Frank P. and Effie Reade Powers, is for the benefit of needy students, with 
preference given to orphans. 

The Grover and Addy Raby Loan Fund, established in 1945 by J. G. Raby of Tarboro, N.C, 
in memory of his parents, gives preference to applicants from the First Baptist Church of 
Tarboro. 

The James F. Slate Loan Fund, established in 1908 by J. F. Slate of Stokes County, N.C, is 
available for ministerial students who have been licensed to preach. 

The Sidney G. Wallace Loan Fund, created under the will of Mrs. Blanche Wallace, is used 
to assist undergraduate students. Preference is given to students studying in a Wake 
Forest-sponsored or approved overseas program. 

Concessions 

North Carolina Legislative Tuition Grants. The North Carolina General Assembly 
provides yearly grants to all legal residents of North Carolina. To be eligible a student 
must be enrolled for at least fourteen credits each semester (through October 1 in the fall 
and through the tenth day of classes in the spring) and complete a Residency Form 100. 
The student must not have received a bachelor's degree previously. To receive the grant, 
the student must also complete an NCLTG application and return it to the financial aid 
office by a specified deadline. 

Ministerial students receive an $800 concession per year if they (1) have a written 
recommendation or license to preach from their own church body and (2) agree to repay 
the total amount, plus 4 percent interest, in the event that they do not serve five years in 
the pastoral ministry within twelve years of attendance in the College. 

Children and spouses of pastors of North Carolina Baptist churches receive an $800 conces- 
sion per year if they are the children or spouses of (1) ministers, (2) missionaries of the 
Southern Baptist Foreign Mission Board, (3) officials of the Baptist State Convention of 
North Carolina, or (4) professors in North Carolina Baptist colleges or universities who 
are ordained ministers. Pastors themselves are also eligible. 



49 



Children of other ministers who are not eligible for the above concession receive a $150 
concession per year if their parent makes a living chiefly by the ministry and they have 
a demonstrated need. 

Other Financial Aid 

Church Choir Work Grants, given by the College and Wake Forest Baptist Church to 
encourage outstanding music students, are awarded on the basis of talent, reliability, and 
interest in the church on the recommendation of the music committee of the church and 
the Department of Music, for the value of $300. (Interested students should communicate 
with the chair of the Department of Music.) 

The Ministerial Aid Fund, established in 1897 by the estate of J. A. Melke, is available to 
preministerial students on a loan or grant program on the basis of merit and need, and, 
particularly in the case of grants, academic achievement. 

Student/Student Spouse Employment is possible for part-time, on-campus and off-cam- 
pus work, for a recommended maximum of twenty hours per week for full-time students. 
Summer employment may also be available. (Interested students should communicate 
with the Office of Career Services.) 

Veterans' Benefits are administered by the Department of Veterans Affairs in the 
Federal Building at 251 North Main Street in Winston-Salem. Records of progress are kept 
by this institution on veteran and non-veteran students alike. Progress records are 
furnished to the students, veterans and non-veterans alike, at the end of each scheduled 
school term. 

Outside Assistance 

Students who apply for financial aid from Wake Forest must advise the College if they 
receive any assistance from outside organizations, including but not limited to National 
Merit or Achievement Scholarships; College Scholarship Service-sponsored scholar- 
ships; local, state, and national scholarship and loan programs. This outside assistance 
will be considered when the financial aid award is calculated. 



50 



Special Programs 



Students in the College are encouraged to apply to special programs, both on and 
off campus, which correspond to their abilities and interests. These include the 
programs described below and the special degrees, minors, and concentrations 
described on page 00 and beyond. 

Honors Study 

For highly qualified students, a series of interdisciplinary honors courses is described 
under Courses of Instruction. Under the supervision of the coordinator of the Honors 
Program, students may participate in three or more honors seminars during the first, 
sophomore, and junior years. Those who complete four seminars with a superior record 
and who are not candidates for departmental honors may complete a final directed study 
course. With a superior record in that course and a grade-point average of 3.0 in all work, 
a student may be graduated with the distinction "Honors in the Arts and Sciences." 

For students especially talented in individual areas of study, most departments in the 
College offer special studies leading to graduation with honors in a particular discipline. 
The minimum requirement is a grade-point average of 3.0 in all work and 3.3 (or higher 
in some areas) in the major. Other course, seminar, and research requirements vary from 
one department to another. 

Open Curriculum 

For students with high motivation and strong academic preparation, the Open Curricu- 
lum provides the opportunity to follow a course of study planned within the framework 
of a liberal arts education but not necessarily fulfilling all basic and divisional require- 
ments for the degree. Under the Committee on Open Curriculum, a limited number of 
students is selected by previous record of achievement, high aspirations, ability in one or 
more areas of study, strength of self-expression, and other special talents. The course of 
study for the lower division is designed by the student and his or her adviser. 

Study at Salem College 



For full-time students, Wake Forest and Salem College share a program of exchange 
credits for courses taken at one institution because they are not offered at the other. An 
application must be approved by the academic adviser and the dean of the College or the 
dean of the Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy. Except in courses of 
private instruction, there is no additional cost to the student. Grades and grade points 
earned at Salem College are evaluated as if they were earned at Wake Forest. 



31 



International Studies 



Office of International Studies 



The Office of International Studies provides information on all programs in international 
studies. Students interested in studying abroad should visit the office for assistance and 
program approval. Any student taking non-Wake Forest courses overseas for either the 
summer, semester, or year should visit the office for program approval and a transfer of 
credit form. The office also administers the international studies minor. For a full 
description of the minor see page 136. 



International Students 



International students can obtain information and assistance in the Office of International 
Studies. 



Residential Language Centers 



For students prepared to speak French or German on a regular basis with other students 
studying the same language, the University offers residential language centers coordi- 
nated by members of the Romance languages department and the German and Russian 
department. Such students attend regular classes on the campus. Organized social and 
conversational programs are available in all these languages. 




Casa Artom (center), the University's residential center in Venice, Italy, is celebrating the twenty-fifth 
anniversary of the first group of Wake Forest students to study in Venice. 



52 



International Studies House 



Students interested in international studies who would like to live with other students 
sharing these interests may apply to live in the International Studies House. Further 
information may be obtained in the Office of International Studies. 

Foreign Area Studies 

The Foreign Area Studies program enables students to choose an interdisciplinary 
concentration in the language and culture of a foreign area. For a full description of these 
programs, see page 61 and the various listings under Courses of Instruction. 



Opportunities for Study Abroad 

Wake Forest Programs 

England (London) 

A program of study is offered each semester at Worrell House, the University's residential 
center near Regent's Park in London. Courses typically encompass aspects of the art, 
theater, literature, and history of London and Great Britain. (See, for example, Art 2320, 
English Art, Hogarth to the Present, and History 2260, History of London, in the course listings 
of those departments.) Each term a different member of the faculty serves as the director 
of the program, which accommodates sixteen students. Further information may be 
obtained in the Office of International Studies. 

Italy (Venice) 

Students wishing to spend a semester in Italy may apply to study at Casa Artom, the 
University's residential center on the Grand Canal in Venice. Under the direction of 
various members of the faculty, approximately twenty students per semester focus on the 
heritage and culture of Venice and Italy. (Courses offered usually include Art 2693, 
Venetian Renaissance Art; Italian 2213, Spoken Italian; Italian 215, Introduction to Italian 
Literature I; Italian 216, Introduction to Italian Literature II; and other courses offered by the 
faculty member serving as director.) Students selected for the Venice program are 
required to have completed elementary training in Italian. Limited scholarship aid is 
available to one or two students each semester to assist with expenses. Further informa- 
tion may be obtained in the Office of International Studies. 



53 



France (Dijon) 

Students wishing to study in France may apply for a semester's instruction at the 
University of Burgundy. Under the direction of a faculty residential adviser from the 
Department of Romance Languages, courses are taken at the University of Burgundy by 
student groups of varying levels of preparation. (A major in French is not required, but 
French 220 or its equivalent is recommended.) 

Spain (Salamanca) 

Students wishing to study in Spain may apply for a semester's instruction at the 
University of Salamanca. Under the direction of a faculty residential adviser from the 
Department of Romance Languages, courses are taken at the University of Salamanca by 
student groups of varying levels of preparation. (A major in Spanish is not required, but 
Spanish 220 or its equivalent is recommended.) 

Institute of European Studies 

Students who wish to spend a semester or year in a German- or Slavic-speaking country 
may apply to programs of study available through the Institute of European Studies. 
Qualified Wake Forest applicants may study during their junior or senior year in Berlin 
or Freiburg, Germany; Vienna, Austria; or Moscow, Russia. Interested students should 
contact the Department of German and Russian. 

China (Beijing) 

Students who wish to study in China may apply to participate in the Wake Forest/ 
SASASAAS Program in Beijing, Peoples Republic of China. Offered in the fall semester, 
the program includes courses in both Chinese language and culture. It is open to students 
with no previous knowledge of Chinese or to those wishing to continue their study of the 
language. Further information may be obtained in the Office of International Studies. 

Japan (Hiratsuka) 

For students wishing to study in Japan, Wake Forest offers a fall semester in Tokai 
University, outside Tokyo. Coursework focuses on Japanese language and culture: one 
course is taught by a Wake Forest professor; another course is taught by Japanese faculty 
members, in English, on various aspects of Japanese society; a third course is the Japanese 
language at the appropriate level. No prior knowledge of Japanese is required. Further 
information may be obtained in the Office of International Studies. 



54 



Russia 

One or two students wishing to study individually in Russia can apply to spend a fall or 
spring semester at Moscow State University each year. The requirements are a good 
academic record and the ability to attend and pass classes that are taught entirely in 
Russian. For more information, contact William Hamilton, associate dean of the College. 

Experiment in International Living 

The Independent Study Program of the Experiment in International Living is recognized 
by the College. To participate in this program, a student must be regularly enrolled and 
plan to return to the College after study abroad; arrangements must be made with the 
chair of the department of the major and the director of the Office of International Studies. 
Up to fourteen credits for a one-semester program may be granted upon evidence of 
satisfactory completion of work taken, but this is subject to evaluation by the dean of the 
College. 

Study Abroad in Non-Wake Forest Programs 

Students wishing to study abroad in a non-Wake Forest program should visit the Office 
of International Studies for assistance. The office maintains a sizable collection of material 
on a wide variety of overseas programs. 

A student's participation in a non-Wake Forest program must be approved in advance 
by the Office of International Studies. An Approval Form for Study Outside the United 
States, available in the Office of International Studies, must be completed once one is 
accepted into a program. A process exists so that normally students who study 
overseas for a full semester in a non-Wake Forest program will receive sixteen (16) 
credits. For further information, consult with the Office of International Studies. 

Students may request to have scholarship and financial aid applied to approved non- 
Wake Forest programs. Further information is available in the Office of In tenia tional 
Studies. 



55 



Requirements for Degrees 



Degrees Offered 



The College offers undergraduate programs leading to the bachelor of arts and bachelor 
of science degrees. The bachelor of arts degree is conferred with a major in anthropology, 
art, art history, studio art, chemistry, classical studies, communication, economics, 
English, French, French-Spanish, German, Greek, history, Latin, music, philosophy, 
physics, politics, psychology, religion, Russian, sociology, Spanish, or theater. The 
bachelor of science degree is conferred with a major in biology, chemistry, computer 
science, health and exercise science, mathematical business, mathematical economics, 
mathematics, or physics. The bachelor of arts degree is available with a major in 
elementary education or education with a state teacher's certificate in social studies. The 
bachelor of science degree is available with a major in education with a state teacher's 
certificate in science. The bachelor of science degree may be conferred in combined 
curricula in dentistry, engineering, forestry and environmental studies, medical technol- 
ogy, microbiology, and the physician assistant program. 

The Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy offers undergraduate 
programs leading to the bachelor of science degree with a major in business, analytical 
finance, or mathematical business; and offers a five-year program of study leading to a 
bachelor of science and a master of science degree with a major in professional accoun- 
tancy. (See page 221 of this bulletin.) 

A student who receives the bachelor of arts or bachelor of science degree may not 
receive another bachelor's degree from Wake Forest. 

General Requirements 



Students in the College have considerable flexibility in planning their courses of study. 
Except for two semesters of required health and exercise science courses, only three 
specific courses are required, one in English composition, one in a foreign language, and 
a first-year seminar. To complete preparation for more specialized work in a major field 
or fields, students select courses in each of five divisions of the undergraduate curriculum: 
(1) literature; (2) the natural sciences and mathematics; (3) history, religion, and philoso- 
phy; (4) the social and behavioral sciences; and (5) the fine arts. Normally the basic and 
divisional requirements are completed in the first arid sophomore years and the require- 
ments in the field or fields of the major are completed in the junior and senior years. 

All students must complete (1) the basic and divisional requirements (unless accepted 
for the Open Curriculum), (2) a course of study approved by the department or "?)vJ\ 
departments of the major, and (3) electi ve courses fo r a total of 144 credits. No more than q-»>\ 
sixteen credits toward graduation may be earned fromamong alTofThefollowing courses: 
Education 353; all military science courses; Music 111-121 (ensemble courses); Dance 120- 
129 and 131; and elective 100-level courses in health and exercise science. A cross-listed 
course may be taken one time for credit toward graduation, unless otherwise specified by 
the course description. 






Tot J 



56 



All students must earn a C average on all work attempted at all colleges and universities 
and on all work attempted in Wake Forest College and the Wayne Calloway School of 
Business and Accountancy. Of the 144 credits required for graduation, at lea st 72 must be 
completed in the undergraduate schools of Wake Forest University, including the work 
oftiu^jjejiioryear (except for combined degree curricula). All financial obligations to the 
University must be discharged. 

A student has the privilege of graduating under the requirements of the bulletin of 
the year in which he or she enters, provided that course work is completed within sixyeajs 
of entrance. After six years, the student must fulfill the requirements for the class in which 
he or she graduates. 

Basic Requirements 

All students must complete three required basic courses (unless exempted through 
procedures established by the departments concerned): 

A first-year seminar 

English 110 (composition) or 111 (writing seminar) or 112 (composition and literature) 

toreign language (literature) 

French 213, 215, 216, 217, or the equivalent 

Spanish 213, 217, 218, or the equivalent 

Italian 215, 216, or the equivalent 

German 215 or 216 

Russian 215 or 216 

Greek 211 or 212 

Latin 211, 212, or 216 

Near Eastern Languages & Literature 211 or 212 (Hebrew) 

Japanese 211 

Chinese 211 

No credit is given for any language course below the one recommended by the 
department on the basis of the placement test unless the student is given permission to 
earn such credit by the Language Placement Appeals Board. 

Divisional Requirements 



All students must complete courses as specified below in each of the five divisions of the 
undergraduate curriculum (unless exempted by completion of advanced placement 
requirements or by participation in the open curriculum): 

Division I. Literature (two courses; no more than one course from any 
one of the three groups) 
i. English literature (English 160 or 165) 

2. American literature (English 170 or 175) 

3. Foreign literature (other than the one used for the basic requirement) 



^7 



Classical languages 

Greek 211, 212, 231, 241, or 242 

Latin 211, 212, 216, 221, 225, or 226 
German 215 or 216 
Chinese 211 

Near Eastern Languages & Literature 211 or 212 (Hebrew) 
Japanese 211 

Romance languages (French, Italian, or Spanish) literature 
Russian 215 or 216 
In English translation: 

Classics 255, 261, 263, 264, 265, or 272 

Humanities 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 221, or 222 

Division II. The Natural Sciences and Mathematics (three courses, selected from two 
of the four groups) 

1. Biology 111, 112, 113 (if one course, 111; if two courses, the pair 
must include 111) 

2. Chemistry 108, 111 (with 111L), 116 (with 116L) (unless advanced 
preparation indicates a higher course); if one course, 108 or 111 (with 
111L); if two courses, 111 (with 111L), 116 (with 116L) 

3. Physics 109, 110, 113, 114 

4. Mathematics 108, 109, 111, 112, 117, Computer Science 111 (any one; 
if two, the pair must include Mathematics 108 or Mathematics 111 but 
not both) 

Division III. History, Religion, and Philosophy (three courses; no more than one course 
from each group) 

1. History 101, 102, 103, or 104 

2. Religion (any four credits at the 100-level) 

3. Philosophy 111 

Division IV. The Social and Behavioral Sciences (three courses, no more than one from 
any one department) 

1. Anthropology 151 or 152 

2. Economics 150 

3. Politics 113, 114, 115, or 116 

4. Psychology 151 

5. Sociology 151, 152, 153, or 154 

Division V. The Fine Arts (one course) 

1. Art 103 or 111 

2. Music 101, 102, 181, or 182 

3. Theater 110 or 112 



58 



Requirement in Health and Exercise Science 



All students must complete Health and Exercise Science 100 and 101. This requirement 
must be met before enrollment in additional health and exercise science elective courses, 
and in any case before the end of the second year. 

Proficiency in the Use of English 



Proficiency in the use of the English language is recognized by the faculty as a requirement 
in all departments. A composition condition, indicated by cc with the grade for any course, 
may be assigned in any department to a student whose writing is unsatisfactory, 
regardless of previous credits in composition. The writing of transfer students is 
evaluated during the orientation period each term, and students whose writing is 
deficient are given a composition condition. 

A student who has been assigned a cc will receive a "Not Reported" for the course. The 
student will have one semester in which to work in the Writing Center, revising the course 
work to the instructor's satisfaction. If the student fails to work in the Writing Center, or 
fails to revise the work to the instructor's satisfaction, the grade will become an "F" 
automatically, unless some action is taken by the instructor. (If extenuating circumstances 
make it impossible for the student to make significant progress in a semester, the student 
may appeal to the dean's office for an additional semester of work to remove the "NR.") 
Removal of the deficiency is prerequisite to graduation. 

Basic and Divisional Requirements 



The basic and divisional requirements are intended to introduce the student to various 
fields of knowledge and to lay the foundation for concentration in a major subject and 
related fields during the junior and senior years. For these reasons, as many of the 
requirements as feasible should be taken in the first and sophomore years. 

No course requirements may be set aside or replaced by substitutes except through 
regular procedures already established by the faculty, or through a specific vote of the 
faculty in regular session. 

Declaring a Major 

To enter upon a major, a student should have earned at least sixty credits. The normal time 
for reaching this point is the end of the second semester of the sophomore year. Thirty days 
before the end of the sophomore year, each student who will have acquired the requisite 
credits by the end of the semester or the end of the summer school is required to indicate 
to the registrar and to the department or departments concerned the selection of a major 
for concentration during the junior and senior years. Before this selection is recorded by 
the registrar, the student must present a written statement from the authorized represen- 
tative of the department or departments indicating that the student has been accepted as 
a candidate for the major in that department. An adviser is available to assist the student 



59 



in planning a course of study for the junior and senior years. A department which rejects 
a student as a major must file with the dean of the College a written statement indicating 
the reason(s) for the rejection. 

If thirty days before the end of the sophomore year a student sees that he or she will 
begin the fifth semester without attaining sixty credits, he or she should consult the 
registrar's office about the proper course to follow. 

A student wishing to major in business, analytical finance, mathematical business, or 
the five-year accounting program, should make application to the Wayne Calloway 
School of Business and Accountancy. (See page 221 of this bulletin.) 

The undergraduate schools try to provide ample space in the various major fields to 
accommodate the interests of students. It must be understood, however, that the under- 
graduate schools cannot guarantee the availability of space in a given major field or a 
given course, since the preferences of students change and there are limits to both faculty 
and facilities. 

After the initial declaration, a student may not change from one major to another 
without the approval of the departments concerned. The student's course of study for the 
junior and senior years includes the minimum requirements for the departmental major, 
with other courses selected by the student and approved by the adviser. 

At least half of the major must be completed at Wake Forest University. 

The following fields of study are recognized for the major: accounting, analytical 
finance, anthropology ,art history, studio art, biology, business, chemistry, classical studies, 
communication, computer science, economics, education, English, French, French-Span- 
ish, German, Greek, health and exercise science, history, Latin, mathematical business, 
mathematical economics, mathematics, music, philosophy, physics, politics, psychology, 
religion, Russian, sociology, Spanish, and theater. 

Maximum Number of Courses in a Department 



Within the Coll ege, a maximu m of 48 credits in a single field of study is allowedj yithin 
thel44 credits~required for graduation. Fifty-six credits toward graduation are allowed 
in any department authorized to offer two fields of study or more, except for the 
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science. 

These stipulations exclude required related courses from other departments. They 
further exclude, for students majoring in English, English 110 and 112; and, for students 
majoring in a foreign language, elementary courses in that language. These limits may be 
exceeded in unusual circumstances only by action of the dean of the College. 

Options for Meeting Major Requirements 



For purposes of satisfying graduation requirements, a student must select one, and only 
one, of the following options, which will receive official recognition on the student's 
permanent record: (1) a single major, (2) a joint major, (3) a single major and a minor, (4) 
a single major and a double minor, (5) a double major. In addition to the options above, a 
student may complete the requirements of a foreign area studies program. 



60 



Double Majors and Joint Majors 



A student mav major in two departments in the College with the written permission of 
the chair of each of the departments and on condition that the student meet all require- 
ments for the major in both departments. A student may not use the same course to meet 
requirements in both of the majors. For administrative purposes, the student must 
designate one of the two fields as the primary major, which appears first on the student's 
record. For purposes of the double major, the Department of Mathematics and Computer 
Science is considered as two departments. 

A joint major consisting of fifty-six credits in two fields of study is available in classical 
studies, mathematical business, and mathematical economics. 

Minors 

A minor is not required. Those students, however, who select a single major — not those 
working toward a double or joint major — may choose a minor field from among the 
following: anthropology, art, art history, studio art, astrophysics, biology, chemistry, 
communication, computer science, dance, economics, educational studies, professional 
education, English, French language and culture, French literature, German, Greek, 
history, Italian, journalism, Latin, mathematics, music, philosophy, physics, politics, 
psychology, religion, Russian, sociology, Spanish language and culture, Hispanic litera- 
ture, and theater. 

For details of the various minors, see the appropriate departmental headings in the 
section of this bulletin that lists course offerings. 

interdisciplinary Minors 



Interdisciplinary minors are listed alphabetically under Courses of Instruction in the 
bulletin. The following programs are offered (bulletin page number in parentheses): 

* American Ethnic Studies (page 64) 
Asian Studies (page 72) 

Cultural Resource Preservation (page 92) 
Early Christian Studies (page 93) 

* Environmental Studies (page 113) 
International Studies (page 136) 
Latin American Studies (page 140) 
Linguistics (page 141) 
Medieval Studies (page 150) 
Urban Studies (page 208) 
Women's Studies (page 208) 

* Not available in 1995-96 academic year. Offered in 1996-97. 



61 



Foreign Area Studies . 



The foreign area studies programs enable students to choose an interdisciplinary concen- 
tration in the language and culture of a foreign area. An area studies concentration may 
include courses in the major and also in the minor field, if a minor is chosen. Foreign area 
studies programs do not replace majors or minors; they may supplement either or both. 
A faculty adviser coordinates each foreign area studies program and advises students, 
and students who wish to participate in one of these programs must consult with the 
program coordinator, preferably in their sophomore year. Questions also may be directed 
to the Office of International Studies. 

Foreign area studies are listed alphabetically under Courses of Instruction in the 
bulletin. The following programs are offered (bulletin page numbers in parentheses): 

East Asian Studies (page 95) 
East European Studies (page 96) 
German Studies (page 118) 
Italian Studies (page 137) 
Spanish Studies (page 202) 



Senior Testing 



All seniors are required to participate in a testing program designed to provide objective 
evidence of educational development and employing measures of academic achievement 
such as selected portions of the Graduate Record Examination and other tests deemed 
appropriate by the Committee on Academic Affairs. The tests are administered during the 
spring semester, and relevant results are made available to the student for his or her 
information. The primary purpose of the program is to provide the University with 
information for assessing the total educational process. The program does not supplant 
the regular administration of the Graduate Record Examination for students applying for 
admission to graduate school. 

Combined Degrees in Medical Technology 



Students may qualify for the bachelor of science degree in medical technology by 
completion of the academic requirements outlined in the following paragraph and by 
satisfactory completion of the full program in medical technology offered by the Division 
of Allied Health Programs of the Bowman Gray School of Medicine. A grade of at least 
C is required in all courses taken in the program in medical technology. At least one year 
(thirty-six credits) of the required academic work must be completed in the College. 
(Under current scheduling, successful candidates receive the baccalaureate degree in 
August rather than in May.) 

Students seeking admission to the program must file application in the fall of the junior 
year with the Division of Allied Health Programs of the medical school. Selection is based 
upon recommendations of teachers, college academic record, Allied Health Professions 



Admissions Test score, impressions made in personal interviews, and work experience 
(not essential, but important). Students must complete the basic course requirements; the 
divisional course requirements in Divisions I, III, and IV; the health and exercise science 
requirement; Biology 111, 112, 113, 114 (three courses or equivalents); Biology 326; 
Chemistry 111/111L, 116/116L, 221/221L, and 222/222L; mathematics (one course); 
and electives for a total of 108 credits. Desirable electives outside the area of chemistry and 
biology include physics, data processing, and personnel and management courses. 
(Interested students should consult a biology department faculty member during the first 
year for further information.) 

Degrees in the Physician Assistant Program 



Wake Forest students may apply for entry into the Physician Assistant Program 
either of two ways: 

A. The degree in the Physician Assistant Program, a combined 3+2 program, 
open to no more than two students a year 

No more than two students a year may qualify for the bachelor of science degree 
in the Physician Assistant Program by completing three years (108 credits) in the 
College with a minimum average grade level of C, and by satisfactory completion 
of the full twenty-four-month course in the Physician Assistant Program offered 
by the Division of Allied Health Programs of the Bowman Gray School of 
Medicine. This 3+2 contract program requires that at least one year (thirty-six 
credits) of the required academic work must be completed in the College. Candi- 
dates for the degree must complete the basic course requirements, the divisional 
course requirements, the health and exercise science requirement, and at least four 
courses in biology (including one year in anatomy-physiology or one semester 
each of anatomy and physiology, and in microbiology). At least four courses in the 
social sciences (including sociology, psychology, and economics), a course in 
statistics, and three or four courses in chemistry are recommended. Applicants to 
the program must have a minimum of six months of clinical experience in patient 
care services. Interested students should consult the health professions adviser 
during the first year for further information. 

B. Certificate of Completion, for regularly-graduating four-year students 

Students intending to graduate regularly need apply no later than January 1 of 
the senior year. They must have completed two courses in general biology, two 
courses in general chemistry, and one full year of anatomy and physiology (or one 
semester each of anatomy and physiology). One course in microbiology is strongly 
recommended. Applicants must have one thousand hours of clinical experience in 
patient care services. Interested students should consult the health professions 
adviser for further information. 



63 



Degrees in Dentistry 



A student may fulfill the requirements for the bachelor of science degree with a major in 
dentistry by completing three years of work in the College with a minimum average grade 
of C, and by satisfactorily completing the first two years of work in one of certain approved 
dental schools designated by the University, with a record entitling advancement to the 
third-year class. 

Degrees in Engineering 



The College cooperates with North Carolina State University and other engineering 
schools in offering a broad course of study in the arts and sciences combined with 
specialized training in engineering. A program for outstanding students covers five years 
of study, including three years in the College and approximately two years in one of the 
schools of engineering. (Depending upon the field chosen, it may be advisable for a 
student to attend the summer session in the engineering school after transfer.) Admission 
to Wake Forest does not guarantee admission to the engineering school. Those decisions 
are based on the student's transcript, performance, and status at the time of application. 
Upon successful completion of the five years of study, the student receives the bachelor 
of science degree in engineering from the University and the bachelor of science degree 
in one of the specialized engineering fields from the engineering school. 

The curriculum for the first three years must include the basic and divisional require- 
ments. Suggested courses for the first year are English 110 and 160 (or a foreign literature); 
appropriate foreign language courses; Mathematics 111,112; Physics 113,114; and Health 
and Exercise Science 100, 101. Suggested courses for the sophomore year are English 170 
(or a foreign literature); Philosophy 111; Mathematics 251, 301; Physics 141, 162, 165, 166; 
and Chemistry 111/111L, 116/116L. Suggested courses for the junior year are a history 
course, a religion course, Mathematics 302, 304, and Economics 150. 

This rigorous curriculum demands special aptitude in science and mathematics. 
Electives are chosen in consultation with the chair of the Department of Physics. 

Degrees in Forestry and Environmental Studies 



The College cooperates with the Duke University School of Forestry and Environmental 
Studies to offer students interested in these areas the possibility of earning both bachelor's 
and master's degrees within five years. For details about the program, students should 
consult a faculty member in the biology department. 



64 



Courses of Instruction 



Plans of study, course descriptions, and the identification of instructors apply to the academic 
year 1995-96 unless otherwise noted, and reflect official faculty action through March 18, 
1996. 

The University reserves the right to change programs of study, academic requirements, 
assignment of lecturers, or the announced calendar. 

Odd-numbered courses are normally taught in the fall, even-numbered in the 
spring. Exceptions are noted after course descriptions. Number of credits is 
shown by numerals immediately after the course title — for example, (3) or (3,3). The 
symbols P — and C — followed by course numbers or titles are used to show 
prerequisites and corequisites for a course. 

Courses 101-199 are primarily for first-year students and sophomores; courses 
200-299 are primarily for juniors and seniors; courses 301-399 are for advanced 
undergraduates and graduate students. (Other graduate courses are described in the 
bulletin of the Graduate School; a complete listing of summer courses is in the bulletin 
of the Summer Session.) 



American Ethnic Studies* 

(Interdisciplinary Minor) 
Earl Smith (Sociology), Director 

The interdisciplinary minor in American Ethnic Studies requires twenty-four 
credits. The student must take American Ethnic Studies 151, Introduction to 
American Ethnic Studies, during the second or third year at Wake Forest, and 
American Ethnic Studies 300, Research in American Ethnic Studies. At least one 
additional four-credit course must be taken from the behavioral and social 
sciences, and one from the humanities. This structure gives students an under- 
standing of the interdisciplinary nature of American Ethnic Studies within the 
context of the traditional liberal arts curriculum. 

•151. Introduction to American Ethnic Studies. (4) A systematic survey of 
American ethnicity. An interdisciplinary approach to the examination of 
multiethnic America. 

•300. Research in American Ethnic Studies. (4) Survey of multidisciplinary 
methodologies used to study American ethnicity. Supervised research projects 
required. 

*Course content pending approval 

Other courses may be chosen from a list on file in the Office of the Dean of the 
College. 



*This minor was not available during the 1995-96 academic year. It will be offered in the 1996-97 year 



65 



Anthropology 



David S. Weaver, Chair 

Professors David K. Evans, Jay R. Kaplan, Stanton K. Tefft, 

David S. Weaver, J. Ned Woodall 

Director/Curator, Museum of Anthropology/Associate Professor Mary Jane Berman 

Adjunct Associate Professor Sara A. Quandt 

Adjunct Assistant Professors Dorothy J. Cattle, Steven Folmar 

Visiting Assistant Professor Nancy L. Nelson 

A major in anthropology requires a minimum of thirty-six credits and must include 
Anthropology 151, 152, 390, and either 370 or 374. 

Students are encouraged but not required to enroll in a course offering intensive field 
research training. However, only four credits from Anthropology 381, 382 and four 
credits from Anthropology 383, 384 may be used to meet major requirements. Additional 
courses are counted within the limits specified for a single field of study. 

A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in anthropology courses is required at the time 
the major is declared. A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in all anthropology courses 
is required for graduation. 

A minor in anthropology requires twenty-four credits and must include Anthropology 
151 and 152. Only one course (excluding Anthropology 151 or 152) can be taken under the 
pass /fail grading option and used to meet minor requirements. Minors may receive only 
four credits toward the minor for Anthropology 398, 399. Only four credits from 
Anthropology 381, 382, 383, and 384 may be used to meet minor requirements and 
departmental permission must be obtained for minor credit in these courses. 

To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Anthropology," highly qualified 
majors should apply to the department for admission to the honors program. They must 
complete a senior research project, document their research, and satisfactorily defend 
their work in an oral examination. For additional information, members of the depart- 
mental faculty should be consulted. 

151. General Anthropology I: Archeology and Human Evolution. (4) Origin and 
evolution of man with a focus on human biological and sociocultural change during the 
Plio-Pleistocene. 

152. General Anthropology II: Cultural Anthropology. (4) A cross-cultural analysis of 
human institutions with a survey of major theories explaining cultural variety and human 
nature. 

300. Museum Practicum. (4) Designed to give the student practical experience while 
working at the Museum of Anthropology in six basic areas of museum operation: 
administration, research, curatorial duties, conservation, exhibition design, and educa- 
tion. P — Permission of instructor. 

310. Museum Design and Operation. (4) The principles of museum design and operation 
through lectures, readings, workshops with visiting experts in the field, and field trips to 
neighboring museums (possibly to Washington, DC). Students have an opportunity to 



66 



put some of the principles in practice by planning and designing exhibits in the Museum 
of Anthropology. P — Permission of instructor. 

315. Material Culture Studies. (4) Explores the social and cultural roles of objects through 
the study of materials, technology, economy, context, and meaning. P — Anthropology 
151 or 152 or permission of instructor. 

320. The Anthropology of Art. (4) The arts (primarily visual) in folk and tribal cultures 
from comparative, structural, and functional points of view. P — Permission of instructor. 

330. The Ethnographic Documentary. (4) Through the use of ethnographic documentary 
films and videos from different historical periods and by filmmakers from different 
cultural backgrounds, this course will present a historical and cross-cultural perspective 
on cultural systems. The course will analyze the technological and aesthetic aspects of film 
and video production and assess the effectiveness of visual communication in conveying 
ideas about culture and society. P — Anthropology 151 or Anthropology 152 or permis- 
sion of instructor. 

335. Mountain Folklore in North Carolina. (4) The role folklore plays in all human 
cultures in general and in the culture of the mountain people of Western North Carolina 
in particular. Field trips to mountain counties conducted. P — Permission of instructor. 

340. Anthropological Theory. (4) A study and evaluation of the major anthropological 
theories of humans and society, including cultural evolutionism, historical particularism, 
functionalism, structuralism, cultural ecology, and cultural materialism. The relevance 
and significance of these theories to modern anthropology are discussed. P — Anthropol- 
ogy 151 and 152, junior standing, and permission of instructor. 

342. Applied Anthropology. (4) Seminar exploring the ways anthropological concepts 
and data contribute to understanding and solving contemporary problems facing human 
populations everywhere. Emphasis will be on change and conflict situations in develop- 
ing areas, but problems encountered by urban and industrialized cultures also are 
considered. P — Anthropology 152. 

349. Introduction to Political Anthropology. (4) Comprehensive overview of political 
anthropology, including cross-cultural perspectives on law, political organization, 
the early state, political succession, and power. P — Anthropology 152 or permission 
of instructor. 

352. Peoples and Cultures of Africa. (4) The ethnology and prehistory of Africa south of 
the Sahara. P — Anthropology 151 or Anthropology 152. 

358. The American Indian. (4) Ethnology and prehistory of the American Indian. P — 
Anthropology 151 or Anthropology 152. 

360. Human Ecology. (4) The relations between the human being and the inorganic and 
organic environments as mediated by culture; laboratory experience with aerial photog- 
raphy and other remote sensing techniques. P — Anthropology 151 or Anthropology 152 
or permission of instructor. 



h7 



362. Medical Anthropology. (4) The impact of Western medical practices and theory on 
non-Western cultures and anthropological contributions to the solving of world health 
problems. P — Anthropology 151 or permission of instructor. 

364. Physical Anthropology. (4) Introduction to biological anthropology, human biology, 
evolution, and variability. P — Anthropology 151. 

366. Human and Non-Human Evolution. (4) Investigation of primate and human 
evolution, both in anatomy and in behavior. P — Anthropology 151 and permission of 
instructor. 

368. Human Osteology. (4) A survey of human skeletal anatomy and analysis, emphasiz- 
ing archeological and anthropological applications. P — Anthropology 151 and permis- 
sion of instructor. 

370. Old World Prehistory. (4) Survey of Old World prehistory, with particular attention 
to geological and climatological events affecting culture change. P — Anthropology 151 or 
permission of instructor. 

372. Archeology of Early Complex Societies. (4) Comparison of the archeology of early 
complex societies, with special attention to the Maya, Aztec, and Teotihuacan cultures in 
Mesoamerica; the Huari and Inca in South America; the Anasazi of North America; and 
Egyptian and Mesopotamian groups of the Old World. An emphasis will be given to 
theories of origins and change in complex societies. P — Anthropology 151 or permission 
of instructor. 

374. Prehistory of North America. (4) The development of culture in North America as 
outlined by archeological research, with an emphasis on paleoecology and sociocultural 
processes. P — Anthropology 151 or permission of instructor. 

376. Archeology of the Southeastern United States. (4) A study of human adaptation in 
the Southeast from Pleistocene to the present, emphasizing the role of ecological factors 
in determining the formal aspects of culture. P — Anthropology 151. 

378. Conservation Archeology. (4) A study of the laws, regulations, policies, programs, 
and political processes used to conserve prehistoric and historic cultural resources. P — 
Anthropology 151 or permission of instructor. 

380. Anthropological Statistics. (4) Basic statistics, emphasizing application in anthropo- 
logical research. (A student who receives credit for this course may not also receive credit 
for Biology 380, Business 201, or Mathematics 109.) 

381, 382. Archeological Research. (4,4) The recovery of anthropological data through the 
use of archeology, taught in the excavation and interpretation of a prehistoric site. P — 
Anthropology 151. 

383, 384. Field Research in Cultural Anthropology. (4,4) Training in techniques for the 
study of foreign cultures, carried out in the field. P — Anthropology 151 or Anthropology 
152. 



b,s 



385, 386. Special Problems Seminar. (4) Intensive investigation of current scientific 
research within the discipline. The course concentrates on problems of contemporary 
interest. P — Permission of instructor. 

390. Student-Faculty Seminar. (4) A review of contemporary problems in the fields of 
archeology and physical and cultural anthropology. P — Junior standing or permission of 
instructor. 

398, 399. Individual Study. (1,2,3, or 4) A reading, research, or internship course designed 
to meet the needs and interests of selected students, to be carried out under the 
supervision of a departmental faculty member. 



Art 

Robert Knott, Chair 

Reynolds Professor Terisio Pignatti (Venice) 

Professors Robert Knott, Margaret S. Smith 

Associate Professors David L. Faber, Page H. Laughlin, Harry B. Titus Jr. 

Assistant Professor Bernadine Barnes 

Visiting Assistant Professor David Finn 

Visiting Instructor Alix Hitchcock 

Lecturer Brian Allen (London) 

Assistant Lecturers Maria A. Chiari (Venice), Katie Scott (London) 

Gallery Director Victor Faccinto 

The department offers courses in the history of art and in the practice of drawing, 
painting, printmaking, and sculpture. A visiting artist program and varied exhibi- 
tions in the gallery of the Scales Fine Arts Center as well as internships in local cultural 
organizations supplement the regular academic program of the department. 

The department offers two fields of study, art history and studio art. A major in art 
history requires forty credits in the department. Thirty- two credits are to be in art history, 
and eight credits are to be in studio art. A major in studio art requires forty credits in the 
department. Thirty-two credits are to be in studio art, and eight credits are to be in art 
history. 

A minor in art history requires twenty credits in the department, sixteen in art history 
and four in studio art. A minor in studio art requires twenty credits in the department, 
sixteen in studio art and four in art history. Students may major in one field and minor in 
the other within a limit of fifty-six credits. 

Any student interested in majoring or minoring in art should consult the chair of the art 
department. 

Qualified students in both the art history and studio areas may ask to participate in the 
department's honors program. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Art," 
students must execute a written project or create a body of work; the results of their efforts 
must be presented and defended before a committee of the departmental faculty. 
Interested students should consult any member of the department for additional informa- 
tion concerning the requirements for this program. 



69 



Art History 

103. Introduction to the Visual Arts. (4) A historical introduction to the arts of various 
cultures and times with discussions of technique, style, methodology, and terms. Satisfies 
the Division V requirement. 

231. American Art. (4) A survey of American painting and sculpture from the Colonial 
period through the Armory Show held in 1913 in New York. 

233. American Architecture. (4) A survey of American architecture from 1650 to the 
present. 

235. Art and Architecture of the South. (4) A survey of architecture, painting, and 
sculpture in the South from 1600 to the present. 

241. Ancient Art. (4) A survey of architecture, painting, and sculpture from the prehistoric 
through the late Roman periods. 

244. Greek Art. (4) A survey of architecture, painting, and sculpture from the prehistoric 
through the Hellenistic periods. 

245. Roman Art. (4) A survey of Etruscan and Roman architecture, painting, and 
sculpture. 

251. Women and Art. (4) A historical examination of the changing image of women in art 
and the role of women artists. 

252. Romanesque Art. (4) Art and architecture from the Carolingian Renaissance through 
the twelfth century. 

253. The Gothic Cathedral. (4) The character and evolution of Gothic cathedrals and the 
sculpture, stained glass, metalworks, and paintings designed for them. 

254. Luxury Arts in the Middle Ages. (4) Medieval illuminated manuscripts and precious 
objects made of gold, silver, ivory, enamel, and other luxury materials are the subjects of 
this course. 

258. The History of Prints. (4) A survey of the technical and stylistic developments in 
printmaking from the fifteenth century to the present. Special attention will be given to 
the function of prints in society. Student research will focus on prints in the University 
Print Collection. 

268. Italian Renaissance Art. (4) The development of the art and architecture in Italy, 
from around 1300 to the late 16th century. 

270. Northern Renaissance Art. (4) A survey of painting, sculpture, and printmaking in 
Northern Europe from the mid-fourteenth century through the sixteenth century. 

271. Studies in French Art. (2) Lectures and field trips in French painting, sculpture, and 
architecture, concentrating on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Offered in Dijon. 



70 



272. Baroque Art. (4) A survey of European painting and sculpture from 1600 to 1700. 

275. History of Landscape Architecture. (4) Study of garden design, beginning with 
Roman gardens and continuing through the creation of public parks in the nineteenth 
century. 

281. Nineteenth Century Art. (4) A survey of European and American art from the 
French Revolution to 1900, emphasizing the major movements from Romanticism to 
Impressionism and Post-Impressionism. 

282. Twentieth Century Art. (4) A survey of European and American painting and 
sculpture from 1900 to the present. 

283. Impressionism. (4) A study of Impressionism and Post-Impressionism with an 
emphasis on stylistic innovations and the social and cultural context in which they 
were produced. 

284. Contemporary American Art. (4) An intensive study of American painting and 
sculpture from 1950 to the present. 

288. Modem Architecture. (4) A survey of European and American architecture from 
1900 to the present. 

291. Individual Study. (4) A course of independent study with faculty guidance. 

292. Individual Study. (4) A course of independent study with faculty guidance. 

293. Practicum. (4) Internships in local cultural organizations, to be arranged by the art 
department. Pass/fail. 

296. Art History Seminar. (2,4) Offered by members of the faculty or visiting faculty on 
topics of their choice. A paper is required. P — Permission of instructor. 

a. Ancient Art f. Contemporary Art 

b. Medieval Art g. American Art 

c. Renaissance Art li. Modern Architecture 

d. Baroque Art i. American Architecture 

e. Modern Art j. Special Topics 

299. International Studies in Art. (4) Offered by art department faculty in locations 
outside of the United States, on specific topics in art history or studio art. Offered in the 
summer. 

2320. English Art, Hogarth to the Present. (4) A survey of English painting, sculpture, and 
architecture in the Georgian, Victorian, and modern periods. Slide lectures, student 
reports, museum visits, and lectures. Taught by special lecturer. Offered in London. 

2693. Venetian Renaissance Art. (4) A survey of the art of the Venetian Renaissance, with 
slide lectures and museum visits. Offered in Venice. 

Anthropology 320. The Anthropology of Art. (4) The arts (primarily visual) in folk and 
tribal cultures from comparative, structural, and functional points of view. P — Permis- 
sion of instructor. 



71 



Studio Art* 

111. Introduction to Studio Art Fundamentals. (4) Students will be introduced to basic 
elements of two-dimensional and three-dimensional fine art through hands-on 
experimentation and critical thinking. Six class hours per week. Satisfies the Division 
V requirement. 

112. Introduction to Painting. (4) An introduction to painting fundamentals in a variety 
of contemporary styles in the oil or acrylic medium. P- — Art 111. 

115. Introduction to Sculpture. (4) An introduction to basic sculptural styles and multi- 
media, with emphasis on contemporary concepts. P — Art 111. 

117. Introduction to Printmaking. (4) An introduction to one or more of the following 
areas of printmaking: lithography, intaglio, and silkscreen. P — Art 111. 

119. Introduction to Photography. (4) An introduction to photography as an expres- 
sive medium, including basic camera and darkroom techniques. Preference to art 
majors. Not open to students who have had Sociology 205. P — Art 111. 

*Prerequisites may be waived with permission of instructor. 




72 



211. Intermediate Drawing. (4) Continuation of Art 111, with concentrated emphasis on 
drawing fundamentals and idea development in realistic and abstract styles, emphasiz- 
ing composition, value, line, and form. Six class hours per week. P — Art 111. 

212. Intermediate Painting. (4) Continuation of Art 112, with concentrated emphasis on 
idea development. P — Art 112. May be repeated. 

215. Intermediate Sculpture. (4) Continuation of Art 115, with emphasis on idea devel- 
opment. P — Art 115. May be repeated. 

217. Intermediate Printmaking. (4) Continuation of Art 117, with emphasis on idea 
development. P — Art 117. May be repeated. 

218. Figure Drawing. (4) An introduction to figure drawing. P — Art 111. 

221. Advanced Drawing. (4) A course of individual study with faculty guidance. May be 
repeated. P— Art 211. 

222. Advanced Painting. (4) A course of individual study with faculty guidance. May be 
repeated. P — Art 212. 

225. Advanced Sculpture. (4) A course of individual study with faculty guidance. May be 
repeated. P— Art 215. 

227. Advanced Printmaking. (4) A course of individual study with faculty guidance. May 
be repeated. P — Art 217. 

290. Printmaking Workskhop. (4) A workshop course exploring relief, intaglio, 
lithography, and monotype techniques, open to students at any skill level. Offered in the 
summer. 

295. Studio Seminar. (2,4) Offered by members of the faculty or visiting faculty on topics 
of their choice arid related studio activities. P — Permission of instructor. 



Asian Studies 

(Interdisciplinary Minor) 
Win-chiat Lee (Philosophy), Coordinator 

The minor in Asian Studies consists of a total of twenty-four credits which students 
must select from an approved list of courses on file with the coordinator and listed 
below. Candidates for the minor are required to take these courses from at least three 
different departments. While some study of an Asian language is strongly recommended, 
it is not required. Although students may repeat Asian Studies 381, Independent Research 
in Asian Studies (2-4) for credit, only four of these credits can apply toward completion of 
the Asian Studies minor. 

Appropriate credit in various fields of Asian Studies also may be obtained bv study in 
China through the SASASAAS/Wake Forest Program or in Japan through the Wake 



73 



Forest /Tokai University Program, or through other Wake Forest approved courses of 
study in Asia. Students intending to minor in Asian Studies should consult the coordina- 
tor, preferably in their sophomore year. Courses may be chosen from among the following 
list. (See course descriptions under appropriate listings.) 

381. Independent Research in Asian Studies. (2-4) Supervised independent research 
project on a topic related to Asia. Requires the approval of both the instructor and the 
coordinator of Asian Studies. May be repeated for credit. 

Chinese Lang. Ill, 112. Elementary Chinese. (5,5) 
& Liter. 151, 152. Intermediate Chinese (5,5) 

199. Individual Study. (1-4) 

211. Wen-xue: Introduction to Literature Written in Chinese. (4) 
Communication 351. Comparative Communication. (2,4) 

(a) Japan 
History 341. History of Women in Modern Asia. (4) 

343. Imperial China. (4) 

344. Modern China. (4) 

347. Japan since World War II. (4) 

348. Japan since 1600. (4) 
Humanities 219. Introduction to Japanese Literature. (4) 

221. Introduction to Chinese Literature. (4) 

347. Women Writers in Japanese Culture. (4) 

348. Chinese Revolutionary Literature to 1948. (2) 

349. Chinese Liberation Literature since 1948. (2) 

350. Modern Chinese Literature. (4) 
Japanese Lang. Ill, 112. Elementanj Japanese. (5,5) 
& Liter. 151, 152. Intermediate Japanese (5,5) 

199. Individual Study. (1-4) 

211. Bungaku: Introduction to Literature Written in Modern 
Japanese. (4) 
Philosophy 253. The Main Streams of Chinese Philosophy and Religion. (4) 

(Also listed as Religion 380.) 
Politics 246. Politics and Policies in South Asia. (4) 

247. Islam and Politics. (4) 

248. Government and Politics of China. (4) 

249. Government and Politics of Japan. (4) 

259. The Arab-Israeli Conflict. (4) 

260. East Asian International Relations. (4) 
Religion 161. World Religions. (4) 

(a) Buddhism 

(b) Primal Religion (Taoism and Native American) 

(c) Hinduism 

(d) Islam 

380. The Main Streams of Chinese Philosophy and Religion. (4) 
(Also listed as Philosophy 253.) 



74 



Biology 



William E. Conner, Chair 

Babcock Professor of Botany Mordecai ). Jaffe 

Wake Forest Professors Gerald W. Esch, Raymond E. Kuhn 

Professors Carole L. Browne, Robert A. Browne, William E. Conner, Ronald V. 

Dimock Jr., Herman E. Eure, Hugo C. Lane, Peter D. Weigl 

Associate Professors James F. Curran, Wayne L. Silver 

Assistant Professors David J. Anderson, Kathleen A. Kron, Gloria K. Muday, 

Rosanne J. Spolski, Brian W. Tague 

Adjunct Professors J. Whitfield Gibbons, Terry C. Hazen, Stephen H, Richardson 

Adjunct Associate Professor Margaret Mulvey 

Visiting Assistant Professors Eric K. Findeis, David W. Hall, Steven K. Rice, 

Kathrin F. Stanger, Eric J. Wetzel 

At the end of the sophomore year a student electing to major in biology meets with a major 
adviser to plan the course of study for the junior arid senior years. The requirements for 
completion of the major are those in effect at the time of the conference, since the 
curriculum and departmental requirements may change slightly during the student's 
period of residence. All majors are required to take Biology 112, 113, and 214, and at least 
three 300-level 5-credit biology courses. Co-major requirements are Chemistry 111 and 
116 and two additional courses, in the physical sciences. 

For students declaring majors in the spring, the requirements for a major are a 
minimum of forty-one credits in biology. A minimum grade average of C on all courses 
attempted in biology at Wake Forest University is required for graduation with a major 
in biology. (Students declaring a major later than the spring should consult with a biology 
major adviser for the specific major requirement at that time.) 

A minor in biology requires twenty credits. Courses taken pass/fail cannot count 
toward a minor. A rrtinimum overall grade average of C must be earned on all Wake 
Forest University biology courses taken to complete a minor. 

Prospective majors are strongly urged to select either Biology 112 or 113 as their first 
course in biology. Most prospective majors also should take Chemistry 111 and 116 in 
their first year; the majority continue with two additional physical sciences as sopho- 
mores. 

Advanced work in many areas of biology may require additional courses in mathemat- 
ics, the physical sciences, and other areas of biology . The adviser calls these to the attention 
of the student, depending on individual needs. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in biology. To be graduated with the distinction "Honors in Biology/' a 
graduating student must have a minimum GPA of 3.0 in all courses and a 3.3 in his/her 
biology courses. In addition, the student must submit an honors paper (written in the 
form of a scientific paper) describing the research which must be defended before his/her 
advisory committee. Specific details regarding the honors program, including selecting 
an adviser and an advisory committee, deadlines, and writing of the honors thesis, may 
be obtained from the chair of the departmental undergraduate studies committee. 



75 



Most 300-level courses have the 112, 113, 214 series as prerequisites. Any exceptions to 
the stated prerequisites must be approved by the chair of the department. Students 
enrolled at Wake Forest may not take courses in biology at other institutions to satisfy 
divisional requirements. 

111. Biological Principles. (5) A study of the general principles of living systems with 
focus on the cellular, organismal, and populational levels of biological organization, 
emphasizing the role of heredity and evolution in these systems. Course may count for 
major credit in biology, but is intended for students with little or no previous experience 
in biology. Lab — three hours. 

112. Comparative Physiology. (5) An introduction to the form and function of organisms, 
with emphasis on physical principles, structural organization, and critical function of 
plants and animals. Intended as a beginning course in biology for prospective majors and 
for any students with adequate high school preparation in biology. Lab — three hours. No 
prerequisites. 

113. Evolutionary and Ecological Biology. (5) An introduction to the principles of 
genetics, ecology, and evolution as they apply to organisms, populations and communi- 
ties, with emphasis on evolutionary processes within an ecological context. Intended as 
a beginning course in biology for prospective majors and for any students with adequate 
high school preparation in biology. Lab — three hours. No prerequisites. 

214. Cellular and Molecular Biology. (5) An introduction to the principles and processes 
of cellular and molecular biology including molecular organization of cellular structures, 
regulation of cellular functions, energetics and metabolism, molecular nature of the 
genome and the regulation of gene expression. Lab- — three hours. P — Chemistry 111, 
116. 

301-306. Topics in Biology. (1-5) Seminar and/or lecture courses in selected topics, some 
involving laboratory instruction. May be repeated if the course title differs. 

312. Genetics. (5) A study of the use of genetic analytical methods to establish the 
principles of inheritance and the mechanisms of gene function. Covered special topics 
include mechanisms of genetic change, the genetics of development, and population 
genetics. The lab stresses analytical methods through problem solving and by demonstra- 
tions of modern genetic techniques. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

314. Evolution. (4) Analysis of the theories, evidences, and mechanisms of evolution. P — 
Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

315. Biology of Stress. (4) A lecture course involving a study of the ways in which plants 
and animals react to and cope with abiotic stresses. Foci include mechanisms at the 
ecological, organismic, cellular and molecular levels. A term paper is required, reviewing 
the literature in some area covered by the course. Credit not allowed for both Biology 315 
and 316. P— Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

316. Biology of Stress. (5) A lecture and laboratory course involving a study of the ways 
in which plants and animals react to and cope with abiotic and biotic stresses. Foci include 



76 



mechanisms at the ecological, organismic, cellular and molecular levels. A laboratory 
project implementing the scientific method and designed to produce new knowledge is 
required. Credit not allowed for both Biology 315 and 316. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

317. Life of the Green Plant. (5) The growth and development of plants are followed 
throughout the life cycle. Emphasis will be placed on structure-function relationships 
from the molecular level to the level of gross morphology. The laboratory will start 
with instruction in experimental methods and lead to a research project. Lab — three 
hours. P— Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

318. Gender and Science. (3) Lectures and seminars examining the historical arid 
contemporary interactions of women and science. Topics include contributions of women 
scientists, a feminist analysis of scientific methodology, and gender issues in science. This 
course may not be taken for major or minor credit in biology, but may be taken towards 
the minor in Women's Studies. 

319. Paleobiology. (5) Analysis of the fossil record, with emphasis on biological and 
evolutionary principles. Topics include fossilization, paleoecology, morphological analy- 
sis, biogeography, macroevolution, diversification, and extinction, systematics, and the 
role of chance in evolution. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

320. Comparative Anatomy. (5) A study of the vertebrate body from an evolutionary, 
functional, and developmental perspective. Laboratories emphasize structure and 
function, primarily through the dissection of representative vertebrates. Lab — three 
hours. P— Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

321. Parasitology. (5) A survey of protozoan, helminth, and arthropod parasites from the 
standpoint of morphology, taxonomy, life histories, and host/parasite relationships. 
Lab— three hours. P— Biology 112, 113, 214. 

322. Biomechanics. (5) An analysis of the relationship between organismal form and 
function using principles from physics and engineering. Solid and fluid mechanics 
are employed to study design in living systems, especially vertebrates. Lab — three 
hours. P— Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

323. Animal Behavior. (4) A survey of laboratory and field research on animal behavior. 
(May count as biology or psychology but not both; choice to be made at registration.) P — 
Permission of instructor. 

326. Microbiology. (5) The structure, function, and taxonomy of microorganisms with 
emphasis on bacteria. Covered special topics include microbial ecology, industrial 
microbiology, and medical microbiology. The lab emphasizes microbial diversity through 
characterizations of isolates from nature. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

328. Vascular Plants. (5) A comparative survey of the vascular plants, with emphasis on 
structure, reproduction, classification, and phylogeny. Lab— four hours. P — Biology 112, 
113, and 214. 



77 



331. Invertebrates. (5) Systematic study of invertebrates, with emphasis on functional 
morphology, behavior, ecology, and phylogeny. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 1 12, 113, 
and 214. 

333. Vertebrates. (5) Systematic study of vertebrates, with emphasis on evolution, 
physiology, behavior, and ecology. Laboratory devoted to systematic, field, and experi- 
mental studies. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

335. Insect Biology. (5) A study of the diversity, structure, development, physiology, 
behavior, and ecology of insects. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

336. Bioacoustics. (5) A lecture and laboratory course analyzing mechanisms of sound 
production, transmission, and reception and their relevance to animal orientation and 
communication. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

338. Plant Systematics. (5) A study of the diversity and evolution of flowering plants. 
Lectures emphasize the comparative study of selected plant families, their relationships 
and the use of new information and techniques to enhance our understanding of plant 
evolution. Labs emphasize more practical aspects of plant systematics such as the use of 
identification keys, recognition of common local plants, molecular techniques, and basic 
phylogenetic analysis. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

339. Principles of Biosystematics. (5) An exploration of the current theoretical and 
practical approaches to the study of macroevolution in plants and animals. Topics include 
theory and methods of constructing evolutionary trees, sources of data and cladistic 
biogeography. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

340. Ecology. (5) Interrelationships among living systems and their environments; 
structure and dynamics of major ecosystem types; contemporary problems in ecology. 
Lab— three hours. P— Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

341. Marine Biology. (5) An introduction to the physical, chemical, and biological 
parameters affecting the distribution of marine organisms. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 
112, 113, and 214. 

342. Aquatic Ecology. (5) A course designed to cover the general principles and concepts 
of limnology and aquatic biology as they apply to lentic and lotic habitats. A major portion 
of the field study is centered at the Charles M. Allen Biological Station. Lab — three hours. 
P— Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

344. Ecological and Evolutionary Genetics. (4) Principles of genetics in the context of 
ecological and evolutionary studies, including micro- and macro-evolutionary processes. 
P— Biology 112, 113, and 214. Permission of instructor. 

345. Neurobiology. (4) Introduction to the structure and function of the nervous system 
including the neural basis of behavior. Anatomical, physiological, and neurochemical 
approaches will be integrated in the study of the peripheral and central nervous systems. 
P— Biology 112, 113, and 214. 



78 



346. Neurobiology. (5) Introduction to the structure and function of the nervous system 
including the neural basis of behavior. Anatomical, physiological, and neurochemical 
approaches will be integrated in the study of the peripheral and central nervous systems. 
The laboratory will emphasize electrophysiological techniques with experiments from 
the cellular to the behavioral level. Lab — three hours. P — Permission of instructor. 

350. Biological Resources and the Environment. (4) Lectures, readings, and discussions 
examining biological resources, their limitations and methods for sustainability . Genetic, 
aquatic, terrestrial, and ecosystem resources will be examined. P — Biology 112, 113, and 
214, or permission of instructor. 

351. Vertebrate Physiology. (5) A lecture and laboratory course examining regulatory 
principles, integration in the nervous system and the physiology of the cardiovascular, 
respiratory, and renal systems of vertebrates. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

352. Plant Physiology. (5) A study of the mechanisms by which various plant systems 
function, thematically structured around the plant life cycle. Lab — three hours. P — 
Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

354. Vertebrate Endocrinology. (4) A lecture course which considers the evolution of the 
endocrine glands and hormones and the physiology of the main hormonal pathways of 
vertebrates. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

355. Avian Biology. (5) A lecture and laboratory course emphasizing ecological and 
evolutionary influences on the physiology, behavior, and population biology of birds. 
Includes taxonomy of the world's major bird groups. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112, 
113, and 214. 

360. Development. (5) A description of the major events and processes of animal 
development, with an analysis of the causal factors underlying them. Special attention is 
given to the embryonic development of vertebrates, but consideration is also given to 
other types of development and other organisms. Topics include fertilization, early 
development, growth and cell division, cell differentiation, the role of genes in develop- 
ment, cell interaction, morphogenesis, regeneration, birth defects, and cancer. Lab — three 
hours. P— Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

362. Immunology. (4) A study of the components and protective mechanisms of the 
immune system. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

363. Sensory Biology. (4) A lecture course involving a study of the nature of energy in the 
environment and how it is absorbed and transduced in sensory systems. Anatomical, 
physiological, biochemical and biophysical approaches will be integrated in the study of 
sensory mechanisms in plants and animals. A term paper is required reviewing the 
literature in some area covered by the course. Credit not allowed for both Biology 363 and 

364. P— Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

364. Sensory Biology. (5) A lecture and laboratory course involving a study of energy in 
the environment and how it is absorbed and transduced in sensory systems. Anatomical, 
physiological, biochemical and biophysical approaches will be integrated in the study of 



79 



sensory mechanisms in plants and animals. A laboratory project implementing the 
scientific method and designed to produce new knowledge is required. Credit not 
allowed for both Biology 363 and 364. P— Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

365. Cell Motility. (5) A lecture and laboratory course exploring the movements in and 
of cells (for example: mitosis, cytoplasmic streaming, muscle contraction, nerve trans- 
port). Light and electron microscopic methods as well as biochemical and biophysical 
approaches to the study of cell motility will be discussed. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 
112, 113, and 214. 

366. Human and Non-Human Evolution. (4) Investigation of primate and human 
evolution, both in anatomy and in behavior. (May count as either biology or anthropology 
but not both; choice to be made at registration.) P — Permission of instructor. 

370. Biochemistry I. Enzymes and Metabolism. (4) A lecture course introducing the 
principles of biochemistry, with an emphasis on the experimental approaches that 
elucidated these principles. Major topics will include structure, function, and biosynthe- 
sis of biological molecules, analysis of enzyme function and activity, and regulation of 
metabolic pathways. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

371. Biochemistry I. Enzymes and Metabolism Laboratory. (1) The laboratory will 
emphasize approaches to isolation and analysis of both proteins and nucleic acids. Lab — 
three hours. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214. P — or C — Biology 370. This course, paired 
with Biology 370, may be used as one of the three 300-level 5-credit courses required for 
the major. 

372. Biochemistry II. Molecular Biology. (5) An analysis of the molecular mechanisms 
by which stored genetic information directs cellular development. Emphasis will be 
placed on storage and transmission of genetic information, regulation of gene expression, 
and the role of these processes in development. The laboratory will focus on modern 
techniques of recombinant DNA analysis. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112, 113, and 
214. 

373. Techniques in Electron Microscopy. (5) An introduction to the election microscope 
as an experimental tool in biology. Includes instruction in common techniques used in the 
field and lecture on recognition and interpretation of cellular ultiastructure. Lab — three 
hours. P— Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

375. Optical Methods in Biological Sciences. (5) Methods in light and election micros- 
copy including specimen preparation, image generation and recording. Students will 
learn the basic techniques of photography (developing and printing), fixation and 
sectioning of specimens, and video-enhanced, computer-generated imaging as well as 
image and motion analysis. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

376. Ichthyology. (5) A comparative study of structure /function, classification, and 
phylogeny of fish. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

379. Molecular Techniques in Evolution and Systematics. (5) A lecture and labora- 
tory course that explores molecular methods that are basic to many disciplines within 



80 



biology, especially ecology, evolution, and systematics. Laboratories focus on the 
acquisition of molecular techniques, including allozyme electrophoresis, mitochon- 
drial plastid, and nuclear DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses, 
gene amplification, PCR (polymerase chain reaction), direct and/or cycle sequencing, 
and RAPDs (randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs). Lab — three hours. P — 
Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

380. Biostatistics. (4) An introduction to statistical methods used by biologists, including 
descriptive statistics, hypothesis-testing, analysis of variance, and regression and corre- 
lation. May count as biology or anthropology but not both; choice to be made at 
registration. (A student who receives credit for this course may not also receive credit for 
Anthropology 380, Business 201, or Mathematics 109.) 

381. Biostatistics Laboratory. (1) Application of computer-based statistical software. P — 
Biology 112, 113, and 214. P — or C — Biology 380. This course, paired with Biology 380, 
may not be used to satisfy one of the three 300-level 5-credit courses required for the major. 

382. Behavioral Ecology. (5) A lecture and laboratory course analyzing behavioral 
solutions to challenges faced by animals in nature, emphasizing the role of natural 
selection in shaping behavior. Topics include mating systems, optimal foraging, sociobi- 
ology, parental care, and evolution of sexual reproduction. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214 
or permission of instructor. 

385. Cellular Physiology. (5) In-depth examination of current topics in cell biology such 
as cellular signalling, the extracellular matrix, biogenesis of mitochondria and chloro- 
plasts, control of cell division, protein sorting in the Golgi, protein translocation across 
membranes, and molecular motors. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

391, 392. Research in Biology. (2,2) Independent library and laboratory investigation 
carried out under the supervision of a member of the staff. Pass/fail or for grade at 
discretion of the instructor.* P — Permission of instructor. 

393, 394. Research in Biology. (2,2) Courses designed for students who wish to continue 
research projects beyond Biology 391 and 392. Pass /fail optional. Not to be counted 
toward major.* P — Permission of instructor. 

395S. Marine Models in Biological Research. (6) An eight-week course that is taught 
at the Marine Biology Laboratory in Woods Hole, Mass. Students attend lectures and 
seminars in areas of cell and developmental biology and marine ecology. Each 
student will be guided in a research project selected from the area of expertise of 
participating faculty and which takes advantage of the special facilities of the MBL, 
such as confocal microscopy and intracellular Ca++ imaging. P — Biology 112, 113, 
and 214. Special term: June 17- August 9, 1996, Woods Hole, Massachusetts. (Offered 
summers only.) 

396. Biomedical Ethics. (4) Lectures and seminars examining contemporary issues in 
biomedical ethics including the proper role of biomedical research, and current contro- 
versies in health care and medical practice. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

*TJie same numbered course cannot be repeated. Subsequent courses should be taken in consecutive order. 



si 



397. Seminar in Biology. (2-4) Consideration of major biological topics through intensive 
reading and discussions. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214. 



Chemistry 



Robert L. Swofford, Chair 

Wake Forest Professors Roger A. Hegstrom, Willie L. Hinze 

Professors Charles F. Jackels, Susan C. Jackels, Gordon A. Melson, 

Ronald E. Noftle, Robert L. Swofford, Mark E. Welker 

Associate Professors James C. Fishbein, Bradley T. Jones, Dilip K. Kondepudi 

Visiting Associate Professor Jane Joseph 

Assistant Professors S. Bruce King, Abdessadek Lachgar, Richard A. Manderville 

Visiting Assistant Professors Neal E. Busch, P. Michelle Fitzsimmons, 

Angela Glisan King 

The department offers programs leading to the BA and BS degrees in chemistry. The BS 
degree is certified by the American Chemical Society. 

The bachelor of arts degree in chemistry includes Chemistry 111, 11 1L, 116, 116L, 221, 
221L, 222, 222L, 341, 341L, 342 or 344, 342L, and 361, 361L; Mathematics 111, 112; and 
Physics 113, 114. 

The bachelor of science degree in chemistry includes Chemistry 111, 111L, 116, 116L, 
221, 221L,222,222L, 334, 334L,341,341L,344,342L, either 351 or 356/357,361, 361L,381, 
382, 383, 391 or 392; Mathematics 111 and 112 and either 113 or 301; and Physics 113, 114. 

Additional mathematics and science courses are strongly recommended for BS degree 
candidates. The number and selection of these courses depends on the professional goals 
of the individual student. Examples of these courses are Mathematics 302 and 304; Physics 
161 and 164; and Biology 370 and 371. 

A minor in chemistry requires twenty-three credits in chemistry and must include at 
least one of the following courses: 334, 341 and 341L, 342 or 344 and 342L, 351, 356/357, 
361 and 361 L. The department will not accept courses taken pass/fail to count toward the 
minor. 

Unless otherwise stated, all chemistry courses are open to chemistry majors on a letter- 
grade basis only. Majors are also required to complete on a letter-grade basis the required 
physics and mathematics courses. 

A minirnurn grade-point average of 2.0 in the first two years of chemistry is required 
of students who elect to major in the department. Admission to any class is contingent 
upon satisfactory grades in prerequisite courses, and registration for advanced courses 
must be approved by the department. Candidates for either the BA or BS degree with a 
major in chemistry must have a minim urn GP A of 2.0 in their chemistry courses numbered 
200 or above. 

Qualified majors are considered for honors in chemistry. To be graduated with the 
designation "Honors in Chemistry," a student must have a minimum GPA in chemistry 
courses of 3.3 and a minimum overall GPA of 3.0. In addition, the honors candidate must 
satisfactorily complete an approved research project, prepare a paper describing the 



<S2 



project, and present results at a seminar for departmental approval. For additional 
information, members of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

For the BA major, the following schedule of chemistry and related courses is typical: 



First Year 

Chem. 111,1 11L 
Chem. 116, 116L 
Math. 111,112 



Sophomore 

Chem. 221, 221 L 
Chem. 222, 222L 
Physics 113, 114 



Junior 

Chem. 341, 341 L 
Chem. 342, 342L 



Senior 

Chem. 361, 36 1L 



For the BS major, the following schedule of chemistry and related courses is typical: 



First Year 

Chem. Ill, 111L 
Chem. 116, 116L 
Math. Ill, 112 



Sophomore 

Chem. 221, 221L 
Chem. 222, 222L 
Physics 113, 114 



Junior 

Chem. 341, 341 L 
Chem. 344, 342L 
Chem. 383 
Chem. 391 or 392 
Math. 113 (or 301) 
Science courses 



Senior 

Chem. 334, 334L 
Chem. 361, 361L 
Chemistry 
300-Level 
Elective 



For variations in either of the schedules above, the student should consult a member of 
the faculty in chemistry. 

Students electing laboratory courses in chemistry are required to pay for breakage and 
for certain consumable materials as determined by the department. 

108. Everyday Chemistry. (5) Introduction to chemistry for non-science majors. 
Laboratory covers experimental aspects of topics discussed in lecture. Satisfies 
Division II requirement. A student may not receive credit for both Chemistry 108 and 
Chemistry 111. Lab — three hours. 

*111. College Chemistry. (4) Fundamental chemical principles. C — Chem. 111L. 

*111L. College Chemistry Lab. (1) Laboratory covers experimental aspects of basic 
concepts. Lab— three hours. C-Chem. 111. 

*116. Equilibrium and Analysis. (4) Fundamental principles of equilibrium as applied to 
inorganic and generalized acid-base systems. P — Chem. 111. C-Chem. 116L. 

*116L. Equilibrium and Analysis Lab. (1 ) Laboratory covers aspects of quantitative and 
inorganic qualitative analysis. Lab — three hours. P — Chem. 111. C — Chem. 116. 

*221. Organic Chemistry I. (4) Principles and reactions of organic chemistry. P — Chem. 
116.C— Chem. 221L. 

*221L. Organic Chemistry I Lab. (1) Lab— four hours. P— Chem. 116. C— Chem. 221. 

*222. Organic Chemistry II. (4) Principles and reactions of organic chemishy. P — Chem. 
221. C— Chem. 222L. 



*The lecture and corresponding lab are strict corequisites of each other. A student must register for both 
during the same semester. (However, either can be repeated independently if the student wishes.) 



83 



*222L. Organic Chemistry II Lab. (1 ) Lab— four hours. P— Chem. 221. C— Chem. 222. 

301, 302. Elective Research. (0,0) P — Permission of instructor. Summers only. 

*334. Chemical Analysis. (4) Theoretical and practical applications of modern methods 
of chemical analysis. C — Chem. 334L, 341, 341 L 

*334L. Chemical Analysis Lab. (1) Lab— four hours. C— Chem. 334, 341, 341 L 

*341. Physical Chemistry I. (4) Fundamentals of equilibrium thermodynamics and 
electrochemistry, phenomenological kinetics, and introductory computational methods. 
P— Chem. 116, Math. Ill, Physics 113-114. C— Chem. 341L, Math. 112, (Physics 113, 
with permission of instructor). 

*341L. Physical Chemistry I Lab. (1) Lab— four hours. P— Chem. 116, Math. lll,Physics 
113-114. C— Chem. 341, Math. 112. 

*342. Physical Chemistry IIA. (4) Fundamentals of quantum mechanics, statistical 
thermodynamics, and introductory computational methods. P — Chemistry 341, Math. 
111-112, Physics 113-114. C — Chem.342L, (Physics 114, with permission of instructor). 

*342L. Physical Chemistry IIA Lab. (1) Lab— four hours. P— Chem. 341, Math. 111-112, 
Physics 113-114. C— Chem. 342 or 344. 

344. Physical Chemistry IIB. (4) Fundamentals of quantum mechanics, statistical thermo- 
dynamics, and introductory computational methods. Lab — four hours. P — Chemistry 
341, Math lll-112and 301 (or 113), Physics 113-114. C— Chem. 342L, (Physics 114, with 
permission of instructor). 

351. Special Topics in Biochemistry. (4) Fundamentals of biochemistry, with particular 
emphasis on mechanistic analysis of metabolic pathways, enzymatic activity, and drug 
action. P — Chemistry 222. 

356, 357. Chemical Spectroscopy. (2,2) Fundamental aspects of the theory and application 
of chemical spectroscopy, as found in the areas of analytical, inorganic, organic, and 
physical chemistry. Emphasis will vary. Seven-week courses. P — Chemistry 342 or 344, 
361, or permission of instructor. 

*361. Inorganic Chemistry. (4) Principles and reactions of inorganic chemistry. P — 
Chemistry 342 or 344. C— Chem. 361 L. 

*361L. Inorganic Chemistry Lab. (1) Lab — four hours. P — Chemistry 342 or 344. C — 
Chem. 361. 

381, 382. Chemistry Seminar. (0,0) Discussions of contemporary research. Attendance 
required of BS chemistry majors in the junior and senior years. 

383. Chemical Literature. (1) Introduction to the chemical literature and searching 
techniques for the acquisition of chemical information. P — Chemistry 222. 

391, 392. Undergraduate Research. (2,2) Undergraduate research. Lab — eight hours. 

*The lecture and corresponding lab are strict corequisites of each other. A student must register for both 
during the same semester. (However, either can be repeated independently if the student wishes.) 



Classical Languages 

John L. Andronica, Chair 

Professors John L. Andronica, Robert W. Ulery Jr. 

Associate Professor Mary L. B. Pendergraft 

Assistant Professor James T. Powell 

Visiting Assistant Professor Laurie S. Cosgriff 

The Department of Classical Languages offers three majors: Greek, Latin, and classical 
studies. Minors are offered in Greek, Latin, and classical studies. 

A major in Greek requires thirty-five credits in the department beyond Greek 112. 
Twenty-eight of these credits must be in Greek courses. Greek 225 and Classics 270 are 
required. 

A minor in Greek requires Greek 153, 211, one other 200-level course in the Greek 
language; Classics 270; and one additional course (three or four credits) in Greek (200- 
level) or Latin or Classics. 

A major in Latin requires thirty- two credits in the department beyond Latin 153. 
Twenty-four of these credits must be in Latin courses. Classics 271 also is a requirement, 
and Classics 270 is recommended. 

A minor in Latin requires three 200-level courses in Latin; Classics 271; and one 
additional course (three or four credits) in Greek or Latin or classics. 

A major in classical studies requires fifty-six credits. A minimum of thirty-six credits of 
course work must be taken in the department. A maximum of forty-eight credits in the 
department may be exceeded only if a student undertakes course work in both Latin and 
Greek. The student must take a minimum of two courses at the 200-level in either Greek 
or Latin and the following: Art 241 (Ancient Art), Classics 265 (Greek Literature), Classics 
272 (Latin Literature), Classics 270 (Greek Civilization), and Classics 271 (Roman Civilization). 

A maximum of sixteen credits may be taken in the following: Art 244 (Greek Art), 245 
(Roman Art), 246 (Greek and Roman Architecture), 252 (Romanesque Art); History 215, 216 
(The Ancient World); Philosophy 201 (Ancient and Medieval Philosophy), 230 (Plato), 231 
(Aristotle); Politics 271 [Plato, Aristotle, and Classical Political Philosophy), 274 (Noble Greeks 
and Romans); Religion 311 (Poetic Literature of the Hebrew Bible), 314 (Ancient Israel and Her 
Neighbors), 363 (Hellenistic Religions); Hebrew 111, 112, 153, 211, Other courses may be 
allowed with the permission of the department. 

A minor in classical studies requires five courses in addition to Latin or Greek 153: 
Classics 265, 272, and either 270 or 271; and two additional courses (8 credits) in Greek, 
Latin, classics, or other courses allowed by the department. 

The requirements for certification to teach Latin in high school are the same as the 
requirements for a major in Latin. A major in classical studies serves as an appropriate part 
of the program of studies required for certification to teach Latin in high school. A student 
wishing to secure this certification should confer with the chair of the department. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in Latin, Greek, or classical studies. To be graduated with the designation 
"Honors in Latin," "Honors in Greek," or "Honors in Classical Studies," a student must 
complete an honors research project and pass a comprehensive oral examination. For 



85 



honors in Latin or Greek, at least two of the courses counted toward the major must be 
seminar courses; for honors in classical studies, at least one seminar course in Latin, Greek, 
or classics is required. For additional information, members of the departmental faculty 
should be consulted. 

Greek 

111, 112. Elementary Greek. (5,5) Greek grammar; selections from Greek prose writers 
and poets. 

153. Intermediate Greek. (4) Grammar and selected readings. 

211. Plato. (4) Selections from the dialogues of Plato. 

212, Homer. (4) Selections from the Iliad and the Odyssey. 

221. Greek Readings. (2,3, or 4) A course designed to meet individual needs and interests. 

225. Advanced Grammar and Composition. (4) Intensive work in morphology and 
syntax, with practice in composition and stylistic analysis of selected readings. 

231. The Greek New Testament. (4) Selections from the Greek New Testament. 

241. Greek Tragedy. (4) Close study of a selected tragedy or tragedies. This course 
includes consideration of the origin and history of Greek tragedy, with collateral reading 
of other tragedies in English translation. Seminar. P — Greek 211, 212, or equivalent. 

242. Greek Comedy. (4) Close study of a selected comedy or comedies of Aristophanes. 
This course includes consideration of the origin and history of Greek comedy, with 
collateral reading of other comedies in English translation. Seminar. P — Greek 211, 212, 
or equivalent. 

291, 292. Honors in Greek. (2,2) Directed research for honors paper. 

Latin 

111, 112. Elementary Latin. (4,4) Introduction to Latin grammar. 

113. Intensive Elementary Latin. (5) Introduction to Latin grammar. Covers material of 
Latin 111 and 112 in one semester. Not open to students who have had Latin 111 or 112. 

153. Intermediate Latin. (5) Grammar review and selected readings. 

211. Introduction to Latin Poetry. (4) Readings primarily from Virgil's Aeneid, with an 
introduction to literary criticism. 

212. Introduction to Latin Prose. (4) Readings primarily from the orations of Cicero, with 
attention to the elements of rhetoric in Roman public discourse. 

216. Roman Lyric Poetry. (4) An interpretation and evaluation of lyric poetry through 
readings from the poems of Catullus and Horace. 



86 



221. Roman Historians. (4) Readings in the works of Sallust, Livy, or Tacitus, with 
attention to the historical background and the norms of ancient historiography. 

225. Roman Epistolography. (4) Selected readings from the correspondence of Cicero and 
Pliny the Younger and the verse epistles of Horace and Ovid. 

226. Roman Comedy. (4) Readings of selected comedies of Plautus and Terence, with a 
study of the traditions of comedy and dramatic techniques. 

231. Roman Elegy. (4) Readings from the poems of Tibullus, Propertius, and Ovid, with 
study of the elegiac tradition. 

241. Roman Satire. (4) Selected readings from Horace and Juvenal, with attention to the 
origin and development of hexameter satire. 

243. Latin Readings. (2,3, or 4) A course designed to meet individual needs and interests. 

250. Prose Composition. (2) Exercises in writing of Latin prose, with an introduction to 
prose sty lis tics. 

398, 399. The Teaching of Latin. (4,4) A reading course and workshop in problems 
of Latin pedagogy and the secondary Lathi curriculum, designed to meet the needs and 
interests of selected students. 

Seminars 

The following seminars are offered by members of the faculty on topics and authors of 
their choice. A paper is required. 

261. Seminar in Poetry of the Republican Period. (3) 

262. Seminar in Prose of the Republican Period. (3) 

281. Seminar in Augustan and Later Poetry. (3) 

282. Seminar in Augustan and Later Prose. (3) 

291, 292. Honors in Latin. (2, 2) Directed research for honors paper. 

Classics 

151. Ethics in Greece and Rome. (2) Reading and discussion of Aristotle's Ethics and 
Cicero's On Moral Duties, with attention to our own ethical dilemmas. A knowledge of the 
Greek and Latin languages is not required. 

220. Greek and Latin in Current Use. (2) A systematic study of Greek and Latin loan 
words, roots, prefixes, and suffixes as elements of English and specialized vocabularies 
(e.g., scientific and legal). A knowledge of the Greek and Latin languages is not required. 

252. Women in Antiquity. (3,4) The course explores the place of women in Greek and 
Roman society, men's views of them, their views of themselves, and their contribution to 



87 



society, through primary source readings from the ancient authors. A knowledge of the 
Greek and Latin languages is not required. 

255. Classical Epic: Iliad, Odyssey, Aeneid. (4) A study of the three principal epic 
poems from ancient Greece and Rome. A knowledge of the Greek and Latin languages 
is not required. 

261. Greek Myth. (4) A consideration, principally through close study of selected 
literary works, of Greek myth in its various forms, primary (archaic and classical 
periods) and secondary (Hellenistic and Roman); the course also will consider Greek 
myth's afterlife in the modern period. A knowledge of the Greek language is not 
required. 

263. Tragic Drama. (4) A study of the origins and development of Greek tragedy and its 
influence on Roman writers, with readings from Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides. A 
knowledge of the Greek and Latin languages is not required. 

264. Greek and Roman Comedy. (4) Representative works of Aristophanes, Menander, 
Plautus, and Terence, with attention to the origins and development of comedy. A 
knowledge of the Greek and Latin languages is not required. 

265. A Survey of Greek Literature. (4) A study of selections from Greek literature in 
English translation. A knowledge of the Greek language is not required. 

270. Greek Civilization. (3) Lectures and collateral reading on those phases of Greek 
civilization which have particular significance for the modern world. A knowledge of the 
Greek language is not required. 

271. Roman Civilization. (3) Lectures and collateral reading on the general subject of 
Rome's contribution to the modern world. A knowledge of the Latin language is 
not required. 

272. A Survey of Latin Literature. (4) A study of selections from Latin literature in English 
translation. A knowledge of the Latin language is not required. 

279. Studies in Roman Biography. (2,3, or 4) A study in depth of a key figure of Roman 
history using the evidence of history, literature, numismatics, and epigraphy as well as art 
and archeology when appropriate. A knowledge of the Latin language is not required. 

280. Topics in Greek History. (4) The course will examine three central events in Greek 
history: the Persian War (490-479 B.C.), the Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.), and the 
career of Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C.), through close study of the works of 
Herodotus and Thucydides and of the Alexander tradition. Particular attention will be 
devoted to literary form and historiographical method. A knowledge of the Greek 
language is not required. 

285. Interdisciplinary Seminar in the Greco-Roman World. (4) This seminar is designed 
specially to meet the needs of students earning the interdisciplinary minor in early 
Christian studies, but is not limited to them. It will explore from various points of view 
the culture of the Mediterranean world from which Christianity was born and grew: 



literature and art, history and economics, religions and philosophies. Also offered by the 
Department of Religion as Religion 285. Course may be repeated for credit. 

288. Individual Study. (2,3, or 4) 

291, 292. Honors in Classical Studies. (2,2) Directed research for honors paper. 



Communication 

Michael David Hazen, Chair 

University Professor of Communication Ethics Michael J. Hyde 

Professor Michael David Hazen 

Adjunct Professor Jo Whitten May 

Associate Professors Allan D. Louden, Jill Jordan McMillan 

Assistant Professors John T. Llewellyn, Ananda Mitra, 

Randall G. Rogan, Margaret D. Zulick 

Instructor Mary M. Dalton 

Adjunct Instructors Susan L. Faust, Denise Franklin, Mardene G. Morykwas, 

Dee Oseroff-Varnell, Karen L. Oxendine 

Debate Coach Ross K. Smith 

A major in communication requires forty credits, at least twelve of which must be at the 
300-level. All majors are required to take courses 100, 110, and 220 or 225 and should begin 
their study of communication with these courses. In addition, at least twelve credits must 
be taken from among the following courses: 113, 114, 200, 201, 245, 246, 335, and 340 (or 
341). An overall minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in all communication courses 
attempted is required for graduation. 

A minor in communication requires twenty-four credits, at least four of which must be 
at the 300-level, and shall include courses 100, 110, and 220 or 225. Remaining coursework 
must include at least four credits from among the following courses: 113,114, 200, 201 , 245, 
335, and 340 (or 341). An overall minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in all communica- 
tion courses attempted is required for graduation. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in communication. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in 
Communication," students must pass the departmental honors course, complete a senior 
research project, and satisfactorily defend their work in an oral examination. For more 
details, consult faculty members in the department. 

100. Introduction to Communication and Rhetoric. (4) An introduction to the theories, 
research, and analysis of verbal and nonverbal processes by which human beings share 
meanings and influence one another. 

110. Public Speaking. (4) A study of the theory and practice of public address. Lab 
experiences in the preparation, delivery, and critique of informative and persuasive 
speeches. 



89 



111. Radio-TV Speech. (4) An introduction to announcing and performing on radio and 
television. 

112S. Oral Interpretation of Literature. (4) Fundamentals of reading aloud, with empha- 
sis on selection, analysis, and performance. Offered in summer only. 

113. Interpersonal Communication. (4) An introductory overview of interpersonal 
communication theories and principles designed to improve the student's understanding 
of and ability to effectively communicate in interpersonal contexts. 

114. Group Communication. (4) An introduction to the theory and practice of group 
interaction and decision-making. The course features lectures and discussions of theory 
and includes opportunities to participate in formal and informal group processes. 

115. Writing for Radio-TV-Film. (4) An introduction to writing for radio, television, and 
film. Emphasis will be on informational and persuasive writing (news, features, public 
service announcements, commercials, political announcements, news analyses, com- 
mentaries, and editorial). 

116. On-Camera Performance. (4) Designed to introduce students to the theory and 
practice of performing for the camera. This course covers basic method acting, 
newscasting, and other performance formats. (Also listed as Theater 141.) 

160. Sign Language for the Deaf I. (2) An introduction to the basic expressive and 
receptive skills for finger spelling and the language of signs with attention to the culture 
of the deaf. 

161. Sign Language for the Deaf II. (2) Advanced work on basic expressive and receptive 
skills for finger spelling and the language of signs with attention to the culture of the deaf. 

200. Debate and Advocacy. (4) The use of argumentative techniques in oral advocacy: 
research, speeches, and debate. 

201. Persuasion. (4) A study of the variables and contexts of persuasion in contemporary 
society. 

210. Advanced Public Speaking. (4) Advanced study in the art of public address. This 
course is recommended for students with some previous speech experience and /or 
tiaining. 

211. Media Production: Studio. (4) An introduction to the production of audio and video 
media projects. Multiple camera studio production emphasized. Lecture/laboratory. 

212. Media Production: Field. (4) An introduction to the production of audio and video 
media projects. Single camera field production and post-production emphasized. Lec- 
ture/laboratory. 

213. Film Production. (4) A study of the basic elements of motion picture production. 

220. Empirical Research in Communication. (4) An introduction to methodological 
design and univariate statistics as used in communication research. 



90 



225. Historical/Critical Research in Communication. (4) Introduces students to the 
historical and critical analysis of rhetoric. Examines current methods of rhetorical 
criticism with a view to researching and composing a critical paper in the field. 

245. Introduction to Mass Communication. (4) A historical survey of mass media and an 
examination of major contemporary media issues. 

246. Introduction to Film. (4) An introduction to the aesthetics of motion pictures through 
a study of the basic elements of film such as cinematography, editing, sound, lighting, 
color, etc. 

261. Disorders of Articulation and Phonology. (4) Etiology, evaluation and management 
of articulation and phonological disorders. Offered in alternate fall semesters. 

262. Communication Disorders of the Hearing-Impaired. (4) The etiology and effect of 
hearing impairment on communication. The fundamentals of auditory training, speech 
reading, and other resources for the rehabilitation of the hearing-impaired individual. 

Offered in alternate spring semesters. 

263. Introduction to Communication Disorders. (4) An introduction to the disorders of 
human communication including fluency, language, voice, and articulation. Offered in 
alternate fall semesters. 

264. Diagnosis and Treatment of Communication Disorders. (4) The basic principles of 
evaluation, remediation and instruction for children and adults with communication 
disorders. Offered in alternate spring semesters. 

270. Special Seminar. (1-4) An examination of selected topics in the study of commu- 
nication. 

280. Communication Practicum I. (2,4) Individual projects in debate or communication 
internship to be approved, supervised, and evaluated by an appropriate faculty adviser. 
No student may register for more than two credits of practicum in any semester. No 
student is allowed to take more than a total of eight credits in practicum, only four credits 
of which may be counted toward a major in communication. Pass/fail only. P — 
Permission of instructor. 

281. Communication Practicum II. (2,4) See previous description. 

283. Individual Study. (1-4) Directed study in an area of interest to be approved and 
supervised by a faculty adviser. P — Permission of instructor. 

285. Honors Course. (2,4) Intensive research in an area of special interest for selected 
seniors who wish to graduate with departmental honors. P — Permission of department. 

300. Classical Rhetoric. (4) A study of major writings in Greek and Roman rhetorical 
theory from the Sophists to Augustine. Offered in alternate years. 

301. Semantics and Language in Communication. (4) A study of how meaning is created 
by sign processes. Among the topics studied are language theory, semiotics, speech act 
theory, and pragmatics. (Also listed as Linguistics 301.) 



91 



302. Argumentation Theory. (4) An examination of argumentation theory and criticism; 
examines both theoretical issues and social practices. Offered in alternate years. 

303S. Directing the Forensic Program. (2,4) A pragmatic study of the methods of 
directing high school and college forensics with work in the High School Debate 
Workshop. Offered in the summer. 

304. Freedom of Speech. (4) An examination of the philosophical and historical traditions, 
significant cases, and contemporary controversies concerning freedom of expression. 
Offered in alternate years. 

310. Advanced Media Production. (1-4) Special projects in audio and video production 
for students with previous media production experience. P — Communication 211, 212, 
213, or permission of instructor. 

330. Communication and Conflict. (4) A review of the various theoretical perspectives on 
conflict and negotiation as well as methods for managing relational conflict. 

335. Survey of Organizational Communication. (4) An overview of the role of commu- 
nication in constituting and maintaining the pattern of activities that sustain the modern 
organization. 

336. Organizational Rhetoric. (4) Explores the persuasive nature of organizational 
messages — those exchanged between organizational members, and those presented in 
behalf of the organization as a whole. Offered in alternate years. 

337. Rhetoric of Institutions. (4) A study of the communication practices of institutions 
as they seek to gain and maintain social legitimacy. Offered in alternate years. 

340. American Rhetorical Movements to 1900. (4) Examines the interrelation of Ameri- 
can rhetorical movements through the nineteenth century by reading and analyzing 
original speeches and documents with emphasis on antislavery and women's rights. 

341. American Rhetorical Movements since 1900. (4) Examines the interrelation of 
American rhetorical movements in the twentieth century by reading and analyzing 
original speeches and documents. Among the movements addressed are labor, civil 
rights, student radicals, and women's liberation. 

342. Political Communication. (4) Study of electoral communication, including candi- 
date and media influences on campaign speeches, debates, and advertising. 

345. Mass Communication Theory. (4) Theoretical approaches to the role of communi- 
cation in reaching mass audiences and its relationship to other levels of communication. 

346. Film Theory and Criticism. (4) A study of film aesthetics through an analysis of the 
work of selected filmmakers and film critics. P — Communication 246 or permission of 
instructor. 

347. Film History to 1945. (4) A survey of the developments of motion pictures to 1945. 
includes lectures, readings, reports, and screenings. 



92 



348. Film History since 1945. (4) A survey of the development of motion pictures from 
1946 to the present day. Includes lectures, readings, reports, and screenings. 

350. Intercultural Communication. (4) An introduction to the study of communication 
phenomena between individuals and groups with different cultural backgrounds. Offered 
in alternate years. 

351. Comparative Communication. (2,4) A comparison of communicative and rhetorical 
processes in the United States with one or more other national cultures with an emphasis 
on both historical and contemporary phenomena. A. Japan; B. Russia; C. Great Britain; D. 
Multiple countries. Offered in alternate years. 

370. Special Topics. (1-4) An examination of topics not covered in the regular curriculum. 

380. Great Teachers. (2,4) An intensive study of the ideas of three noted scholars and 
teachers in the field of communication. Students will interact with each teacher during a 
two to three-day visit to Wake Forest. 



Cultural Resource Preservation 

(Interdisciplinary Minor) 
Ned Woodall (Anthropology), Coordinator 

The Departments of Anthropology, Art, History, and Sociology offer an interdisciplinary 
minor in Cultural Resource Preservation (CRP) which will give students preliminary 
training in the field of historic preservation and cultural resource management aimed at 
the protection and enhancement of archeological, historical, and architectural resources. 
The minor requires History 366, Studies in Historic Preservation (4), and four other 
courses for a total of twenty credits. These twenty credits must be distributed among at 
least three departments. The following courses may be included in the minor. (See course 
descriptions under appropriate listings.) 

Anthropology 152. General Anthropology II: Cultural Anthropology. (4) (May 
count as a Division IV requirement.) 

300. Museum Practician. (4) 

310. Museum Design and Operation. (4) 

370. Old World Prehistory. (4) 

374. Prehistory of North America. (4) 

378. Conservation Archeology. (4) 

381, 382. Archeological Research. (4,4) 
Art 233. American Architecture. (4) 

275. History of Landscape Architecture. (4) 

288. Modern Architecture. (4) 

293. Practician. (4) 
History 381, 382. Preservation Practician I, II. (4,4) 

398. Individual Study. (1-4) 



93 



Sociology 151. Principles of Sociology/. (4) (May count as a Division IV 

requirement.) 
205. Photography in the Social Sciences. (4) 

Students intending to minor in Cultural Resource Preservation should consult the 
adviser appointed from one of the participating departments and listed with the registrar. 
Students are strongly urged to consult the adviser during the first semester of their junior 
year. Equivalent courses must be approved by the adviser. 



Early Christian Studies 

(Interdisciplinary Minor) 

Mary Pendergraft (Classics) and 

Kenneth G. Hoglund (Religion), Coordinators 

The interdisciplinary minor in Early Christian Studies requires twenty-two to twenty- 
three credits. The student must take the following core courses: 

Greek 231. The Greek New Testament (4); 

Religion 112. Introduction to the New Testament (4) or 

164. The Formation of the Christian Tradition (4); 

Classics 270. Greek Civilization (3) or 

271. Roman Civilization (3); and 

Classics /Religion 285. Interdisciplinary Seminar in the Greco-Roman World (4). 

The student must take two additional courses, with no more than one from any one 
department, from the following list. (See course descriptions under appropriate listings.) 



Art 



Classics 



History 

Philosophy 

Religion 



241. Ancient Art. (4) 

244. Greek Art. (4) 

245. Roman Art. (4) 

296. Art History Seminar. (2,4) a. Ancient Art / b. Medieval Art 

270. Greek Civilization. (3) 

271. Roman Civilization. (3) 

(whichever is not used to satisfy the requirement 

for the Early Christian Studies minor) 
215, 216. The Ancient World. (4,4) 
232. Ancient and Medieval Philosophy. (4) 

319. Visions of the End: Jewish and Christian Apocalyptic. (4) 

320. Jesus and the Synoptic Gospels. (4) 
322. The General Epistles. (4) 

326. Early Christian Theologians: Paul. (4) 

327. Early Christian Theologians: the Fourth Evangelist. (4) 

328. The New Testament and Ethics. (4) 



44 



East Asian Languages and Literatures 

Assistant Professor Patrick Moran, Coordinator 
Instructor David P. Phillips 

Courses are offered in the Chinese and Japanese languages to meet the basic requirements 
in language. In addition, students may study abroad with Wake Forest programs in China 
and Japan. 

Chinese 

Chinese 111, 112. Elementary Chinese. (5,5) Emphasis on the development of listening 
and speaking skills in Mandarin. Introduction to the writing system and to basic sentence 
patterns. Lab required. 

Chinese 151, 152. Intermediate Chinese. (5,5) Further study in grammar, reading, 
conversation, and composition. Lab required. P — Chinese 112 or equivalent. 

Chinese 199. Individual Study. (1-4) P — Permission of instructor. 

Chinese 211. Wen-xue: Introduction to Literature Written in Chinese. (4) Readings in 
Chinese in prose and poetry. P — Chinese 152 or permission of instructor. Satisfies a 
Division I requirement. 

^Humanities 221. Introduction to Chinese Literature. (4) 

^Humanities 348. Chinese Revolutionary Literature to 1948. (2) 

^Humanities 349. Chinese Liberation Literature since 1948. (2) 

^Humanities 350. Modern Chinese Literature. (4) 

^Philosophy 253. Main Streams of Chinese Philosophy and Religion. (4) 

Japanese 

Japanese 111, 112. Elementary Japanese. (5,5) Emphasis on the development of listening 
and speaking skills. Introduction to the writing systems. Basic sentence patterns covered. 
Lab required. 

Japanese 151, 152. Intermediate Japanese. (5,5) Further study in grammar, reading, 
conversation, and composition. Lab required. P — Japanese 112 or equivalent. 

Japanese 199. Individual Study. (2-4) P — Permission of instructor. 

Japanese 211. Bungaku: Introduction to Literature Written in Modern Japanese. (4) 

Readings in Japanese in prose and poetry. P — Japanese 152 or permission of instructor. 
Satisfies a Division I requirement. 

* Humanities 219. Introduction to Japanese Literature. (4) 

* Humanities 347. Women Writers in Japanese Culture. (4) 

*See the appropriate listings for descriptions and prerequisites of courses given in English. 



95 



East Asian Studies 

(Foreign Area Study) 
Win-chiat Lee (Philosophy), Coordinator 

East Asian Studies requires twenty-four credits, which must be taken from at least three 
different departments. One of these must be either Chinese 21 1 or Japanese 211. Although 
Asian Studies 381, Independent Research in Asian Studies, maybe repeated for credit, only 
four of these credits can apply toward East Asian Studies. Appropriate credit in East Asian 
Studies also may be obtained by study in China through the SASASAAS/Wake Forest 
program or in Japan through the Wake Forest/Tokai University program, or through 
other Wake Forest approved courses of study in Asia. Study abroad is strongly encour- 
aged but not required. Courses may be chosen from among the following list. (See course 
descriptions under appropriate listings.) 



Asian Studies 381. Independent Research in Asian Studies. (2-4) 
Chinese Lang. 111,112. Elementary Chinese. (5,5) 
& Literature 151, 152. Intermediate Chinese. (5,5) 

199. Individual Study. (1-4) 

211. Wen-xue: Introduction to Literature Written in Chinese. (4) 
Communication 351. Comparative Communication. (2,4) 

a. Japan 
History 310. Seminar. (4) 

341. History of Women in Modern Asia. (4) 

343. Imperial China. (4) 

344. Modern China. (4) 

347. Japan since World War II. (4) 

348. Japan since 1600. (4) 
Humanities 219. Introduction to Japanese Literature. (4) 

221. Introduction to Chinese Literature. (4) 

347. Women Writers in Japanese Culture. (4) 

348. Chinese Revolutionary Literature to 1948. (2) 

349. Chinese Liberation Literature since 1948. (2) 

350. Modem Chinese Literature. (4) 
Japanese Lang. Ill, 112. Elementary Japanese. (5,5) 
& Liter. 151, 152. Intermediate Japanese. (5,5) 

199. Individual Study. (2-4) 

211. Bungaku: Introduction to Literature Written in Modern 
Japanese. (4) 
Philosophy 253. The Main Streams of Chinese Philosophy and Religion. (4) 

(Also listed as Religion 380.) 
Politics 248. Government and Politics of China. (4) 

249. Government and Politics of Japan. (4) 
260. East Asian International Relations. (4) 
292. Seminar in Comparative Politics. (4) 



96 



Religion 161. World Religions. (4) 

a. Buddhism 

b. Primal Religion (Taoism and Native American) 
380. The Main Streams of Chinese Philosophy and Religion. (4) 

(Also listed as Philosophy 253.) 



East European Studies 

(Foreign Area Study) 
Susan Zayer Rupp (History), Coordinator 

Russian 215 or 216 is required, plus twenty-four credits from the following list. (See course 
descriptions under appropriate listings.) 

Communication 351B. Comparative Communication: Russia. (2) 
Economics 253. Economies in Transition. (4) 

History 331. Russia: Origins to 1865. (4) 

332. Russia and the Soviet Union: 1865 to the Present. (4) 
Humanities 215. Germanic and Slavic Literature. (4) (Satisfies a Division I 

requirement.) 

218. Eastern European Literature. (4) (Satisfies a Division I 
requirement.) 
Politics 232. Politics in Russia and Eastern Europe. (4) 

Russian Four additional credits at the 200-level. 

With the approval of the coordinator, students also may take relevant seminars, 
colloquia, or independent studies in any of the above departments. 



Economics 

Claire Holton Hammond, Chair 

Reynolds Professor John H. Wood 

Professors David G. Brown, Donald E. Frey, J. Daniel Hammond, 

John C. Moorhouse 

Associate Professors Allin F. Cottrell, Claire Holton Hammond, 

Michael S. Lawlor, Perry L. Patterson 

Adjunct Associate Professor Gary R. Albrecht 

Assistant Professors Paul F. Huck, Robert M. Whaples, Andrew J. Yates 

Visiting Assistant Professor Michael H. Slotkin 

The objectives of the economics program are to help prepare students for effective partici- 
pation in the decision-making processes of society, to develop analytical skills in solving 
economic problems, to promote a better understanding of alternative economic systems, 



97 



and to provide a balanced curriculum to prepare students for graduate study or positions 
in industry and government. 

The major in economics consists of thirty-six credits in economics, including Economics 
150, 205, 206, 207, and 208. The remaining economics courses are selected by the student 
and his or her adviser. A minimum grade of C is required in Economics 150, 205, and 207, 
and an overall C average in economics courses. The student also must pass either 
Mathematics 108 or 111 and Mathematics 109 (or similar course with permission of 
department chair). 

The minor in economics consists of twenty-four credits, including Economics 150, 205, 
and 207. The mathematics and minimum grade requirements for the minor are the same 
as for the major. 

Economics majors are encouraged to take complementary courses in mathematics, the 
humanities, or other social sciences to sharpen their analytical skills and to acquire a 
broader understanding of important issues. The faculty adviser will assist each student 
in determining the particular combination of courses that satisfies his or her needs. 

Economics majors with a grade average of at least 3.0 and 3.3 in economics may 
graduate with "Honors in Economics" by satisfying the research requirement of Econom- 
ics 298. It is recommended but not required that Economics 297 be taken first. 

The Department of Economics and the Department of Mathematics and Computer 
Science offer a joint major leading to a bachelor of science degree in mathematical 
economics. This interdisciplinary program, consisting of no more than fifty-six credits, 
affords the student an opportunity to apply mathematical methods to the development 
of economic theory, models, and quantitative analysis. The major consists of the following 
course requirements: Economics 150, 205, 207, 210, 21 1,215, 218; Mathematics 11 1,1 12, 
113, 121, 254, 255; and three additional courses chosen with the approval of the 
program advisers. Recommended courses are Economics 206, 208, 212, 222, 223, 231, 
232, 235, 248, 251, 252, and Mathematics 253, 256, 311, 312, 348, 352, 353, 357, and 358. 
Students electing the joint major must receive permission from both the Department of 
Economics and the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science. A minimum 
grade average of C in all courses attempted for the mathematical economics joint major 
is required for graduation. 

Highly qualified majors are encouraged to apply for admission to the honors program 
in the joint major. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Mathematical 
Economics," a student must satisfy the requirements of Economics 298 or Mathematics 
381 by successfully completing a senior research project. Consult the program advisers for 
additional information. 

For the BA in economics the following schedule is typical: 

First Year Sophomore Junior* Senior 

Lower Division Economics 150 Economics 205, 206 Four electives 

requirements Mathematics 108 Economics 207, 208 in economics 

or 111 
Mathematics 109 
*It is expected that economics majors will complete the intermediate theory sequences in their junior year. 



For the BS in mathematical economics the following schedule is typical: 

First Year Sophomore Junior Senior 

Mathematics 111,112 Economics 150 Economics 205, 207 Economics 218 

Lower Division Mathematics 113, Economics 210, 211 Three electives in 

requirements 121 Economics 215 economics and /or 

Mathematics 254, 255 mathematics 

150. Introduction to Economics. (4) A survey of micro and macroeconomic principles. 
Introduction to basic concepts, characteristic data and trends, and some analytic tech- 
niques. Preference in enrollment will be given to students with sophomore or upperclass 
standing. 

168. The Political Economy of Environmental Policy. (2) Develops a set of core 
economic principles essential for understanding and evaluating environmental policy 
issues. (Required for environmental studies minor. Does not count toward economics 
major and minor requirements unless Economics 248 also is successfully completed.) 

205. Intermediate Microeconomics I. (4) Development of demand and supply analysis, 
neoclassical theory of household and firm behavior, and alternative market structures. 
P — Economics 150. 

206. Intermediate Microeconomics II. (4) More advanced theory of maximizing behavior 
of economic agents with discussion of risk, uncertainty, and economic dynamics. Theory 
employed in assessment of policy issues. P — Economics 205. 

207. Intermediate Macroeconomics I. (4) Development of macroeconomic concepts of 
national income, circular flow, income determination, IS-LM analysis, and Phillips 
curves. Emphasizes contributions of Keynes and the Keynesian tradition, including some 
attention to primary literature. P — Economics 150. 

208. Intermediate Macroeconomics II. (4) Considers extensions of Keynesian theory, 
such as the post-Keynesians, and alternatives to Keynesian theory, such as monetarism, 
traditional classical, and new classical theories. More advanced tools of macroeconomic 
analysis may be introduced, for instance large forecasting models or dynamics. P — 
Economics 207. 

210. Microeconomic Models. (2) Development of formal models of consumer behavior, 
choice under risk, the firm, and demand and supply. Static and dynamic properties 
of the models are explored. P — Economics 205 and Mathematics 111. 

211. Macroeconomic Models. (2) Development of formal Keynesian, post-Keynesian, 
monetarist, and new classical macro models. Static and dynamic properties of the 
models are explored. P — Economics 207 and Mathematics 111. 

212. Economic Forecasting. (4) A computer-oriented application of modern economet- 
ric and time series methods for forecasting economic variables. P — Economics 150. 
C — Economics 207. 



99 



215. Introduction to Econometrics. (4) Economic analysis through quantitative methods, 
with emphasis on model construction and empirical research. P — Economics 205, 207 and 
Mathematics 109 or 121. 

218. Seminar in Mathematical Economics. (4) Calculus and matrix methods used to develop 
basic tools of economic analysis. P — Economics 205, 207 and Mathematics 111, 112. 

219. Decision Analysis. (4) The theory and practice of decision making under 
uncertainty. Applications and examples are drawn from realms of personal, legal, 
business, medical, and environmental decision making. P — Economics 150 and 
Mathematics 109. 

221. Public Finance. (4) An examination of the economic behavior of government. 
Includes principles of taxation, spending, borrowing, and debt-management. P — Eco- 
nomics 150. C — Economics 205. 

222. Monetary Theory and Policy. (4) An investigation of the nature of money, the 
macroeconomic significance of money, financial markets, and monetary policy. P — 
Economics 207. 

223. Financial Markets. (4) A study of the functions, structure, and performance of 
financial markets. P — Economics 205, 207. 

224. Law and Economics. (4) An economic analysis of property, contracts, torts, criminal 
behavior, due process, and law enforcement. P — Economics 205. 

225. Public Choice. (4) Traditional tools of economic analysis are employed to explore 
such topics in political science as political organization, elections, coalition formation, the 
optimal provision of public goods, and the scope of government. P — Economics 205. 

231. Economics of Industry. (4) Analysis of the link between market structure and market 
performance in U.S. industries from theoretical and empirical viewpoints. Examines the 
efficiency of different firm practices including mergers and cartels. Case studies include 
automobiles, steel, agriculture, computers, sports, and telecommunications. P — Econom- 
ics 150. C — Economics 205. 

232. Business and Government. (2,4) Analysis of the logic and effectiveness of various 
regulatory instruments used by government to affect the structure and performance of 
industry. Principal topics include economic regulation of natural monopoly, antitrust 
policy, and deregulation in transportation and other industries. P — Economics 150. C — 
Economics 205. 

235. Labor Economics. (4) A theoretical and empirical survey of labor markets. Topics 
include: the demand and supply of labor, compensating wage differentials, education 
and training, discrimination, unions, public sector emplovment, earnings inequality, and 
unemployment. P — Economics 205, 207. 

246. Urban Economics. (4) Theoretical and empirical study of the city as an economic 
entity, with attention to land-use patterns and prices, urban decay and redevelopment, 
suburbanization, housing, and city finance. P — Economics 150. 



100 



248. Resource Economics. (2) The economic theory of natural resource allocation and 
environmental quality. P — Economics 168 and 205. 

251. International Trade. (4) Development of the theory of international trade patterns 
and prices and the effects of trade restrictions such as tariffs and quotas. P — Economics 

205. 

252. International Finance. (4) A study of foreign exchange and Eurocurrency markets, 
balance of payments, and macroeconomic policy in open economies. P — Economics 205, 
207. 

253. Economies in Transition. (4) A theoretical and institutional examination of histori- 
cally socialist nations and the dilemmas of transition. Special reference to the former 
Soviet Union. P — Economics 150. 

258. Economic Growth and Development. (4) A study of the problems of economic 
growth, with particular attention to the less developed countries of the world. P — 
Economics 205, 207. 

261. American Economic Development. (4) The application of economic theory to 
historical problems and issues in the American economy. P — Economics 150. 

262. History of Economic Thought. (4) A historical survey of the main developments in 
economic thought from the Biblical period to the twentieth century. P— Economics 205, 
207. 

265. Economic Philosophers. (2,4) An in-depth study of the doctrines and influence of up 
to three major figures in economics, such as Smith, Marx, and Keynes. P — Economics 205, 
207. 

270. Current Economic Issues. (2,4) Examines current economic issues using economic 
theory and empirical evidence. Topics may include recent macroeconomics events, 
government budget deficits, banking insurance, corporate takeovers, international eco- 
nomic rivalries, economic differences by race and gender, health care, welfare, labor 
unions, legal reform, global warming and others. P — Economics 150. 

271, 272. Selected Areas in Economics. (1,2,4; 1,2,4) A survey of an important area in 
economics not included in the regular course offerings. The economics of housing, 
education, technology, and health services are examples. Students should consult the 
instructor to ascertain topic before enrolling. P — Economics 205, 207. 

290. Individual Study. (2,4) Directed readings in a specialized area of economics. P — 
Permission of instructor. 

297. Preparing for Economic Research. (2) Designed to assist students in selecting a 
research topic and beginning the study of the selected topic. P — Permission of instructor. 

298. Economic Research. (4) Development and presentation of a senior research project. 
Required of candidates for departmental honors. P — Permission of department. 



101 



Education 

Joseph O. Milner, Chair 

Professors John P. Anderson, Patricia M. Cunningham, 

Thomas M. Elmore, Samuel T. Gladding, John H. Litcher, 

Joseph O. Milner, Linda N. Nielsen, Leonard P. Roberge 

Associate Professors Robert H. Evans, Leah P. McCoy, Mary Lynn B. Redmond 

Assistant Professors Loraine M. Stewart, R. Scott Baker 

Visiting Assistant Professor G. Dianne Mitchell 

Lecturer Marianne A. Schubert 

Visiting Instructor Debbie Hill 

Wake Forest University believes that the teaching profession is important to society and 
that its welfare is significantly affected by the quality of educational leadership. One of the 
important objectives of the University has been and continues to be the preparation of 
teachers and other professional school personnel. The University's commitment to 
quality in teacher education is demonstrated by selective admission to the program, a 
wide range of professional courses, and closely supervised internships appropriate to the 
professional development of students. 

Prospective elementary and social studies teachers earn licensure in those broad areas 
and major in education. Prospective secondary teachers of English, math, science, and 
prospective K-l 2 teachers of foreign languages and music major in that discipline and 
minor in education. In addition to the professional program, the department provides 
elective courses open to all students. 

Teacher Licensure. The Public Schools of North Carolina issues the Professional Class 
A Teacher's License to graduates who have completed an approved program, including 
the specified courses in their teaching fields and the prescribed courses in education, who 
have demonstrated specific competencies, and who receive recommendations from the 
designated officials in their teaching areas and from the chair of the department or deputy. 

Students who have graduated from an institution of higher education but have not 
completed an approved licensure program may seek admission to the department in 
order to complete the Class A License. 

Admission Requirements. Application for admission to the teacher education program 
normally occurs during the sophomore year. Admission involves filing an official 
application with the department's licensure officer, being interviewed, and being offi- 
cially approved by the department. In addition, the Public Schools of North Carolina 
requires teacher education program applicants to successfully complete the Praxis I 
before being formally admitted. 

All students are required to have a 2.50 or better grade-point average before being 
formally accepted in the Teacher Education Program. Formal acceptance into the pro- 
gram should take place during the first week of the semester prior to student teaching. 
Elementary education students will need to have a 2.50 GPA at the end of December of 
their junior year; secondary education students will need to have a 2.50 GPA at the end 
of August of their junior year. 



102 



Program Area Goals. The goals and objectives for each licensure area are available in the 
office of the Department of Education. 

Course Requirements. The approved program of teacher education requires candidates 
to complete successfully a series of professional education courses. The exact sequence of 
professional and academic courses varies with a student's particular program and is 
determined by the adviser in conference with the candidate. For those seeking secondary 
certification, the majority of the professional work is taken during one semester of the 
senior year. Candidates for the elementary license typically begin course work required 
for licensure during the sophomore year. 

Student Teaching. Prerequisites for registering for student teaching include (1) senior, 
graduate, or special student classification; (2) completion of two field experience courses 
and the foundations of education course; (3) formal admission to the teacher education 
program. 

Students are assigned to student teaching opportunities by public school officials on the 
basis of available positions and the professional needs of the student and the public school 
system. One semester of the senior year is reserved for the student teaching experience 
and the block of courses preparatory to that experience in the schools. Students may not 
take other courses during this semester without the approval of the department chair. 

Exit Requirements. Students must maintain a 2.50 GPA while enrolled in the teacher 
education program, and complete the program with a minimum GPA of 2.50. The Public 
Schools of North Carolina requires candidates for professional licensure to successfully 
complete the Professional Knowledge Section and the Specialty Area Exam of the NTE 
or the appropriate Praxis II Subject Assessment Exam. 

Teaching Area Requirements 

Secondary Certificate 

English — Forty credits, including 287, 323, and 390 or its equivalent. A course in world 
literature or its equivalent is required for licensure. 

French — Certification in K-12 in French: Thirty-six credits above French 213, including 
French 219, 220, 222, 323, or their equivalents; two of the following courses: 229, 321 , 324; 
students also must complete two of the three survey courses: 215, 216, 217. 

Spanish — Certification in K-12 in Spanish: Thirty-six credits above Spanish 213, including 
Spanish 21 7, 218, 21 9, 220, 222, 223, 224, or their equivalents; plus one additional advanced 
course in Spanish literature and one in Spanish- American literature. 

German — Certification in K-12 in German: Thirty-seven credits beyond German 112 or 
113, including German 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221; one of the following courses: 249, 

281, 285. 

Latin — The requirements are the same as those for the major in Latin. 



103 



Mathematics — Forty credits, including Mathematics 111, 112, 113, 121, 221, 331; four 
credits from 311, 317, or 357; at least two additional 300-level courses. If the student does 
not elect 357, it is recommended that he/she take 109. 

Music— Forty-eight credits, including Music 171, 172, 173, 174, 181, 182, 186, 187, 188; 
Education 280, 282, 284, 289, and 354. 

Science — Certification in the individual fields of science: biology (forty-one credits), 
chemistry (fifty-five credits), or physics (thirty-six credits). All credits must be from the 
same courses required for majors in those fields. 

Social Studies — Forty credits, including twenty-four credits in history, with course work 
in United States, European, and Third World history; sixteen credits with one course in 
economics, geography, politics, and anthropology or sociology. 

Education courses required for a secondary certificate include Education 201, 202, 203, 
307, 31 1, 354, 364, 382, 395, and 398. (Education 201, 202, 203 are replaced by 361, 362, 363 
respectively for students with graduate or unclassified standing.) hi addition to these 
requirements, students seeking K-12 licensure in foreign languages must take either 
Education 313 or Psychology 241, and Education 390. 

Elementary Certificate 

A major in elementary education requires forty-eight credits including Education 201, 
202, 203, 221, 222, 250, 293, 294, 295, 296, 298, 301, 311, 382, and Psychology 241. In 
addition to or as part of lower division requirements, all education majors must have 
taken at least one course in biology, one course in mathematics, and one course in art 
or music. Elementary education majors must complete a minor in any department or 
have a concentration in one of the following areas: language arts, social studies, 
science, mathematics or foreign language. (Because many courses must be taken in the 
junior year to prepare for the senior fall student teaching block, education majors who 
want to take a semester abroad should take that semester during the sophomore year.) 

Education Minor 

A minor in professional education requires Education 201 , 202, 203, 307, 31 1, 354, 364, 382, 
395, 398, and is awarded only to students in the teacher education program. 

201. Foundations of Education. (4) Philosophical, historical, and sociological foundations 
of education, including analysis of contemporary issues and problems. 

202. Field Experience One. (2) Practical experiences in elementary or secondary class- 
rooms. Weekly public school participation and seminar. Pass/fail only. P — Permission of 
department. 

203. Field Experience Two. (2) Further experiences in elementary or secondary classrooms. 
Weekly public school participation and seminar. Pass/fail only. P — Education 202. 



104 



221. Children's Literature and Reading. (4) A survey of the types of literature appropriate 
for the elementary grades and an investigation of the basic problems in reading. P — 
Permission of instructor. 

222. Integrating the Arts and Movement into the Elementary Curriculum. (3) A 

survey of the materials, methods, and techniques of integrating the arts and physical 
development into the elementary curriculum. P — Permission of instructor. 

231. Adolescent Literature. (4) A study of recent fiction centering on the lives of 
adolescents. Attention is given to interpretation of literature ranging from the reader 
response approach to critical pluralism. 

250. Student Teaching: Elementary. (6) Supervised teaching experience in grades K-6. 
Pass/fail. P — Permission of instructor. 

271. Geography: The Human Environment. (4) A survey of the geography of human 
activity as it occurs throughout the world. Emphasis is placed on current problems related 
to population, resources, regional development, and urbanization. 

272. Geography Study Tour. (4) A guided tour of selected areas to study physical, 
economic, and cultural environments and their influence on man. Background references 
for reading are suggested prior to the tour. Offered in the summer. 

273. Geography: The Natural Environment. (4) A systematic study of the major compo- 
nents of physical geography with special emphasis on climate and topography. 

274. Environmental Geography. (4) A systematic study of major environmental issues 
on a global scale with an exploration of implications and possible solutions. 

280. Orchestration. (4) A study of the orchestra and wind band instruments, how 
composers have used them throughout history, and the development of practical scoring 
and manuscript skills. Offered in alternate years, spring semester of even years. P — Music 174, 
182. 

281. Public Life and the Liberal Arts. (4) The course will be devoted to topics of abiding 
significance. Fundamental dilemmas and resolutions associated with each topic will be 
examined through a consideration of their treatment in the liberal arts tradition. Politics 
and the Arts and Theory and Practice in Public Life are representative topics. 

282. Conducting. (4) A study of choral and instrumental conducting techniques, includ- 
ing practical experience with ensembles. Offered spring semester of odd years. P — Music 174 
or permission of instructor. 

284. Music Literature Seminar. (3 or 4) A survey of repertoire, including an examination 
of teaching materials in the student's special area of interest. Course may be repeated. P — 
Permission of instructor. 

a. Instrumental Literature d. Guitar Literature 

b. Choral Literature e. Vocal Literature 

c. Piano Literature 



105 



289. Ensemble Methods. (2) A practical study of choral and instrumental techniques. 
Discussion of tonal development, administration, bibliography, choral and instrumental 
repertoire, marching band, and instrumental problems. Spring. P — Music 101 or 102 or 
permission of instructor. 

293. Elementary School Curriculum: Theory and Practice. (3) General principles of 
curriculum construction and teaching methods. Introduction to the use of audiovisual 
materials and equipment. P — Permission of instructor. 

294. Methods and Materials for Teaching Language Arts. (3) A survey of the basic 
materials, methods, and techniques of teaching language arts in the elementary grades. 
P — Permission of instructor. 

295. Methods and Materials for Teaching Social Studies. (3) A survey of the basic 
materials, methods, and techniques of teaching social studies in the elementary grades. 
P — Permission of instructor. 

296. Methods and Materials for Teaching Mathematics. (4) A survey of the basic 
materials, methods, and techniques of teaching mathematics in the elementary grades, 
centering on relevant mathematics content. P — Permission of instructor. 

297. Trends and Issues in American Schools. (2) An exploration of contemporary trends 
and issues as they affect course content and teaching methods in the schools. The course 
is intended to help those not entering professional education evaluate their schools as 
informed citizens and decision-makers. 

298. Methods and Materials for Teaching Science. (4) A survey of the basic materials, 
methods, and techniques of teaching science in the elementary grades, centering on 
relevant science content. P — Permission of instructor. 

301. Microcomputer and Audiovisual Literacy. (4) An introduction to microcomputers 
for educators and other users, emphasizing familiarity with computers, use and evalua- 
tion of software, and elementary programming skills. Experience with audiovisual 
materials and techniques is included. 

302. Production of Instructional Methods. (4) Methods of producing instructional 
materials and other technological techniques. P — Education 301. 

303. History of Western Education. (4) Educational theory and practice from ancient 
times through the modern period, including American education. 

304. Theories of Education. (4) Contemporary proposals for educational theory and 
practice studied in the context of social issues. 

305. The Sociology of Education. (4) A study of contemporary educational institutions. 
This course examines such issues as school desegregation, schooling and social 
mobility, gender equity, and multiculturalism. 

307. Technology in Education. (2) An introduction to the use of computers as a 
support for teaching and the activities ancillary to teaching. 



106 



308. School and Society. (4) A study of continuity and change in educational institu- 
tions, including analysis of teachers, students, curriculum, evaluation, contemporary 
problems, and reform movements. P — Education 201 or introductory course in 
history or social science. 

311. Educational Psychology. (4) The theories, processes, and conditions of effective 
teaching /learning. P — Education 201 or permission of instructor. 

312. Teaching Children with Special Needs. (4) A survey of the various types of 
learning problems commonly found in elementary children. Students will observe 
exemplary programs, tutor children with special needs, and attend seminars on 
effective instructional techniques. P — Education 221 and 250. 

313. Human Growth and Development. (4) A study of the intellectual, emotional, and 
physical components of growth from birth to adolescence, with special concern for the 
educational implications of this process. 

341. Principles of Counseling and Guidance. (4) Counseling history, philosophy, theory, 
procedure, and process. Therapeutic and developmental counseling approaches in 
guidance and personnel work in education, business, and community service agencies. 
P — Permission of instructor. 

351. Adolescent Psychology. (4) An introduction to theories of adolescent psychology as 
related to teaching and counseling in various settings. The readings emphasize research- 
ers' suggestions for parenting, teaching, and counseling adolescents between the ages of 
thirteen and nineteen. 

354. Methods and Materials. (4) Methods, materials, and techniques used in teaching the 
various subjects. P — Education 201 and permission of instructor. 

358. Studies in Contemporary Leadership. (4) An examination of contemporary 
leadership theory and its various applications in society. Students engage in practical 
leadership exercises, read on a variety of leadership topics, and develop their own 
philosophy of leadership. A twenty-five contact hour internship is required. (Cross 
listed as Humanities 358.) 

361. Foundations of Education. (4) Philosophical, historical, and sociological foundations 
of education, including analysis of contemporary issues and problems. 

362. Field Experience One. (2) Practical experiences in elementary or secondary class- 
rooms. Weekly public school participation and seminar. Pass/fail only. 

363. Field Experience Two. (2) Further experiences in elementary or secondary class- 
rooms. Weekly public school participation and seminar. Pass /fail only. P — Education 

362. 

364. Field Experience Three: Secondary/Student Teaching. (6) Supervised teaching 
experience in grades 6-12. Pass/fail. P — Permission of instructor. 



107 



382. Reading and Writing in Content Areas. (2) A survey of methods for teaching 
reading and writing to help students learn in the various content areas, and of 
techniques for adapting instruction to the literacy levels of students. P — Permission 
of instructor. 

387. Tutoring Writing. (2) introduction to composition theory and rhetoric with a special 
emphasis on one-to-one tutoring techniques. Students will analyze their own writing 
process and experiences, study modern composition theory, and practice tutoring 
techniques in keeping with these theories. (Strongly recommended for those interested in 
working in the Writing Center as peer tutors.) A student may not receive credit for both 
Education 387 and English 287. 

390. Methods and Materials for Teaching Foreign Languages (K-6). (4) A survey of the 
basic materials, methods, and techniques of teaching foreign languages in the elementary 
and middle grades. Emphasis is placed on issues and problems involved in planning and 
implementing effective second language programs in grades K-6. Spring semester. 

391. Teaching the Gifted. (4) An investigation of theory and practice pertinent to teachers 
of the gifted. 

392. The Psychology of the Gifted Child. (4) A discussion of giftedness and creativity in 
children and the relationship of those characteristics to adult superior performance. 
Topics to be covered include a history of the study of precocity, methods and problems 
of identification, the relationship of giftedness and creativity, personality characteristics 
and social-emotional problems of gifted children, and the social implications of studying 
giftedness. 

393. Individual Study. (2,4) A project in an area of study not otherwise available in the 
Department of Education. Permitted upon departmental approval of petition presented 
by a qualified student. 

394. Internship in Education of the Gifted. (4) An intensive period of observation and 
instruction of gifted students. Readings and directed reflection upon the classroom 
experience will be used to develop a richer understanding of such a special school setting. 

395. Teaching Exceptional Students. (2) An introduction to understanding excep- 
tional students and effective teaching strategies for their inclusion in the regular 
classroom. 

396. Education in Business and Industry. (4) Educational concepts applied to 
programs in education and training in business/industrial settings. 

397. Research and Trends in the Teaching of Foreign Languages. (4) A study of 
current trends and issues in foreign language education. Research topics include 
language and linguistics, culture, and technology. Offered alternate summers in French- 
or Spanish-speaking countries. Offered other summers on campus. 

398. Seminar in Secondary Education. (1) An investigation of the issues that form the 
context for teaching in secondary schools. 



108 



English 



Barry G. Maine, Chair 

Nancy J. Cotton, Chair-elect 

Professors John A. Carter Jr., Nancy J. Cotton, Mary K. DeShazer, Andrew V. Ettin, 

James S. Hans, W. Dillon Johnston, Robert W. Lovett, Dolly A. McPherson, 

William M. Moss, Gillian R. Overing, Robert N. Shorter, Edwin G. Wilson 

Associate Professors Anne Boyle, Philip Kuberski, Barry G. Maine, 

Gale Sigal, Claudia N. Thomas 

Assistant Professors Bashir El-Beshti, Julie B. Edelson (part-time), 

Scott Klein, Elizabeth Petrino 

Visiting Assistant Professors Andrea Atkin, Marsha Holmes, 

Mark Sexton, Michele S. Ware 

Lecturer in Journalism Wayne King 

Lecturer Patricia A. Johansson 

Visiting Lecturer in Journalism Justin Catanoso 

Visiting Poets-in-Residence Carol Ann Duffy, Robert Hedin 

Instructor Thomas McGohey 

Visiting Instructors Carolyn L. Mathews, Phillip Novak, Jeryll Prescott 

The major in English requires a minimum of forty credits, at least thirty-two of which must 
be in advanced language and literature courses numbered 300 to 399. These courses must 
include Shakespeare, two additional courses in British literature before 1800, one course 
in American literature, and a major seminar, which must be taken no later than the spring 
semester of the junior year. Majors and their advisers plan individual programs to meet 
these requirements and to include work in the major literary genres. 

A minor in English requires English 160 or 165 and English 170 or 175, plus twenty 
credits in advanced language and literature courses. Each minor will be assigned an 
adviser in the English department who will plan a program of study with the student. 

The prerequisite for all 300-level courses in English is any one of the courses in British 
and American literature numbered 160, 165, 170, and 175, all of which are offered each 
semester. Additional courses in journalism and writing are offered by the department as 
related subjects but do not count toward an English major; they may be taken as electives 
regardless of the field of study in which a student majors. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply in the second semester 
of their junior year for admission to the honors program in English. To graduate with 
"Honors in English," students must have a minimum grade-point average of 3.5 in the 
major and 3.0 in all course work and must satisfy the requirements for English 388 during 
their senior year. Interested students may consult departmental faculty members for 
further information. 

Lower Division Courses 

11. Composition Review. (0) A tutorial in the essentials of standard usage and the basic 
principles of composition. 



109 



105. Introduction to Critical Reading and Writing. (4) Training in the fundamentals of 
written English and introduction to the activities basic to undergraduate study: critical 
reading and writing, interpretation, report, and discussion. Admission by placement 
only; does not satisfy the basic composition requirement. 

*110. English Composition. (4) Training in expository writing; frequent essays based 
upon readings. 

*111. Writing Seminar. (4) Training in expository writing; frequent essays based on 
readings in a selected topic. 

*112. English Composition and Literature. (4) Training in expository writing; frequent 
essays based on the reading of literature. P — Permission of department. 

160. Introduction to British Literature. (4) Eight to ten writers representing different 
periods and genres. 

165. Studies in British Literature. (4) Three to five writers representing different periods; 
primarily discussion, with frequent short papers. Limited enrollment. P — Permission of 
department. 

170. Introduction to American Literature. (4) Emphasis on a minimum of seven writers 
of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, including both prose and poetry. 

175. Studies in American Literature. (4) Three to five writers representing different 
periods; primarily discussion, with frequent short papers. Limited enrollment. P — 
Permission of department. 

210. Advanced Composition. (4) Study of prose models of exposition; frequent papers 
and individual conferences. Enrollment limited. P — Satisfaction of basic composition 
requirement. 

299. Individual Study. (2-4) A course of independent study with faculty guidance. By 
prearrangement. 

Journalism Courses 

See section on Journalism, page 139. 

Writing Courses 

285. Poetry Workshop. (2) A laboratory course in the writing of verse. Study of poetic 
techniques and forms as well as works of contemporary poets. Frequent individual 
conferences. 

286. Short Story Workshop. (2) A study of the fundamental principles of short fiction 
writing; practice in writing; extensive study of short story form. P — Permission of 
instructor. 



*Either 110, 111, or 112 is a prerequisite for all other courses in English unless the basic requirement is 
waived. Any course fulfills the basic requirement. 



110 



287. Tutoring Writing. (2) Introduction to composition theory and rhetoric, with a special 
emphasis on one-to-one tutoring techniques. Students will analyze their own writing 
process and experiences, study modern composition theory, and practice tutoring 
techniques in keeping with these theories. Strongly recommended for those interested in 
working in the Writing Center as peer tutors. A student may not receive credit for both 
Education 387 and English 287. 

383, 384. Theory and Practice of Poetry Writing. (4,4) Emphasis on reading and discuss- 
ing student poems in terms of craftsmanship and general principles. 

Advanced Language and Literature Courses 

300. Seminar in the Major. (4) Selected topics in British and American literature. Intensive 
practice in critical discourse, including discussion, oral reports, and short essays. Intro- 
duction to literary scholarship and research methodology leading to a documented paper. 
Required for all majors. 

301. Individual Authors. (2) Study of selected work from an important American or 
British author. May be repeated. 

302. Ideas in Literature. (2) Study of a significant literary theme in selected works. May 
be repeated. 

304. History of the English Language. (4) A survey of the development of English syntax, 
morphology, and phonology from Old English to the present, with attention to vocabu- 
lary growth. 

305. Old English Language and Literature. (4) An introduction to the Old English 
language and a study of the historical and cultural background of Old English literature, 
including Anglo-Saxon and Viking art, runes, and Scandinavian mythology. Readings 
from Beoumlf and selected poems and prose. 

310. The Medieval World. (4) Through the reading of primary texts, this course will 
examine theological, philosophical, and cultural assumptions of the Middle Ages. Topics 
may include Christian providential history, drama, devotional literature, the Franciscan 
controversy, domestic life, and Arthurian romance. 

311. The Legend of Arthur. (4) The origin and development of the Arthurian legend in 
France and England, with emphasis on the works of Chretien de Troyes and Sir Thomas 
Malory. 

312. Medieval Poetry. (4) The origin and development of poetic genres and lyric forms of 
Middle English. 

315. Chaucer. (4) Emphasis on The Canterbury Tales and Troilus and Criseyde, with some 
attention to minor poems. Consideration of literary, social, religious, and philosophical 
background. 

320. British Drama to 1642. (4) British drama from its beginning to 1642, exclusive of 
Shakespeare. Representative cycle plays, moralities, Elizabethan and Jacobean tragedies, 
comedies, and tragicomedies. 



Ill 



323. Shakespeare. (4) Thirteen representative plays illustrating Shakespeare's develop- 
ment as a poet and dramatist. 

325. Sixteenth-Century British Literature. (4) Concentration on the poetry of Spenser, 
Sidney, Shakespeare, Wyatt, and Drayton, with particular attention to sonnets and The 
Faerie Queene. 

326. Studies in English Renaissance Literature. (4) Selected topics in Renaissance 
literature. Consideration of texts and their cultural background. 

327. Milton. (4) The poetry and selected prose of John Milton, with emphasis on Paradise 
Lost. 

328. Seventeenth-Century British Literature. (4) Poetry of Donne, Herbert, Vaughan, 
Marvel, Crashaw; prose of Bacon, Burton, Browne, Walton. Consideration of religious, 
political, and scientific backgrounds. 

330. British Literature of the Eighteenth Century. (4) Representative poetry and prose, 
exclusive of the novel, 1700-1800, drawn from Addison, Steele, Defoe, Swift, Pope, 
Johnson, and Boswell. Consideration of cultural backgrounds and significant literary 
trends. 

335. Eighteenth-Century British Fiction. (4) Primarily the fiction of Defoe, Richardson, 
Fielding, Smollett, Sterne, and Austen. 

336. Restoration and Eighteenth-Century British Drama. (4) British drama from 1660 to 
1780, including representative plays by Dryden, Etherege, Wycherley, Congreve, Gold- 
smith, and Sheridan. 

337. Studies in Eighteenth-Century British Literature. (4) Selected topics in eighteenth 
century literature. Consideration of texts and their cultural background. 

340. Studies in Women and Literature. (4) A. The woman writer in society. B. Feminist 
critical approaches to literature. 

350. British Romantic Poets. (4) A review of the beginnings of Romanticism in British 
literature, followed by study of Wordsworth, Coleridge, Byron, Keats, and Shelley; 
collateral reading in the prose of the period. 

353. Nineteenth-Century British Fiction. (4) Representative major works by Dickens, 
Eliot, Thackeray, Hardy, the Brontes, and others. 

354. Victorian Poetry. (4) A study of Tennyson, Browning, Hopkins, and Arnold or 
another Victorian poet. 

360. Studies in Victorian Literature. (4) Selected topics, such as development of genres, 
major authors and texts, and cultural influences. Readings in poetry, fiction, autobiogra- 
phy, and other prose. 

362. Blake, Yeats, and Thomas. (4) Reading and critical analysis of the poetry of Blake, 
Yeats, and Dylan Thomas; study of the plays of Yeats and his contemporaries in the Irish 
Renaissance, especially Synge and Lady Gregory. 



112 



364. Studies in Literary Criticism. (4) Consideration of certain figures and schools of 
thought significant in the history of literary criticism. 

365. Twentieth-Century British Fiction. (4) A study of Conrad, Lawrence, Joyce, Forster, 
Woolf, and later British writers, with attention to their social and intellectual back- 
grounds. 

366. James Joyce. (4) The major works by James Joyce, with an emphasis on Ulysses. 

367. Twentieth-Century English Poetry. (4) A study of twentieth-century poets of the 
English language, exclusive of the U.S. Poets, will be read in relation to the literary and 
social history of the period. 

368. Studies in Irish Literature. (4) Critical readings of the works of major Irish writers 
within the context of the political, social, and literary history of Ireland. 

369. Modern Drama. (4) Main currents in modern drama from nineteenth-century 
realism and naturalism through symbolism and expressionism. After an introduction to 
European precursors, the course focuses on representative plays by Wilde, Shaw, Synge, 
Yeats, O'Neill, Eliot, Hellman, Wilder, Williams, Hansberry, and Miller. 

370. American Literature to 1820. (4) Origins and development of American literature and 
thought in representative writings of the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal periods. 

372. American Romanticism. (4) Writers of the mid-nineteenth century, including 
Emerson, Thoreau, Hawthorne, and Melville. 

375. American Drama. (4) A historical overview of drama in America, covering such 
playwrights as Boucicault, O'Neill, Hellman, Wilder, Williams, Inge, Miller, Hansberry, 
Albee, Shepard, Norman, Mamet, and Wilson. 

376. American Poetry before 1900. (4) Readings and critical analysis of American poetry 
from its beginnings to the end of the nineteenth century, including Bradstieet, Emerson, 
Longfellow, Melville, and Poe, with particular emphasis on Whitman and Dickinson. 

377. American Jewish Literature. (4) A survey of writings on Jewish topics or experiences 
by American Jewish writers. The course explores cultural and generational conflicts, 
responses to social change, the impact of the Shoah (Holocaust) on American Jews, and 
the challenges of language and form posed by Jewish and non-Jewish artistic traditions. 

378. Literature of the American South. (4) A study of Southern literature from its 
beginnings to the present, with emphasis upon such major writers as Tate, Warren, 
Faulkner, O'Connor, Welty, and Styron. 

379. Literary Forms of the American Personal Narrative. (4) Reading and critical analysis 
of autobiographical texts in which the ideas, style, and point of view of the writer are 
examined to demonstrate how these works contribute to an understanding of pluralism 
in American culture. Representative authors may include Hurston, Wright, Kingston, 
Angelou, Wideman, Sarton, Chuang Hua, Crews, and Dillard. 



113 



380. American Fiction from 1865 to 1915. (4) Such writers as Twain, James, Howells, 
Crane, Dreiser, Wharton, and Cather. 

381. Studies in Black American Literature. (4) Reading and critical analysis of selected 
fiction, poetry, drama, and other writing by representative black Americans. 

382. Modern American Fiction, 1915 to 1965. (4) To include such writers as Stein, Lewis, 
Anderson, Hemingway, Fitzgerald, Faulkner, Dos Passos, Wolfe, Wright, Ellison, Agee, 
Flannery O'Connor, and Pynchon. 

385. Twentieth-Century American Poetry. (4) Readings of modern American poetry in 
relation to the literary and social history of the period. 

386. Directed Reading. (2-4) A tutorial in an area of study not otherwise provided by the 
department; granted upon departmental approval of petition presented by a qualified 
student. 

388. Honors in English. (4) A conference course centering upon a special reading 
requirement and a thesis requirement. For senior students wishing to graduate with 
"Honors in English." 

390. The Structure of English. (4) An introduction to the principles and techniques of 
modern linguistics applied to contemporary American English. 

394. Contemporary Drama. (4) The course will consider experiments in form and 
substance in plays from Godot to the present. Readings will cover such playwrights as 
Beckett, Osborne, Pinter, Stoppard, Churchill, Wertenbaker, Albee, Shepard, Mamet, 
Wilson, Soyinka, and Fugard. 

395. Contemporary American Literature. (4) A study of post-World War II American 
poetry and fiction by such writers as Bellow, Gass, Barth, Pynchon, Lowell, Ashbery, 
Amnions, Bishop, and Rich. 



Environmental Studies* 

(Interdisciplinary Minor) 

The interdisciplinary minor in Environmental Studies requires a minimum of 26 
credits: the core course, Introduction to Environmental Studies; (Env 201); Physics and 
Chemistry of the Environment (Env 225); Evolutionary and Ecological Biology (Bio 113); 
Environmental Geography (Edu/Hum 274); The Political Economy of Environmental 
Policy (Econ 168); Culture and Nature (Ant 260); and one elective. It is recommended 
that Introduction to Environmental Studies be the introductory course, usually taken in 
the sophomore year. Students intending to minor in Environmental Studies should 
consult the faculty coordinator, preferably during the freshman or sophomore years. 



*This minor was not available during the 1995-96 academic year. It will be offered in the 1996-97 year. 



114 



201. Introduction to Environmental Studies. (4) An interdisciplinary course 
taught by faculty representing a number of fields. Topics include scientific 
principles, human populations, resource management, pollution and environ- 
mental ethics. 

225. Physics and Chemistry of the Environment. (5) The course covers the basic 
physical and chemical processes in the earth's atmosphere, biosphere and the 
oceans. It consists of two parts: (i) chemical processes in the environment such as 
element cycles and the chemistry of the pollutants in air and water and, (ii) 
physical aspects of the environment such as solar energy and the atmosphere, and 
the physics of weather and climate. Lab — Three hours. P — Chemistry 111 or 
Physics 113. 

The following courses may be included in the minor. (See course descriptions 
under appropriate listings.) 

Biology 340. Ecology. (5) 

341. Marine Biology. (5) 

342. Aquatic Ecology. (5) 

(Additional science and humanity courses are being solicited.) 



German and Russian 

Timothy F. Sellner, Chair 

Professors William S. Hamilton, Timothy F. Sellner, Larry E. West 

Associate Professor Kurt C. Shaw 

Assistant Professor Rebecca Thomas 

Lecturers Christa G. Carollo, Perry L. Patterson, Stefanie H. Tanis 

A major in German requires thirty-seven credits beyond German 112 or 113. These must 
include German 217; at least one course from among the sequence 249, 281, 285; and the 
seminar for majors. A minor in German requires five courses beyond German 153, 
including German 217 and at least one course from among the sequence 249, 281, 285. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in German. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in German," 
they must complete a senior research project and pass a comprehensive examination. For 
additional information, members of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

Students of German are invited to apply for the exchange scholarship at the Free 
University of Berlin, the W. D. Sanders Scholarships and program of study at Freiburg, 
Berlin, and Vienna, administered by the Institute of European Studies. Majors and minors 
are strongly encouraged to live at least one semester in the German House. 

Ill, 112. Elementary German. (4, 4) This course covers the principles of grammar and 
pronunciation and includes the reading of simple texts. Lab — one hour. 



115 



113. Intensive Elementary German. (5) A one-semester course covering the material of 
German 111 and 112. For students whose preparation for German 153 is inadequate or 
who have demonstrated proficiency in another language. Not open to students who have 
had German 111 or 112. 

153. Intermediate German. (5) The principles of grammar are reviewed; reading of 
selected prose and poetry. Lab — one hour. P — German 112 or 113. 

153x. Intermediate German. (4) The principles of grammar are reviewed; reading of 
selected prose and poetry. Lab — one hour. P — Three years of high school German. 

160. German Language and Customs. (4) Students spend one month in four different 
regions of Germany and Austria in a program designed to provide constant exposure to 
the language, customs, geography, and art of these countries. Students attend daily 
language classes as well as lectures and cultural events. They are required to keep a journal 
in German. Pass/fail. Offered in summer. P — German 112 or 113. 

215, 216. Introduction to German Literature. (4,4) The object of this course is to acquaint 
students with masterpieces of German literature. Parallel reading and reports. P — 
German 153 or equivalent. 

217. Composition and Grammar Review. (4) A review of the fundamentals of German 
grammar with intensive practice in translation and composition. Required for majors. P — 
German 153 or equivalent. 

218. Basic Conversation. (4) Practice in speaking German, stressing correctness of 
structure, phonetics, pronunciation, fluency, and vocabulary for everyday situations. P — 
German 153 or equivalent. 

219. Advanced Conversation. (4) Practice in speaking German at a more advanced level, 
stressing discussion of various topics of current importance in the German-speaking 
countries. Considerable attention is devoted to achieving fluency. P — German 218 or 
permission of instructor. 

220. German Civilization I. (4) Survey of German culture and civilization from prehis- 
toric times to 1918. Conducted in German. P — 153 or equivalent. 

221. German Civilization II. (4) Survey of German culture and civilization from the 
Weimar Republic to the present, with particular emphasis on contemporary Germany. 
Conducted in German. P — 153 or equivalent. 

229. German for Business and Economics. (4) Introduction to the spoken and written 
language of the German business world. Emphasis on business correspondence and oral 
proficiency skills for banking, import/export and commercial transactions. P — German 
217 and 218 or permission of instructor. 

231. Weimar Germany. (4) Art, literature, music, and film of Weimar Germany, 1919-33, 
in historical context. (Also listed as History 318.) 



116 



240. Masterworks in Translation. (2) Examination and interpretation of selected texts in 
English translation. Literary periods, genres, and authors will vary according to instruc- 
tor. Does not count toward a major or minor in German. 

249. German Literature before 1700. (4) A survey of German literature of the Middle 
Ages, Reformation, and Baroque eras; emphasizes the chivalric period, medieval drama, 
Martin Luther, and the Baroque period. P — German 215, 216, or equivalent. 

270. Individual Study. ( 1 -4) Readings on selected topics in literature or current events not 
ordinarily covered in other courses. P — German 215, 216, and permission of instructor. 

281. German Literature from the Enlightenment through Romanticism. (4) Selected 
works from the Enlightenment, the Storm and Stress period, the poetry and major dramas 
of Goethe and Schiller, and German Romanticism. P — German 215, 216, or equivalent. 

285. German Literature from Poetic Realism to the Modern Age. (4) Intensive study of 
representative works of major German writers from 1848 to the present, including 
literature of the post-war era. P — German 215, 216, or equivalent. 

287, 288. Honors in German. (3,3) A conference course in German literature. A major 
research paper is required. Designed for candidates for departmental honors. 

300. Seminar in the Major. (4) Selected genre topics in German literature. Intensive 
practice in critical discourse, including discussion and an oral presentation 
(referat). Introduction to literary scholarship and research methodology leading to a 
documented paper. Required for all majors. P — German 249, 281, 285, or equivalent. May 
be repeated. 

Russian 

A major requires thirty-two credits beyond 153 and must include Russian 215, 216, 221, 
and either 217 or 218. A minor in Russian requires twenty credits beyond 153, four of 
which must be earned in Russian 221. Students of Russian are invited to apply for study 
at Moscow State University and for programs of study in Moscow and Kiev, administered 
by the Institute of European Studies. Majors and minors are strongly encouraged to live 
at least one semester in the Russian House. 

Ill, 112. Elementary Russian. (4,4) The essentials of Russian grammar, conversation drill, 
and reading of elementary texts. Lab required. 

153. Intermediate Russian. (5) Principles of Russian grammar are reviewed and ex- 
panded upon; reading of short prose pieces and materials from the Soviet press. Lab 
required. P — Russian 112 or equivalent. 

215. Introduction to Russian Literature. (4) Reading of edited texts from the nineteenth 
century. P — Russian 153 or equivalent. 



117 



216. Introduction to Russian Literature. (4) Reading of edited texts from the twentieth 
century. P — Russian 153 or equivalent. 

217. Seminar in Nineteenth Century Russian Literature. (4) A study of the foremost 
writers, with reading of representative works. P — Russian 153 or equivalent. 

218. Seminar in Twentieth Century Russian Literature. (4) A study of the foremost 
writers, with reading of representative works. P — Russian 153 or equivalent. 

221. Advanced Conversation and Composition. (4) Study of grammar at the advanced 
level. Intensive practice in composition and conversation based on contemporary Soviet 
materials. 

230. The Structure of Russian. (4) The linguistic tools of phonetics, phonemics, and 
morphophonemics are explained and applied to modern Russian. Emphasis is given to 
the study of roots and word formation. P — Permission of instructor required. 

232. The History of the Russian Language. (4) The evolution of Russian from Common 
Slavic to the modern language; theory of linguistic reconstruction and the Indo-European 
family; readings from selected Old East Slavic texts. P — Russian 221 and permission of 
instructor. 

240. Seminar in Translation. (4) Advanced work in English-to-Russian and Russian-to- 
English translation. P — Russian 221 and permission of instructor. 

242. Research on Language and Culture in Russia. (2) An investigation designed by the 
student is carried out in Russia during spring break. An evaluative paper follows the class 
trip. Credit given for the minor when the project is done in Russian. P — Russian 111 and 
permission of instructor. Limited enrollment. 

250. Russian Culture and Civilization. (4) Survey of Russian contributions to art, 
architecture, music, and religious thought from Russia's beginnings to the present. 
Taught m Russian. P — Russian 215 or 216. 

252. Russian Poetry. (4) Survey of Russian poetry from Slovo o polku Igoreve to the present, 
with particular emphasis on the works of major nineteenth and twentieth century poets. 
P— Russian 215 or 216. 

270. Individual Study. (2-4) Study in language or literature beyond the 215-216 level. P — 
Russian 215 or higher. 

275. Studies in Russian Literature. (4) Selected special topics in Russian literature. P — 
Russian 215 or 216. 

285. Recent Russian Fiction. (4) Readings of selected prose works from the 1970s to 
the present by such writers as Iksander, Voinovich, Bitov, Tolstaya, Petrushevskaya, 
and Viktor Erofeev. P — Russian 215 or 216. 



118 



German Studies 

(Foreign Area Study) 
Timothy F. Sellner (German/Russian), Coordinator 

Twelve or thirteen credits from German 153, 215, 216, 217, 220, or 221 are required. In 
addition, the student should take four courses from the following three groups, at least 
one from each group. (See course descriptions under appropriate listings.) 

Group 1 

History 318. Weimar Germany. (4)* 

320. Germany: Unification to Unification, 1871-1900 (4) 
* Also listed as German 231. 
Group 2 

Politics 233. The Politics of Modern Germany. (4) 

273. Radical Critiques of Political Society. (4) 
Group 3 

Philosophy 341. Kant. (4) 

352. Hegel, Kierkegaard, and Nietzche. (4) 

Appropriate credit in the above areas may be obtained by study in Germany. 



Health and Exercise Science 

Paul M. Ribisl, Chair 

Professors William L. Hottinger, Stephen P. Messier, 

W. Jack Rejeski, Paul M. Ribisl 

Associate Professors Michael J. Berry, Leo Ellison 

Assistant Professors Peter H. Brubaker, Jennifer L. Etnier, Barbee Myers Oakes 

Visiting Assistant Professor Robert W. Brooks 

Adjunct Assistant Professor Timothy J. Zehnder 

Instructors Donald Bergey, Johnnie Foye, David Stroupe 

The purpose of the Department of Health and Exercise Science is to organize, administer, 
and supervise (1) a health and exercise science curriculum and (2) a required/elective health and 
exercise science program consisting of conditioning activities and lifetime sport activities. 

Health and Exercise Science Requirement 

All students must complete Health and Exercise Science 100 and 101. This requirement 
must be met before enrollment in additional health and exercise science elective courses, 
and in any case by the end of the second year. 



119 



Courses in Basic Instruction and Elective Health and Exercise Science 

All the courses listed below are offered for one credit each. 

100. Lifestyle and Health. A lecture course that deals with the effect of lifestyle behaviors 
on various health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and sexually- 
transmitted diseases. 

101 . Exercise for Health. A laboratory course on physical fitness that covers weight control, 
cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, and flexibility. 

112. Sports Proficiency (May be taken only one time.) 

113. Adaptive Physical Activity (May be repeated one time for credit.) 

114. Weight Control 

115. Physical Conditioning (May be taken only one time.) 

116. Weight Tra in ing 
119. Aerobic Dancing 

140. Beginning Swimming 

141. Intermediate/ Advanced Swimming 

150. Beginning Tennis 

151. Intermediate Tennis 
156. Racquetball 

160. Beginning Golf 

161 Intermediate Golf 

163. Bowling 

170. Volleyball 

179. Beginning Horseback Riding (P/F grade only) 

180. Intermediate/Advanced Horseback Riding (P/F grade only. May be repeated once for 
credit.) 

181. Snow Skiing (P/F grade only) 

182. Beginning Ice Figure Skating 

183 Intermediate/Advanced Ice Figure Skating 
190. Karate 

246. Water Safety Instructor's Course (P — Current emergency water safety or lifeguard 
training certification) 

Courses for the Major 

The department offers a program leading to the BS degree in health and exercise science. 
A major requires thirty-eight credits and must include Health and Exercise Science 230, 
262, 312, 350, 351, 352, 353, 354, and 370. Majors are not allowed to apply any Health and 
Exercise Science 100-level courses or HES 205, 206, or 246 toward the thirty-eight hours 
required for graduation. A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 is required for gradua- 
tion in courses that comprise a major in the department. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in health and exercise science by the second semester of the junior year. 
To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Health and Exercise Science," a student 
must have a minimum grade-point average of 3.3 in the major and 3.0 in all course work 
and complete an honors research project which includes a written and an oral report. For 
additional information, students should consult the departmental chair. 



120 



Any student interested in majoring in health and exercise science should consult the 
chair of the department as soon as possible after entering the University. 

201. Health Issues on College Campuses - 1. (2) Introduction to concepts and methods of 
peer health education; development of teaching and group facilitation skills. (P/F grade 
only.) P — Permission of instructor. 

202. Health Issues on College Campuses - II. (2) Development and delivery of educa- 
tional programs on a variety of health issues relevant to college students. (P/F grade only.) 
P — Health and Exercise Science 201 . 

205. Basic Skin and Scuba Diving and Open Water Certification. (2) A course in skin and 
SCUBA diving that offers international certification by the Professional Association of 
Diving Instructors (PADI). 




Two health and exercise science students identify anatomical structures on a human skeleton. 



121 



206. Lifeguard Training. (2) This course is designed to provide students with skills in first 
aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and lifeguard training that will qualify them to serve 
as nonsurf lifeguards. 

230. Advanced First Aid. (2) A course in advanced first aid and cardiopulmonary 
resuscitation. Red Cross Advanced First Aid and Community CPR certification offered. 

262. Statistics in the Health Sciences. (4) Basic statistics with an emphasis on application 
to research in the health sciences. Students are introduced to graphics and statistical 
software for statistical analysis. (A student receiving credit for this course may not also 
receive credit for Anthropology 380, Biology 380, Business 201, or Sociology 380.) 

310. Applied Field Study. (2) A course involving application of theory and methods of 
solving problems in a specialized area according to the student's immediate career goals. 
(P/F grade only, open only to majors.) P — Permission of instructor. 

311. Internship in Rehabilitation. (2) A semester experience in the campus rehabili- 
tation programs. This experience includes written case study analyses of selected 
patients with a focus upon risk factor assessment and review of multiple intervention 
strategies, in conjunction with participation in physiologic monitoring of patients 
during therapeutic sessions. Pass/ fail only; open only to majors. P — Permission of 
instructor. 

312. Exercise and Health Psychology. (4) A survey of the psychological antecedents of 
exercise and selected topics in health psychology with particular attention to wellness, 
stress, the biobehavioral basis of coronary heart disease, and the psychodynamics of 
rehabilitative medicine. P — Health and Exercise Science 262 or permission of instructor. 

350. Human Physiology. (4) A lecture course which presents the basic principles and 
concepts of the function of selected systems of the human body, with emphasis on the 
muscular, cardiovascular, pulmonary, and nervous systems. P — Biology 111, 112, or 114, 
or permission of instructor. 

351. Nutrition and Weight Control. (4) A lecture /laboratory course which presents the 
principles of proper nutrition including an understanding of the basic foodstuffs and 
nutrients as well as the influence of genetics, eating behavior, and activity patterns on 
energy balance and weight control. Laboratory experiences examine intervention in 
obesity and coronary heart disease through diet analysis, methods of diet prescription, 
and behavior modification. P — Health and Exercise Science 353 or permission of instructor. 

352. Human Gross Anatomy. (4) A lecture/ laboratory course in which the structure and 
function of the human body are studied. Laboratories are devoted to the dissection and 
study of the human musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, and vascular systems. 

353. Physiology of Exercise. (4) A lecture course which presents the concepts and 
applications of the physiological response of the human body to physical activity. The 
acute and chronic responses of the muscular and cardiorespiratory systems to exercise are 
examined. Other topics include exercise and coronary disease, nutrition and perfor- 



122 



mance, strength and endurance training, body composition, sex-related differences, and 
environmental influences. P — Health and Exercise Science 350 or permission of instructor. 

354. Assessment Techniques in Health Sciences. (4) A lecture /laboratory course to 
develop clinical skills and knowledge in the assessment of health in areas of exercise 
physiology, nutrition/metabolism,biomechanics/neuromuscular function, and health 
psychology. The laboratory will emphasize use of instrumentation and analysis/ 
interpretation of data collected on human subjects. P — Health and Exercise Science 
262, 350, and 352 or permission of instructor. 

355. Clinical Exercise Programming. (4) A lecture/laboratory course which presents the 
scientific principles of safe and effective exercise prescription for fitness programs. P — 
Health and Exercise Science 353 or permission of instructor. 

370. Biomechanics of Human Movement. (4) Study of the mechanical principles which 
influence human movement, sport technique, and equipment design.. P — Health and 
Exercise Science 352 or permission of instructor. 

375. Advanced Physiology of Exercise. (4) A lecture course which provides an in-depth 
examination of the physiological mechanisms responsible for both the acute and chronic 
changes which occur with exercise. Included are cellular changes in response to exercise, 
the ventilatory response to exercise and metabolic consequences of exercise. P — Health 
and Exercise Science 353 or permission of instructor. 

380. Physical Activity and Aging. (4) A lecture course which examines both normal/ 
abnormal aging from a physiological perspective and explores how aging and chronic 
disease affect performance of activities of daily living, including vocational and 
recreational activities. The potential of regular physical activity to delay or reverse the 
deleterious effects of aging and degenerative disease is investigated. P — Permission 
of instructor. 

382. Individual Study. (1-4) Independent study directed by a faculty adviser. The student 
must consult the adviser before registering for this course. P — Majors only and permis- 
sion of instructor. 

386. Honors Research. (4) Directed study and research in preparation for a major paper 
on a subject of mutual interest to the student and faculty honors adviser. Taken only by 
candidates for departmental honors. P — Permission of instructor and approval of depart- 
mental honors committee. 

Sports Medicine 

201. Basic Athletic Training. (3) A study of the basic knowledge and skills in the 
prevention, treatment, and care of common athletic injuries. 

302. Advanced Athletic Training. (4) An in-depth analysis of preventive measures, 
therapeutic modalities, and rehabilitative procedures employed in sports medicine. P — 
Health and Exercise Science 352. 



123 



History 



J. Edwin Hendricks, Chair 

Reynolds Professor Paul D. Escott 

Wake Forest Professor James P. Barefield 

Professors J. Edwin Hendricks, Thomas E. Mullen, Michael L. Sinclair, 

J. Howell Smith, Alan J. Williams, Richard L. Zuber 

Associate Professors Michael L. Hughes, Sarah L. Watts, 

William K. Meyers, Anthony S. Parent Jr. 

Assistant Professors Simone M. Caron, Susan Z. Rupp 

Visiting Assistant Professor Jeffrey D. Lerner 

Instructors Joanne Izbicki, Joshua M. Landis 

Visiting Instructor Wade Kit 

Lecturer Negley Boyd Harte (London) 

The major in history consists of a minimum of thirty-six credits and must include History 
288 or 310; seven to eight credits in European history; seven to eight credits chosen from 
among courses in Latin- American, Asian, or African history; and seven to eight credits in 
United States history. 

Majors may include within the required thirty-six credits up to eight credits of 
advanced placement or comparable work and up to four credits of any combination of 
independent study and directed reading other than the credits earned in History 397. 

A minor in history requires twenty-four credits. Courses that the student elects to take 
pass/fail do not meet the requirements for the major or minor. 

Highly qualified majors should apply for admission to the honors program in history. 
To be graduated with the designation "Honors in History," the student must complete 
History 287, present an honors-quality research paper, successfully defend the paper in 
an oral examination, and earn an overall grade-point average of 3.0 with an average of 3.3 
on work in history. For additional information, students should consult members of the 
department. 

Students contemplating graduate study should acquire a reading knowledge of one 
modern foreign language for the MA degree and two for the PhD degree. 

101. Western Civilization to 1700. (4) A survey of ancient, medieval, and early modern 
history to 1700. Focus varies with instructor. (Credit cannot be received for both 101 and 
103, or 102 and 104.) 

102. Europe and the World in the Modern Era. (4) A survey of modern Europe from 1 700 
to the present. Focus varies with instructor. (Credit cannot be received for both 101 and 

103. or 102 and 104.) 

103. World Civilizations to 1500. (4) A survey of the ancient, classical and medieval 
civilizations of Eurasia with a brief look at American and sub-Saharan societies. Focus 
varies with instructor. (Credit cannot be received for both 101 and 103, or 102 and 104.) 



. 



124 



104. World Civilizations since 1500. (4) A survey of the major civilizations of the world 
in the modern and contemporary periods. Focus varies with instructor. (Credit cannot be 
received for both 101 and 103, or 102 and 104.) 

131. European Historical Biography. (2) Study of biographies of men and women who 
have influenced the history and civilization of Europe. 

151, 152. The United States. (4,4) Political, social, economic, and intellectual aspects. 151: 
Before 1865,; 152: After 1865. Students who take History 153 may not take either of these 
courses for credit. 

153. The United States. (4) A topical survey combining 151 and 152. Not open to students 
\ -who take either 151 or 152. 



162. History of Wake Forest University (2) A survey of the history of Wake Forest from 
its beginning, including its written and oral traditions. The course may include a visit to 
the town of Wake Forest. 

211. Colloquium. (1-4) 

215, 216. The Ancient World. (4,4) Critical focus on the Greeks in the fall and Romans in 
the spring. 

222. The Renaissance and Reformation. (4) Europe from 1300 to 1600. Social, cultural, 
and intellectual developments stressed. 

2253. History of Venice. (4) The history of Venice from its origin to the fall of the 
Venetian Republic. Offered in Venice. 

2260. History of London. (2,4) Topographical, social, economic, and political history of 
London from the earliest times. Lectures, student papers and reports, museum visits and 
lectures, and on-site inspections. Offered in London. 

2262. The Golden Age of Burgundy. (2) Burgundian society, culture, and government in 
the reigns of Philip the Bold, John the Fearless, Philip the Good, and Charles the Rash, 
1384-1477. Offered in Dijon. 

2263. Venetian Society and Culture. (4) An examination of Venetian society, including 
the role within Venetian life of music, theater, the church, and civic ritual. Offered in Venice. 

2280. Georgian and Victorian Society and Culture. (4) Social and economic transforma- 
tion of England in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, with particular attention to the 
rise of professionalism and developments in the arts. Offered in London. 

232. European Historical Novels. (2) The role of the historical past in selected works of 
fiction. 

287, 288. Honors in History. (4,4) 287: Seminar on problems of historical synthesis and 
interpretation; 288: Writing of a major paper and examination on a special field. 

301. The Beginnings of the Modern World-View. (4) A study of the transition from 
ancient views of the world to the perspective of modern science, with focus on the works 



125 



of the Presocratic philosophers, Plato, and Aristotle. (Also listed as Natural Sciences 301 
and Philosophy 231.) 

302. The Mechanistic View of Nature. (4) An examination of the philosophical and 
scientific roots, in Descartes, Newton, and Leibniz, of the belief that the universe and 
human beings are "machines" subject to deterministic natural laws, and the relevance to 
this issue of modern scientific ideas. (Also listed as Interdisciplinary Honors 252, Natural 
Sciences 302, and Philosophy 242.) 

303. Revolutions in Modern Science. (4) An analysis of the ways in which radically new 
ideas are introduced and accepted in science. Cases studied are space and time in relativity 
theory, the nature of reality in quantum mechanics, evolution of species, and continental 
drift. P — At least one course in one of the relevant areas of science or permission of 
instructor. (Also listed as Interdisciplinary Honors 253 and Natural Sciences 303.) 

305. Modern Science and Human Values. (4) Four revolutionary developments in 
science and technology are studied with a focus on their potential to affect human values: 
biotechnology, cognitive science, recent primate research, and the search for extraterres- 
trial life. (Also listed as Interdisciplinary Honors 256 and Natural Sciences 352.) 

306. The Early Middle Ages. (4) European history from the end of the Ancient World to 
the mid-twelfth century, stressing social and cultural developments. 

307. The High Middle Ages Through the Renaissance. (4) European history from the 
mid-twelfth through the early sixteenth centuries, stressing social and cultural develop- 
ments. 

310. Seminar. (4) Offered by members of the faculty on topics of their choice. A paper is 
required. 

313, 314. European Economic and Social History, 1300-1990. (4,4) Changes in Europe's 
economic structures and how they affected Europeans' lives. Emphasizes how economic 
forces interacted with social and institutional factors. 313: 1300-1750; 314: 1750-1990. 

317. The French Revolution and Napoleonic Empire. (4) The revolution and wars that 
constitute one of the pivotal points in modern history. 

318. Weimar Germany. (4) Art, literature, music, and film of Weimar Germany, 1919- 
1933, in historical context. German or history credit determined at registration. 

319. Germany to 1871. (4) Social, economic, and political forces leading to the creation of 
a single German nation-state out of over 1,700 sovereign and semi-sovereign German 
states. 

320. Germany: Unification to Unification, 1871-1990. (4) The Germans' search for 
stability and unity in a society riven by conflict and on a continent riven by nationalism. 

321. France. (4) A history of France to the Revolution of 1789. 

322. France. (4) A history of France from 1789 to present. 



126 



323, 324. England. (4,4) A political and social survey, with some attention to Continental 
movements. 323: To 1603; 324: 1603 to present. 

325. Tudor and Early Stuart England. (4) A constitutional and social study of England 
from 1485 to 1641. 

3260. The Industrial Revolution in England. (4) A study of the social, economic, and 
political causes and effects of the Industrial Revolution in England. Offered in London. 

328. History of the English Common Law. (4) A study of the origins and development 
of the English common law and its legacy to modern legal processes and principles. 

331. Russia: Origins to 1865. (4) A survey of the political, social, and economic history of 
Russia, from its origins to the period of the Great Reforms under Alexander II. 

332. Russia and the Soviet Union: 1865 to the Present. (4) A survey of patterns of 
socioeconomic change from the late imperial period to the present, the emergence of the 
revolutionary movement, and the development of Soviet rule from its establishment to its 
collapse. 

333. European Diplomacy, 1848-1914. (4) The diplomacy of the great powers, with some 
attention given to the role of publicity in international affairs. Topics include the 
unification of Italy and of Germany, the Bismarckian system, and the coming of World 
War I. 

335, 336. Italy. (4,4) Cultural, social and political history of Italy. 335: Medieval and 
Renaissance Italy; 336: Nineteenth and twentieth-century Italy. 

340. African American History. (4) The role of African Americans in the development of 
the United States, with particular attention to African heritage, forced migration, Ameri- 
canization, and influence. 

341. History of Women in Modern Asia. (4) A survey of the political, economic, and 
cultural experiences of women in China, Taiwan, Japan, Vietnam, India, Pakistan, and 
Bangladesh from the mid-nineteenth century to the present. 

342. Imperialism and Nationalism in the Middle East since 1800. (4) An introduction 
to modern Middle Eastern history concentrating on international relations, the 
emergence of nation-states in the region, Arab nationalism, the Arab-Israeli conflict, 
the Iranian revolution, and great power politics in the Persian Gulf leading up to the 
Gulf war. 

343. Imperial China. (4) A study of traditional China to 1850, with emphasis on social, 
cultural, and political institutions. 

344. Modern China. (4) A study of China from 1644 to the present. 

345. Middle Eastern Culture and Society. (4) Social and cultural transformation of 
Turkey, Iran, Egypt, Israel, and Iraq since 1800, with particular attention to the role of 
nationalism, religious fundamentalism, and women. 



127 



3461. Foreign Encounters with Japan. (4) A colloquium on intercultural relations 
between Japan and the West. Focuses on the writings of Westerners residing in Japan in 
the late nineteenth century. Offered in Hiratsuka, Japan (Tokai University). 

346. Japan before 1600. (4) A survey of Japanese history from early origins to the 
beginning of the Tokugawa shogunate. Covers the rise of the Yamato state, the age of 
the Court, the ascendancy of samurai and shoguns, the period of the Warring States, 
and the rule of Hideyoshi. 

347. Japan since World War II. (4) A survey of Japanese history since the outbreak of the 
Pacific War, with emphasis on social and cultural developments. Topics may include 
occupation and recovery of independence, the "1955 System," high-growth economics, 
and the problems of prosperity in recent years. 

348. Japan since 1600. (4) Tokugawa era; Meiji Restoration; industrialization and 
urbanization; relations with the West; World War II; occupation; Japan in the contempo- 
rary world. 

350. Global Economic History. (4) An overview of the growth and development of the 
world economy from precapitalist organizations to the present system of developed and 
underdeveloped states. 

351. United States Social History to 1850. (4) A survey of American social history from 
colonial settlement to 1850. Topics include immigration, migration, ethnicity, gender, 
race, sexuality, labor, reform, poverty, religion, and urban growth. 

352. United States Social History since 1850. (4) A survey of American social history from 
1850 to 1990. Topics include immigration, ethnicity, gender, race, sexuality, labor, reform, 
poverty, and urban growth. 

353. Colonial English America, 1582-1774. (4) Determinative episodes, figures, alle- 
giances, apperceptions, and results of the period, organically considered. 

354. Revolutionary and Early National America, 1763-1815. (4) The American Revolu- 
tion, its causes and effects, the Confederation, the Constitution, and the new nation. 

355. The Westward Movement. (4) The role of the frontier in United States history, 1763- 
1890. 

356. Jacksonian America, 1815-1850. (4) The United States in the age of Jackson, Clay, 
Calhoun, and Webster. A biographical approach. 

357. The Civil War and Reconstruction. (4) The political and military events of the war 
and the economic, social, and political readjustments which followed. 

358. The United States from Reconstruction to World War I. (2,4) National progress and 
problems during an era of rapid industrialization. The course may be divided into halves 
for two credits each: (a) the Gilded Age; 0b) the Progressive Era. 

359. The United States from World War I through World War II. (4) The transition of 
America from World War I to 1945, with special emphasis on the significance of the New 
Deal and World War II. 



128 



360. The United States since World War II. (4) Trends and changes in the nation from 
World War II to the present. 

361. Economic History of the United States. (4) The economic development of the United 
States from colonial beginnings to the present. 

362. American Constitutional History. (4) Origins of the Constitution, the controversies 
involving the nature of the Union, and constitutional readjustments to meet the new 
American industrialism. 

363. 364. The South. (4,4) Geography, population elements, basic institutions, and 
selected events. 

365. Women in American History. (4) A survey of the role of women in America from the 
colonial period to the present. Possible topics include moral reform, the frontier, political 
and social activism, the labor movement, health reform, and peace movements. 

366. Studies in Historic Preservation. (4) An analysis of history museums and agencies 
and of the techniques of preserving and interpreting history through artifacts, restora- 
tions, and reconstructions. P — Permission of instructor. 

367, 368. North Carolina. (4,4) Selected phases of the development of North Carolina from 
the colonial period to the present. 367: To 1850; 368: Since 1850. 

369. The American Military Experience. (4) A survey of the military ideas and activities 
of the American people and their armed forces, with emphasis on the relationship 
between war and society. 

370. Topics in North Carolina History. (4) A general chronological survey of North 
Carolina with emphasis on selected topics. 

371. Winston-Salem/Forsyth County. (4) A history of the W T inston-Salem/ Forsyth 
County area utilizing the techniques of local history including local archives, museums, 
and oral history projects. Lectures, readings, and class projects. 

372. Introduction to African History. (4) An introduction to African history from the 
perspective of the continent as a whole. The historical unity of the African continent and 
its relation to other continents will be stressed. 

373. History of Mexico. (4) An examination of the history of Mexico from the colonial 
period to the present. 

374. Protest and Rebellion in Latin America. (4) A study of the history of protest 
movements and rebellions in Latin America from primitive and agrarian revolts to mass 
working class and socialist organizations. 

375. Modern Latin America. (4) A survey of Latin- American history since Independence, 
with emphasis on the twentieth century. The course will concentrate chiefly on econom- 
ics, politics, and race. 

376. Civil Rights and Black Consciousness Movements. (4) A social and religious history 
of the African- American struggle for citizenship rights and freedom from World War II 
to the present. (Also listed as Religion 341.) 



129 



3760. Anglo-American Relations since 1940. (4) A study of the relations between the 
United States and Britain from 1940 to the present. Offered in London. 

377. American Diplomatic History. (4) An introduction to the history of American 
diplomacy since 1776, emphasizing the effects of public opinion on fundamental policies. 

378. Struggles for Freedom in Southern Africa and the United States. (4) Comparison 
of the liberatory movements in Southern Africa and the United States during the 
twentieth century. (Also listed as Religion 348.) 

379. Origins of The Americas. (4) A unified, comparative history of North, Central, and 
South America from ancient times to the present. 

381, 382. Preservation Practicum I, II. (4,4) Training in the techniques and skills of 
historical preservation. Emphasis will vary according to the specific site(s) involved. P — 
Permission of instructor. 

393, 394. American Foundations I, II. (4,4) Interdisciplinary study of American art, 
history, literature, and music. Using its collection of American art as the basis for study, 
Reynolda House Museum of American Art, in cooperation with Wake Forest University, 
invites twenty students to study with five professors from various disciplines through 
lectures, discussions, and concerts, including a study tour to New York City. (Taught in 
the summer; students enroll for both courses.) 

397. Historical Writing Tutorial. (2) Individual supervision of historical writing to 
improve a project initiated in History 288 or History 310. P — Permission of instructor. 
(Does not count toward major or minor requirements.) 

398. Individual Study. (1-4) A project in an area of study not otherwise available in the 
department; permitted upon departmental approval of petition presented by a qualified 
student. 

399. Directed Reading. (1-4) Concentrated reading in an area of study not otherwise 
available. P — Permission of instructor. 



Humanities 

William S. Hamilton, Coordinator 

W.R. Kenan Jr. Professor of Humanities Allen Mandelbaum 

Reynolds Professor of American Studies Maya Angelou 

Associate Professor Robert L. Utley Jr. 

Associate Professor Ulrike Wiethaus 



206. Perspectives on the American Experience in Vietnam. (2 or 4) An examination 
of the American experience in Vietnam from the perspective of literature, art, and 
film, as well as historical and political writings. 



130 



Humanities courses 213-222 are designed to introduce students toivorks of literature which would 
not be included in their normal course of study. Each course includes a reading in translation of ten 
to twelve representative authors. 

213. Studies in European Literature. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as Dante, 
Montaigne, Cervantes, Goethe, Dostoevsky, and Camus. Satisfies a Division I require- 
ment. 

214. Contemporary Fiction. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as Mann, Sartre, 
Unamuno, Fuentes, Moravia, and Voinovich. Satisfies a Division I requirement. 

215. Germanic and Slavic Literature. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as Hoffmann, 
Kafka, Dostoevsky, Dinesen, Ibsen, Pushkin, and Chekhov. Satisfies a Division I require- 
ment. 

216. Romance Literature. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as Boccaccio, Calderon, 
Flaubert, Machado de Assis, Gide, and Lampedusa. Satisfies a Division I requirement. 

217. European Drama. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as Moliere, Garcia Lorca, 
Pirandello, Schiller, Brecht, Ibsen, and Beckett. Satisfies a Division I requirement. 

218. Eastern European Literature. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as Tolstoy, 
Solzhenitsyn, Gogol, Andric, Milosz, and Szabo. Satisfies a Division I requirement. 

219. Introduction to Japanese Literature. (4) Major works of poetry, drama and fiction 
from the classical and modern periods. Satisfies a Division I requirement. 

221. Introduction to Chinese Literature. (4) Readings and discussions in fiction, drama 
and poetry from the traditional and modern periods. Satisfies a Division I requirement. 

222. African and Caribbean Literature. (4) An examination of the negritude movement 
and the negro-African novel. Texts studied are by such authors as Aime Cesaire, Leopold 
Senghor, Ousmane Sembene, and Mariama Ba. Satisfies a Division I requirement. 

230. Women Writers in Contemporary Italy. (4) Readings and discussions of texts by 
women writers in post-fascist Italy that reflect the feminine perspective on issues in 
contemporary Italian society and society at large. Authors include Naraini, Morante, 
Fallaci, Ginzburg, deCespedes, and Ortese. (Qualifies, with modifications, for the minor 
in Italian.) 

235. After Auschwitz: Holocaust Literature, Art, and Theology. (4) A survey of the 
ways in which novelists, poets, theologians, and culture critics have struggled to come 
to terms with the cataclysmic events of the Shoah. The course will consider textual, 
visual, and architectural responses such as poetry, films, memorials, and paintings. 

242. Research on Culture in Russia. (2) An investigation designed by the student is 
carried out in Russia during spring break. An evaluative term paper follows the class trip. 
Students who have studied any Russian should enroll under Russian 242. Limited 
enrollment. P — Permission of instructor. 



131 



245. Interdisciplinary Seminar in Critical Thinking. (2) An investigation of cross- 
disciplinary issues. Designed to encourage experimental, interdisciplinary thinking and 
writing. 

260. Problems of Structure. (2-4) An investigation into structures arising in the natural 
world and into structures created by human effort. 

265. Gender, Spirituality, and Art. (4) An introduction to the current discussion of the 
nature of art and spiritual experience, with special attention to definitions of feminin- 
ity and masculinity in the construction of symbols and religious meaning. 

274. Environmental Geography. (4) A systematic study of major environmental issues 
on a global scale with an exploration of implications and possible solutions. P — Permis- 
sion of instructor. (Also listed as Education 274.) 

280. Reason and Revelation. (4) An investigation of the intellectual roots of Western 
civilization as they are found in the emergence of philosophical universalism and Biblical 
monotheism. These distinctive approaches will be considered through a reading of such 
authors as Plato, Hesiod, Aristophanes, and St. Thomas Aquinas, and of selections from 
the Bible. 

282. Public Life and the Liberal Arts. (4) The course will be devoted to topics of abiding 
public significance. Fundamental dilemmas and resolutions associated with each topic 
will be examined through a consideration of their treatment in the liberal arts tradition. 
"Politics and the Arts" and "Theory and Practice in Public Life" are representative topics. 

283. Nature and History in Modern Moral and Social Life. (4) The subject as viewed 
through such representative writers as Spinoza, Flaubert, Pascal, Eckermann, Nietzsche, 
and Conrad, each of whom in a different way participated in the rejection of the teachings 
of both the Socratic tradition and the Christian church. 

285. Culture and Religion in Modern Native America. (4) An interdisciplinary 
survey of American Indian cultures, including the arts and literature, religions, and 
historical changes. Special emphasis will be placed on the impact of the Conquista, 
encounters with Northern Atlantic societies, and contemporary developments. 

320. Perspectives on the Middle Ages. (4) A team-taught interdisciplinary course 
using a variety of literary, historical, and theoretical materials to examine one of the 
following: A. Medieval Women; B. Medieval Constructs of Gender, Race, and Class; 
C. Love and War in the Middle Ages; D. The Medieval Environment: Landscape and 
Culture. May be repeated for credit with different sub-topics. 

325. Ethics and the Professions. (4) An examination of the nature of a profession, and 
of ways in which ethical issues arise in the practice of particular professions and how 
they can be dealt with. Focus will be on standards of professional conduct and ways 
in which they contribute to the solution of ethical problems. Specific issues arising in 
specific professions, such as law, medicine, and education, will serve as detailed case 
studies for the purpose of discussion. 



132 



338. Selected Readings in African and African American Cultural History. (4) This 
course provides opportunity for selected readings in and study of African and African 
American cultural history. Informed and active participation of students in discus- 
sion of the readings is required. 

339. King. (4) An in-depth investigation into the power of charismatic leadership as it 
affected the Civil Rights Movement, as well as a dramatic evaluation of the impact of 
music on the spirit of the Civil Rights Movement. 

340. Race in the Southern Experience before Emancipation: Four Voices. (1,2) Selected 
writings of David Walker, William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass, and Harriet 
Beecher Stowe. Pass/fail only. (Credit not given for Humanities 340 if the student has 
completed Humanities 341.) 

341. Race, Politics, and Literature: Aspects of American Life from 1830 to 1930. (4) An 

examination of the evolution of significant ideas in American civilization. A careful 
reading of Frederick Douglass, Harriet Beecher Stowe, W. E. DuBois, Mark Twain, and 
others. 

343. The Philosophy of Liberation in Literature. (4) The concept of freedom as found in 
the works of such writers as Frederick Douglass, Kobo Abe, Wole Soyinka, Germaine 
Greer, Paule Marshall, Franz Fanon, Garcia Lorca, and James Baldwin. 

344. African Culture and Its Impact on the US. (1-2) A condensed version of Humanities 

345. offered as a minicourse in the spring. Pass /fail only. (Credit not given for Humanities 
344 if the student has completed Humanities 345.) 

345. African Culture and Its Impact on the US. (4) The influence of African culture on 
American life will be studied in such areas as dance, music, political approaches, 
grammatical patterns, literature, and culinary preferences. The course will include an 
evaluation of American mores. 

347. Women Writers in Japanese Culture. (4) Critical analysis of classical, modern, and 
contemporary writings by Japanese women, with an exploration of the cultural setting in 
which they occurred. 

348. Chinese Revolutionary Literature to 1948. (2) The dark side of traditional society that 
sparked revolution and civil war; forces that led to dissent and student movements. 

349. Chinese Liberation Literature since 1948.(2) The literary background of the democ- 
racy movement and the Tiananmen Square incident. 

350. Modern Chinese Literature. (4) A study of representative prose and poetry of 
mainland China from the May 4, 1919, movement to the present, in their cultural, 
historical, and political context. The course will concentrate upon major writers (e.g., Lu 
Xun, Shen Congwen, Ding Ling, Mao Dun, Ba Jin, Ai Qing, Wang Meng, Wang Anyi, Bei 
Dao, Shu Ting) with some attention to significant lesser writers. 

353. African and Caribbean Women Writers. (4) Critical analysis of fiction by female 
authors whose works concern women in Africa and its Caribbean diaspora. 



133 



355. Forms and Expressions of Love. (4) Philosophical, religious, and psychological 
delineations of the forms of love; literary, dramatic, musical, and visual portrayals of love 
in selected works of art. (Also listed as Interdisciplinary Honors 249.) 

356. Humanism, "Secular" and Religious. (4) Exploration of the nature of humanism 
through examination of similarities and differences among various forms. Types to be 
considered are: Classical (Platonic, Aristotelian, Stoic, and Epicurean); Christian; modern 
naturalistic; and Confucian. 

357. Images of Aging in the Humanities. (4,3) A multidisciplinary presentation and 
discussion of portrayals of aging in selected materials from several of the liberal arts: 
philosophical and religious perspectives; selections from literature and the visual arts; 
historical development of perceptions of aging; imaging of aging in contemporary 
culture. (Also listed as Honors 257.) 

358. Studies in Contemporary Leadership. (4) An examination of contemporary leader- 
ship theory and its various applications in society. Students will engage in practical 
leadership exercises, read on a variety of leadership topics, and develop their own 
philosophy of leadership. A twenty-five contact-hour internship is required. 

360. The Promise and Perils of the Nuclear Age. (4) Scientific, moral, religious, and 
political perspectives on issues associated with nuclear power and nuclear weaponry. 
(Also listed as Interdisciplinary Honors 254.) 

361. Dante I. (2) A study of the Vita Nuova as apprenticeship to the Diviua Commcdia, and 
of the first half of the Diviua Commcdia as epic, prophecy, autobiography, and poetry, 
relating it to antiquity, Christianity, Dante's European present (the birth of modern 
languages and new intellectual and poetic forms), and Dante's own afterlife in the West. 

362. Dante II. (2) A study of the second half of the Divina Commedia as epic, prophecy, 
autobiography, and poetry, relating it to antiquity, Christianity, Dante's European 
present (the birth of modern languages and new intellectual and poetic forms), and 
Dante's own afterlife in the West. P — Humanities 361 or permission of instructor. 

365. Humanity and Nature. (4,3) A multidisciplinary exploration of relations of human 
beings to nature, and of scientific, economic, and political factors in current environmental 
concerns. Selected religious, classical, and philosophical tests; works of visual art; selected 
discussions of ecology and human responsibility. (Also listed as Honors 265.) 

380. Literature, Film, and Society. (4) A study of major selected works of literature, mainly 
American; of the films which have been based upon them; and of the social and political 
context in which they were read and seen. Texts will include novels, stories, and plays by 
such writers as Dreiser, Lewis, Warren, Steinbeck, Hellman, Harper Lee, Wright, and 
Walker. P — Junior standing. 

381. Independent Research in Asian Studies. (2-4) Supervised independent research 
project on a topic related to Asia. Requires the approval of both the instructor and the 
coordinator of Asian Studies. May be repeated for credit, but no more than four credits 
may count toward East Asian Studies or a minor in Asian Studies. 



134 



382. Italian Cinema and Society. (4) A survey of some of Italy's greatest postwar films 
with special attention to issues and problems in Italian society as treated by major 
directors such as Fellini, De Sica, Rossellini, Antonioni, and Olmi. 

383. Italian Fascism in Novels and Films. (4) An exploration of theories of fascism, with 
an emphasis on Italy between 1919 and 1944 as understood through novels and films. 

384. Latin American Cinema. (4) Examination of major Latin American films as cinemato- 
graphic art and as expressions of social and political issues. Directors include Luis Buhuel, 
Tomas Gutierrez Alea, and Ruy Guerra. 

385. Legends of Troy. (4) An interdisciplinary investigation of translations and transfor- 
mations of the Trojan legend from the Greeks through the Middle Ages and the 
Renaissance to the present. Texts, studied in English translation, are by such authors as 
Homer, Virgil, Ovid, Chaucer, Racine, and Giraudoux. 

390. Interdisciplinary Seminar on Aging. (2 or 4) A study of aging in an interdisciplinary 
context, including the biological, psychological, neurobiological, cognitive, health status, 
and social structural and demographic aspects of aging. P — Permission of instructor. 

396. Individual Study. (2-4) Individual projects in the humanities which continue study 
begun in regular courses. By prearrangement. 



Interdisciplinary Honors 

James P. Barefield, Coordinator 

A series of seminar courses of an interdisciplinary nature is open to qualified undergradu- 
ates. Students interested in admission to any one of these seminars, supervised by the 
Committee on Honors, should consult the coordinator or a member of the committee. 

Students who choose to participate in as many as four interdisciplinary seminars and 
who have a superior record may elect Honors 281, directed study culminating in an 
honors paper and an oral examination. Those whose work has been superior in this course 
and who have achieved an overall grade-point average of at least 3.0 in all college work 
may be graduated with the distinction "Honors in the Arts and Sciences." Students who 
choose to be candidates for departmental honors may not also be candidates for "Honors 
in the Arts and Sciences." 

Able students are normally encouraged to choose a departmental honors program 
rather than "Honors in the Arts and Sciences." As a result, most students elect to 
participate in only one or two interdisciplinary seminars in which they are particularly 
interested. The faculty participants for these seminars represent diverse academic disci- 
plines. 

131, 132. Approaches to Human Experience I. (4,4) An inquiry into the nature and 
interrelationships of several approaches to man's experience, represented by the work of 
three such minds as Leonardo da Vinci, Dante, Klee, Lorenz, Confucius, Dostoevsky, 



135 



Descartes, Goya, Mozart, Jefferson, and Bohr. Seminar discussion based on primary and 
secondary sources, including musical works and paintings. Written reports and a term 
paper required. Offered in alternate years. 

133, 134. Approaches to Human Experience II. (4,4) A parallel course to Honors 131, 132, 
concentrating on the work of a different set of figures such as Einstein, Galileo, Keynes, 
Pascal, Camus, Picasso, Ibsen, Stravinsky, Sophocles, and Bach. Offered in alternate years. 

233. Darwinism and the Modern World. (4) A study of the Darwinian theory of evolution 
and the impact of evolution and evolutionary thought on fields such as economics, 
politics, psychology, literature and the other arts, and philosophy. 

235. The Ideal Society. (4) Man's effort to establish or imagine the ideal community, state, 
or society; principles of political and social organization; changing goals and values. 

236. The Force of Impressionism. (4) Impressionism and its impact on modern painting 
and literature, with attention to origins and theories of style. Painters to include Manet, 
Monet, Renoir, Degas, and Cezanne. Writers to include Baudelaire, Flaubert, Mallarme, 
James, Pound, Joyce, and Woolf. 

237. The Scientific Outlook. (4) An exploration of the origins and development of the 
scientific method and some of its contemporary applications in the natural and social 
sciences and the humanities. 

238. Romanticism. (4) Romanticism as a recurrent characteristic of mind and art and as 
a specific historical movement in Europe and America in the late eighteenth and 
nineteenth centuries. Emphasis on primary materials in philosophy, literature, music, 
and painting. 

239. Man and the Irrational. (4) The phenomenon of the irrational, with emphasis on its 
twentieth century manifestations but with attention also to its presence in other centuries 
and cultures. Philosophy, religion, literature, psychology, politics, and the arts are 
explored. 

240. Adventures in Self-Understanding. (4) Examination and discussion of significant 
accounts of the quest for understanding of the self, in differing historical periods, cultural 
contexts, and genres. Among figures who may be discussed are Augustine, Dante, 
Gandhi, Montaigne, Descartes, Pascal, and selected modern writers. 

241. The Tragic View. (4) The theory of tragedy in ancient and modern times; the 
expression of the tragic in literature, art, music, theater, and film. 

242. The Comic View. (4) The theory of comedy in ancient and modern times; the 
expression of the comic in literature, art, music, theater, and film. 

244. Man and the Structure of the Universe. (4) An investigation of various conceptions 
of the universe and their implications for man. Study not necessarily limited to the 
cosmologies of Ptolemy, Copernicus, and their modern successors, but may also include 
theories such as the Babylonian, Mayan, and Taoist. 



136 



246. Man and the Environment. (4) An interdisciplinary examination of man and society 
in relation to the environment. 

247. The Mythic View. (4) The nature of myth through creation and hero myths; the uses 
to which myths have been put in different historical periods; various modern explana- 
tions of myth (literary, religious, anthropological, psychoanalytic, social, and historical). 

248. The Ironic View. (4) An investigation of the ironic view of life in literature, art, 
history, theater, and film. 

249. Forms and Expressions of Love. (4) Philosophical, religious, and psychological 
delineations of the forms of love; literary, dramatic, musical, and visual portrayals of love 
in selected works of art. (Also listed as Humanities 355.) 

250. Ethical Dilemmas in the Arts and Sciences. (4) An exploration of contemporary 
issues and controversies in the sciences and art, particularly those involved with ethical 
questions resulting from new concepts and discoveries. 

254. The Promise and Perils of the Nuclear Age. (4) Scientific, moral, religious, and 
political perspectives on issues associated with nuclear power and nuclear weaponry. 

257. Images of Aging in the Humanities. (4) A multidisciplinary presentation and 
discussion of portrayals of aging in selected materials from several of the liberal arts: 
philosophical and religious perspectives; selections from literature and the visual arts; 
historical development of perceptions of aging; imaging of aging in contemporary 
culture. (Also listed as Humanities 357.) 

265. Humanity and Nature. (4) A multidisciplinary exploration of relations of human 
beings to nature, and of scientific, economic, and political factors in current environmental 
concerns. Selected religious, classical, and philosophical texts; works of visual art; selected 
discussions of ecology and human responsibility. (Also listed as Humanities 365.) 

281. Directed Study. (4) Readings on an interdisciplinary topic approved by the Commit- 
tee on Honors; presentation of a major research or interpretive paper based on these 
readings, under the direction of a faculty member; an oral examination on the topic, 
administered by the faculty supervisor and the Committee on Honors. Eligible students 
who wish to take this course must submit a written request to the Committee on Honors 
by the end of the junior year. Not open to candidates for departmental honors. 



International Studies 

(Interdisciplinary Minor) 
Richard Sears (Politics), Coordinator 

The minor in International Studies consists of a total of twenty credits. Candidates for the 
minor are required to take Politics 116, International Politics (4), and one of the following 
courses. (See course description under appropriate listings.) 



137 



Economics 251. International Trade. (4) 

252. International Finance. (4) 

253. Economies in Transition. (4) 
Politics 253. International Political Economy. (4) 

In addition, students must take twelve other credits in International Studies from an 
approved list on file in the Office of International Studies. These may include any INS 
course other than INS 100* or 101*. No more than eight of the twenty credits for the 
minor may be taken in a single department. Study of a foreign language beyond the 
basic requirement is strongly recommended. Formal advising of minors is not 
required, but the director of International Studies is responsible for certifying the 
successful completion of requirements for the minor. For more information, contact the 
Office of International Studies. 

220. Forms of Orientalism. (4) The history of the representational practices of 
Orientalism, the problem of cultural representation, and the relationship between 
Western intellectual constructions of the Orient and Western colonialism. Case 
studies, particularly of the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent. 

The following courses do not count for the minor but are designed to ensure that 
students who study overseas receive sufficient credit to make satisfactory progress 
toward graduation: International Studies 100 and 101. 

*100. Study Abroad. (1-4) Credit awarded to ensure that students participating in 
a full-time overseas program, as verified by the Office of International Studies, 
receive credit equal to a full semester's work on campus. (A full semester's work 
at Wake Forest is defined, for this purpose, as 16 credits.) P/F grade only. 

*101. Overseas Study. (1-3) Directed reading and/or field work as part of an 
approved overseas program under the supervision of the program director or the 
Office of International Studies. The keeping of a journal and submission of an end 
of program evaluation are required. P — Permission of the instructor. 



Italian Studies 

(Foreign Area Study) 
Antonio Vitti (Romance Languages), Coordinator 

A semester in Venice or another approved course of study in Italy (or summer program 
at Middlebury, Vermont) is required. Students must take Italian through the 215 
(Introduction to Italian Literature I) level, plus three courses from the following groups, at 
least one each from Groups II and III. (See course descriptions under appropriate listings.) 



138 



I. Literature 

Classics 

Humanities 



Italian 

II. Fine Arts 

Art 



264. Greek and Roman Comedy. (4) 
272. A Survexj of Latin Literature. (4) 

213. Studies in European Literature. (4) (appropriate topics 

and approval) 

214. Contemporary Fiction. (4) (appropriate topics and 

approval) 

216. Romance Literature. (4) 

217. European Drama. (4) (appropriate topics and approval) 
230. Women Writers in Contemporary Italy. (4) 

361,362. Dante I and II. (2,2) 

216. Introduction to Italian Literature II. (4) (or any Italian course 
above 2) 



245. Roman Art. (4) 

268. Italian Renaissance Art. (4) 

2693. Venetian Renaissance Art. (4) (offered in Venice) 
Humanities 382. Italian Cinema and Society. (4) 

383. Italian Fascism in Novels and Films. (4) 
Music 181 . Music History 1. (3) 

182. Music History II. (3) 

206. Survey of Opera. (4) 

220. Seminar in Medieval and Renaissance Music. (3,4) 

221. Seminar in Baroque Music. (3,4) 

III. History and the Social Sciences 

Classics 271. Roman Civilization. (3) 

History 222. The Renaissance and Reformatioii (4) 

2253. History of Venice. (4) (offered in Venice) 

2263. Venetian Society and Culture. (4) (offered in Venice) 

335, 336. Italy (4,4) 

398. Individual Study (1-4) (if directed toward Italy) 

Students also may take appropriate courses in anthropology, economics, politics, 
psychology, religion, and sociology taught in the Venice program, and individual study 
courses taught in these departments, with appropriate topics. 

If you wish to graduate with a Certificate in Italian Studies, you must contact the 
registrar's office during the spring semester of your senior year and advise them. 
Request that a copy of your transcript be sent to the Department of Romance 
Languages for approval. 



139 



Journalism 

(Minor) 

Wayne King, Coordinator 

Justin Catanoso, Visiting Lecturer 

The minor in journalism consists of 20 credits, including Journalism 270, 276, and 
either 272 or 280. The remaining courses must be selected from among the following: 

Accounting 110. Introduction to Financial and Management Accounting (4) 

Communication 115. Writing for Radio-TV Film (4) 

211. Media Production: Studio (4) 

245. Introduction to Mass Communication (4) 
Economics 150. Introduction to Economics (4) 

221. Public Finance (4) 
Journalism 272 or 280. (whichever was not chosen as a required course) 

278. History of Journalism (4) 

282. Investigative Reporting (4) 
Politics 217. Politics and the Mass Media (4) 

Journalism Courses 

270. Introduction to Journalism. (4) Survey of the fundamental principles of news- 
gathering and newswriting; study of news and news values, with some attention to 
representative newspapers. 

272. Editing. (4) A laboratory course in copy-editing, headline-writing, typography, and 
make-up; practice on video display terminal. P — English 270. 

276. Advanced Journalism. (4) Intensive practice in writing various types of newspaper 
stories, including the feature article. Limited to students planning careers in journalism. 
P — English 270 or permission of instructor. 

278. History of Journalism. (4) A study of the development of American journalism and 
its English origins; detailed investigations of representative world newspapers. 

280. Journalism, Ethics, and Law. (4) Explores ethical problems confronting journalists, 
including such tilings as the public's right to know, invasion of privacy, censorship, 
coverage of politics and elections, objectivity, and race, gender, and bias in news 
reporting, against a background of laws pertaining to areas such as libel and national 
security. P — English 270 or permission of instructor. 

282. Investigative Reporting. (4) Explores the methods and resources used in inves- 
tigative journalism — tracing individuals through public records, Freedom of Infor- 
mation Act requests, and specialized interview techniques. P — Permission of instruc- 
tor. 



140 



284. The Essay. (2) Primarily for those interested in writing for publication, with 
concentration on writing various types of essays. 

298. Internship. (2) A course designed to assist students in gaining practical experience 
in news-related enterprises, under faculty supervision. 

299. Individual Study. (2-4) A course of independent study with faculty guidance. By 
prearrangement. 



Latin American Studies 

(Interdisciplinary Minor) 
Mary Friedman (Romance Languages), and 
William K. Meyers (History), Coordinators 

The minor in Latin American Studies provides an opportunity for students to 
undertake a multidisciplinary study of the history, geography, economics, politics, 
and culture of Latin America and the Caribbean. It consists of a total of twenty credits, 
only four of which may count toward the student's major. Candidates for the minor 
are required to take Latin American Studies 210, Introduction to Latin American Studies. 
In addition, candidates must elect at least four credits of coursework on Latin America 
in each of three different disciplines. 

Candidates should demonstrate proficiency in Spanish or Portuguese either by 
completing Spanish courses through the 213 level or by undergoing an oral 
proficiency interview with a member of the faculty of the Department of Romance 
Languages. 

210. Introduction to Latin American Studies. (4) Introduction to the historical, 
economic, cultural, and social issues which shape Latin America. 

Students may choose from the following list of electives in designing their minor: 
First-year Seminars on Latin American topics. (4) 

Anthropology 383, 384. Field Research in Cultural Anthropology. (4) 
385, 386. Special Problems Seminar.* (4) 

Economics 251. International Trade. (4) 

252. International Finance. (4) 
258. Economic Growth and Development. (4) 

History 373. History of Mexico. (4) 

374. Protest and Rebellion in Latin America. (4) 

375. Modern Latin America. (4) 
Humanities 384. Latin American Cinema. (4) 

__ Politics 236. Government and Politics in Latin America. (4) 

242. Problems in Comparative Politics.* (4) 
292. Seminar in Comparative Politics. * (4) 
*When focus is on a Latin-American topic 



141 



Spanish 218. Masterpieces of Spanish American Literature. (4) 

219. Grammar and Composition. (4) 
223. Latin American Civilization. (4) 
229. Commercial, Official and Social Correspondence. (4) 

362. Spanish American Poetry. (4) 

363. Contemporary Spanish American Theater. (4) 

364. Spanish American Short Story. (4) 

365. Spanish American Novel. (4) 

366. Seminar in Spanish American Novel. (4) 



Linguistics 

(Interdisciplinary Minor) 
M. Stanley Whitley (Romance Languages), Coordinator 

The interdisciplinary minor in linguistics requires Linguistics 150, Introduction to Linguis- 
tics, and sixteen additional credits (excluding Linguistics 111). Students minoring in 
linguistics are strongly encouraged to study foreign languages, achieving proficiency in 
at least one, and social and behavioral sciences. The minor may be usefully combined with 
a major in a foreign language, English, anthropology (or other social science), philosophy, 
or communication. 

The sixteen credits in addition to Linguistics 150 may be chosen from the following 
three groups: linguistics courses, historical linguistics, and related topics. It is strongly 
recommended that at least one course be from historical linguistics. 

Linguistics Courses 

111. Fundamentals of Language Study. (4) Introduction to fundamental notions of 
language and the study of foreign languages. Review of grammatical terminology and 
useful strategies for language learning. Comparison of English and selected foreign 
languages. 

150. Introduction to Linguistics. (4) The social phenomenon of language: how it origi- 
nated and developed, how it is learned and used, its relationship to other kinds of 
behavior; types of language (oral, written, signed) and language families; analysis of 
linguistic data; social issues of language use. 

301. Semantics and Language in Communication. (4) A study of how meaning is created 
by sign processes. Among the topics studied are language theory, semiotics, speech act 
theory, and pragmatics. (Also listed as Communication 301.) 

310. Sociolinguistics and Dialectology. (4) Study of variation in language: effects of 
regional background, social class, ethnic group, gender, and setting; social attitudes 
toward language; outcomes of linguistic conflicts in the community; evolution of research 



142 



methods for investigating language differences and the diffusion of change. P — Linguis- 
tics 150 or permission of instructor. 

330. Introduction to Psycholinguistics and Language Acquisition. (4) A psychological 
and linguistic study of the mental processes underlying the acquisition and use of 
language; how children acquire the structure of language and how adults make use of 
linguistic systems. 

340. Topics in Linguistics. (4) An interdisciplinary study of selected topics, such as 
morphology, phonology /phonetics, syntax, historical linguistics, history of linguistic 
theory, semiotics, and ethnolinguistics, issues in Asian linguistics, language and gender. 
P — Linguistics 150 or permission of instructor. 

375. Philosophy of Language. (4) A study of such philosophical issues about language as 
truth and meaning, reference and description, proper names, indexicals, modality, tense, 
the semantic paradoxes, and the differences between languages and other sorts of sign 
systems. P — Permission of instructor. (Also listed as Philosophy 375.) 

398, 399. Individual Study. (1-4,1-4) A reading and research course designed to meet the 
needs of selected students, to be carried out under the supervision of a faculty member in 
the linguistics minor program. P — Linguistics 150 and permission of instructor. 

Historical Linguistics 

(See course descriptions under appropriate department listings.) 

English 304. History of the English Language. (4) 

French 221. History and Structure of the Language. (4) 

Russian 232. The History of the Russian Language. (4) 

Spanish 221. History and Structure of the Spanish Language. (4) 

Related Topics 

(See course descriptions under appropriate department listings.) 

Classics 220. Greek and Latin in Current Use. (3) 

English 390. The Structure of English. (4) 

French 222. French Phonetics. (4) 

Russian 230. The Structure of Russian. (4) 

Spanish 222. Spanish Phonology. (4) 

Students intending to minor in linguistics should consult the coordinator of linguistics 
in the Department of Romance Languages, preferably during their sophomore year. 



143 



Mathematics and Computer Science 

Richard D. Carmichael, Chair 

Reynolds Professor Robert J. Plemmons 

Professors John V. Baxley, Richard D. Carmichael, Elmer K. Hayashi, 

Fredric T. Howard, Ellen E. Kirkman, James Kuzmanovich, 

J. Gaylord May, W. Graham May, Marcellus E. Waddill 

Associate Professors Daniel Canas, David J. John, Stan J. Thomas, 

Todd C. Torgersen 

Assistant Professors Edward E. Allen, Yaorong Ge, Paul F. Hemler, 

James L. Norris III, Stephen B. Robinson 

Visiting Assistant Professors F. Glenn Acree, Jennifer J. Burg, 

Jeffrey K. Lawson 

Instructors Jule M. Connolly, David C. Wilson 

A major in mathematics requires a minimum of forty credits. A student must include 
courses 111, 112, 113, 121, 221, one of the courses 311, 317, 352, 357, and at least three 
additional four-credit courses numbered higher than 113, two of which must be 
numbered above 300 (excluding 381). Lower division students are urged to consult a 
member of the departmental faculty before enrolling in courses other than those satisfy- 
ing Division II requirements. 

A major in computer science requires forty credits in computer science and four courses 
in mathematics. The courses in computer science must include 112, 211, 212, 235, 236, and 
277. The required courses in mathematics are 111, 112, 117, and 121. Students considering 
graduate work in computer science should consult a major adviser in the department for 
assistance in planning an appropriate course of study. 

A minor in computer science requires four courses, at least sixteen credits, in computer 
science numbered higher than 111, Mathematics 117, and an additional four credits in 
mathematics other than Mathematics 105. 

A minor in mathematics requires Mathematics 111, 112, either 113 or 121, and three 
other courses of at least four credits each numbered higher than Mathematics 108, two of 
which must be numbered above 200. Neither Mathematics 301, 302, 303, or 304 can count 
as a course for this minor, but any pair may be so counted. Credit is not allowed for both 
Mathematics 121 and Mathematics 302 or for both Mathematics 303 and Mathematics 317. 

A minimum GPA of 2.0 in courses which comprise a major or minor in the department 
is required for graduation with any major or minor which the department offers. 

A regularly scheduled activity in mathematics is an informal seminar of students and 
faculty on topics not discussed in regular courses (for example, finite differences, game 
theory, Monte Carlo method, divergent series). 

The Department of Mathematics and Computer Science and the Department of 
Economics offer a joint major leading to a bachelor of science degree in mathematical 
economics. This interdisciplinary program, consisting of no more than fifty-six credits, 
offers the student an opportunity to apply mathematical methods to the development of 
economic theory, models, and quantitative analysis. The major has the following course 
requirements: Mathematics 111, 112, 113, 121, 254, 255; Economics 150, 205, 207, 210, 211, 



144 



215, 218; and three additional courses chosen with the approval of the program advisers. 
Recommended courses are Mathematics 253, 256, 311, 312, 348, 352, 353, 357, 358 and 
Economics 206, 208, 212, 222, 223, 231, 232, 235, 248, 251, 252. Students selecting the joint 
major must receive permission from both the Department of Mathematics and Computer 
Science and the Department of Economics. 

The Department of Mathematics and Computer Science and the Calloway School 
of Business and Accountancy offer a joint major leading to a bachelor of science degree 
in mathematical business. This interdisciplinary program, consisting of fifty-six 
credits, prepares students for careers in business with a strong background in 
mathematics. The major has the following course requirements: Mathematics 112, 
256, 301, 302, 353; Business 211, 221, 231, 241, 251, 252, 292; Mathematics 253 or 
Business 203; and twelve additional credits, eight in mathematics chosen from four 
credit courses at the 300 level or above excluding 381 and four credits in business. The 
following courses are prerequisites for admission into this major: Mathematics 111, 
Accounting 111, 112, Business 100, Economics 150. Computer science 111, 112 and 
Mathematics 251 are strongly recommended as additional courses to be taken by 
majors in mathematical business. Students electing this joint major must seek and 
receive permission from both the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science 
and the Calloway School of Business and Accountancy. To graduate from Wake 
Forest University with a major in mathematical business, the student must satisfy the 
requirements for graduation of both the Department of Mathematics and Computer 
Science and the Calloway School of Business and Accountancy. Refer to the descrip- 
tion in this bulletin for the admission, continuation, and graduation requirements of 
the Calloway School. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in mathematics, computer science, or the joint major. To be graduated 
with the designation "Honors in Mathematics," "Honors in Computer Science," or 
"Honors in Mathematical Economics," they must complete satisfactorily a senior research 
paper. To graduate with "Honors in Mathematics" or "Honors in Computer Science," 
majors must have a minimum grade-point average of 3.5 in the major and 3.0 in all college 
course work. For additional information, members of the departmental faculty should be 
consulted. 

Students who are enrolled at Wake Forest may not take courses in mathematics and/ 
or computer science at other institutions to satisfy divisional requirements. 

Computer Science 

111. Introduction to Computer Science. (4) A rigorous introduction to the process of 
algorithmic problem-solving; an introduction to the organization of computers on which 
resulting programs run; and an overview of the societal and ethical context in which 
computer science exists. A scheduled laboratory experience is used for both the computer 
programming and computer organization aspects of the course. Lab — two hours. 

112. Fundamentals of Computer Science. (4) Lecture and laboratory. Problem-solving 
and program construction are emphasized using reusable modules, data abstraction and 
parallel computation. Linear data structures, fundamental software engineering tools, 



145 



and problem-solving paradigms are introduced for the beginning computer science 
student. Lab — two hours. P — Computer Science 111 or permission of instructor. 

211. Computer Software Organization and Architecture. (4) Lecture and laboratory. 
Hierarchical software organization, representation and manipulation of data, instruction 
sets, addressing and structure of memory. The laboratory focuses on the understanding 
of an assembly language. Lab — two hours. P — Computer Science 112 and Mathematics 
117. 

212. Computer Hardware Organization. (4) Lecture and laboratory. Basic von Neumann 
computer architectures. Study and design of combinational logic circuits, arithmetic 
units, and memory devices. Lab — two hours. P — Computer Science 211. 

235. Data Structures and Algorithms I. (4) Lecture and laboratory. Study, analysis and 
implementation of abstract data structures such as list, stack, queue and tree. Complexity 
analysis of algorithms which operate upon these data structures. P — Computer Science 
112 and Mathematics 117. 

236. Data Structures and Algorithms II. (4) Lecture and laboratory. A continuation of the 
study, analysis and implementation of abstract data structures. The complexity of 
algorithms is studied more rigorously than in Computer Science 235 and complexity 
classes are introduced. P — Computer Science 235 and Mathematics 111. 




Visiting Asst. Professor of Mathematics and Computer Science Jennifer Burg works with students on an 
IBM Thinkpad. 



146 



277. Programming Languages. (4) Lecture and laboratory. A study of the properties of 
programming languages including syntax, semantics, control structures, and run-time 
representations. P — Computer Science 112 and Mathematics 117. 

301. Software Engineering. (4) The principles and methods for the specification, design, 
and validation of large software systems. Topics may include formal specification 
techniques, design techniques, programming methodology, program testing, proofs of 
program correctness, software reliability, and software management. P — Computer 
Science 235. 

302. Operating Systems. (4) Lecture and laboratory. The study of algorithms for sequenc- 
ing, controlling, scheduling, and allocating computer resources. P — Computer Science 
211 and Computer Science 235. 

310. Design of Central Processing Units. (4) Use of register-transfer notation, hardware 
programming languages, control sequencing, and microprogramming. P — Computer 
Science 212. 

319. Digital Systems Architecture. (4) The unification of hardware, firmware, and 
software. Architectural descriptions, storage systems, paging and associative memories, 
I/O systems, stack machines, and parallelism. P — Computer Science 211. 

323. Computer Graphics. (4) A study of software and hardware techniques in computer 
graphics. Topics include line and polygon drawing, hidden line and surface techniques, 
transformations, and ray tracing. P — Computer Science 235 and Mathematics 121. 

330. Computer Communications. (4) A study of the operation, design, and analytic 
modeling of computer communication and networking systems. P — Computer Science 
211. 

355. Introduction to Numerical Methods. (4) Numerical computations on modern 
computer architectures; floating point arithmetic and round-off error. Programming in a 
scientific /engineering language (C or FORTRAN). Algorithms and computer techniques 
for the solution of problems such as roots of functions, approximation, integration, 
systems of linear equations and least squares methods. Credit not allowed for both 
Mathematics 355 and Computer Science 355. P — Mathematics 112, Mathematics 121, and 
Computer Science 111. 

361. Selected Topics. (2,3, or 4) Topics in computer science which are not studied in 
regular courses or which further examine topics begun in regular courses. P — Permission 
of instructor. 

372. Compilers. (4) Lecture and laboratory. A study of techniques for compiling computer 
languages including scanning, parsing, translating, and generating code. P — Computer 
Science 211 and Computer Science 235. 

374. Database Management Systems. (4) Lecture and laboratory. An introduction to 
large-scale database management systems. Topics include data independence, data base 
models, query languages, security, integrity, and concurrency. P — Computer Science 235. 



147 



379. Artificial Intelligence. (4) An introduction to problems in artificial intelligence. 
Techniques of representation and heuristic search in areas such as problem solving, 
pattern recognition, theorem proving, and information processing. P — Computer Science 
236. 

381. Individual Study. (2,3, or 4) A course of independent study directed by a faculty 
adviser. By prearrangement. At most, two credits can be counted toward the major in 
computer science. Not to be counted toward the minor in computer science. 

Mathematics 

105. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry. (2,3, or 4) A review of the essentials of 
algebra and trigonometry. Admission by permission only (generally, a student must have 
taken fewer than three years of high school mathematics to be eligible for admission) . Not 
to be counted toward the major or minor in mathematics. 

108. Essential Calculus. (5 or 4) A one-semester course in differential and integral calculus 
with application to business and the social sciences. No student allowed credit for both 
108 and 111. A student who might take additional calculus should not take Mathematics 

108. Lab — two hours. 

109. Elementary Probability and Statistics. (5 or 4) Probability and distribution functions, 
means and variances, and sampling distributions. Lab — two hours. 

Ill, 112. Calculus with Analytic Geometry I, II. (5 or 4; 5 or 4) Calculus of functions of 
one variable; infinite series. No student allowed credit for both 108 and 111. 

113. Multivariate Calculus. (4) Vector and space curves. Differentiable functions; 
surfaces and max-min problems. Multiple integrals and Green's theorem. P — Mathemat- 
ics 112. 

117. Discrete Mathematics. (4) An introduction to various topics in discrete mathematics 
applicable to computer science including sets, relations, Boolean algebra, propositional 
logic, functions, computability, proof techniques, graph theory, and elementary combi- 
natorics. 

121. Linear Algebra I. (4) Vectors and vector spaces, linear transformations and matrices, 
determinants, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors. Credit not allowed for both 121 and 302. 

165. Problem Solving Seminar. (1 or 2) A weekly seminar designed for students who wish 
to participate in mathematical competition such as the annual Putnam examination. Not 
to be counted toward any major or minor offered by the department. May be repeated for 
credit. 

221. Modern Algebra I. (4) An introduction to modern abstract algebra through the study 
of groups, rings, integral domains, and fields. P — Mathematics 121. 

251. Ordinary Differential Equations. (4) Linear equations with constant coefficients, 
linear equations with variable coefficients, and existence and uniqueness theorems for 
first order equations. P — Mathematics 112. 



148 



253. Operations Research. (4) Mathematical models and optimization techniques. Stud- 
ies in allocation, simulation, queuing, scheduling, and network analysis. P — Mathematics 
111. 

254. Optimization Theory. (2) Unconstrained and constrained optimization prob- 
lems; Lagrange multiplier methods; sufficient conditions involving bordered Hes- 
sians; inequality constraints; Kuhn-Tucker conditions; applications primarily to 
problems in economics. P — Mathematics 113 and Mathematics 121. 

255. Dynamical Systems. (2) An introduction to optimal control, including the 
Pontryagin maximum principle, and systems of nonlinear differential equations, 
particularly phase space methods. Applications to problems in economics, including 
optimal management of renewable resources. P — Mathematics 113 and Mathematics 
121. 

256. Statistical Methods. (4) A study of statistical methods that have proved useful in 
many different disciplines. These methods include tests of model assumptions, regres- 
sion, general linear models, nonparametric alternatives, and analysis of data collected 
over time. Knowledge of matrix algebra is desirable but not necessary. 

301. Vector Analysis. (2) Vector functions, partial derivatives, line and multiple integrals, 
Green's theorem, Stokes' theorem, divergence theorem. Not to be counted toward any 
major offered by the department except for the major in mathematical business. P — 
Mathematics 112. 

302. Matrix Algebra. (2) Matrices, determinants, solutions of linear equations, special 
matrices, eigenvalues and eigenvectors of matrices. Not to be counted toward any major 
offered by the department except for the major in mathematical business. Credit not 
allowed for both 121 and 302. 

303. Complex Variables. (2) Topics in analytic function theory, Cauchy's theorem, Taylor 
and Laurent series, residues. Not to be counted toward any major offered by the 
department. Credit not allowed for both 303 and 317. P — Mathematics 112. 

304. Applied Partial Differential Equations. (2) The separation of variables technique for 
the solution of the wave, heat, Laplace, and other partial differential equations with the 
related study of special functions and Fourier series. Not to be counted toward any major 
offered by the department. P — Mathematics 251. 

311, 312. Advanced Calculus I, II. (4,4) Limits and continuity in metric spaces, differen- 
tiation and Riemann-Stieltjes integration, sequences and series, uniform convergence, 
power series arid Fourier series, partial differentiation and functions of n real variables, 
implicit and inverse function theorems. P — Mathematics 113. 

317. Complex Analysis I. (4) Analytic functions, Cauchy's theorem and its consequences, 
power series, and residue calculus. Credit not allowed for both 303 and 317. P — 
Mathematics 113. 

322. Modern Algebra II. (4) A continuation of modern abstract algebra through the study 
of additional properties of groups, rings, and fields. P — Mathematics 221. 



149 



324. Linear Algebra II. (4) A thorough treatment of vector spaces and linear transforma- 
tions over an arbitrary field, canonical forms, inner product spaces, and linear groups. P — 
Mathematics 121 and Mathematics 221. 

326. Numerical Linear Algebra. (4) Numerical methods for solving matrix and related 
problems in science and engineering. Topics will include systems of linear equations, least 
squares methods, and eigenvalue computations. Special emphasis given to parallel 
matrix computations. Beginning knowledge of a programming language, such as Pascal, 
FORTRAN, or C, is required. P— Mathematics 112 and Mathematics 121. 

331. Geometry. (4) An introduction to axiomatic geometry including a comparison of 
Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometries. 

334. Differential Geometry. (4) Introduction to the theory of curves and surfaces in two 
and three dimensional space, including such topics as curvature, geodesies, and minimal 
surfaces. P — Mathematics 113. 

345, 346. Elementary Theory of Numbers I, II. (4,4) Properties of integers, including 
congruences, primitive roots, quadratic residues, perfect numbers, Pythagorean 
triples, sums of squares, continued fractions, Fermat's Last Theorem, and the Prime 
Number Theorem. 

348, 349. Combinatorial Analysis I, II. (4,4) Enumeration techniques, generating func- 
tions, recurrence formulas, the principle of inclusion and exclusion, Polya theory, graph 
theory, combinatorial algorithms, partially ordered sets, designs, Ramsey theory, sym- 
metric functions, and Schur functions. 

352. Partial Differential Equations. (4) A detailed study of partial differential equations, 
including the heat, wave, and Laplace equations, using methods such as separation of 
variables, characteristics, Green's functions, and the maximum principle. P — Mathemat- 
ics 113 and Mathematics 251. 

353. Mathematical Models. (4) Development and application of probabilistic and deter- 
ministic models. Emphasis given to constructing models which represent systems in the 
social, behavioral, and management sciences. 

355. Introduction to Numerical Methods. (4) Numerical computations on modern 
computer architectures; floating point arithmetic and round-off error. Programming in a 
scientific /engineering language (C or FORTRAN). Algorithms and computer techniques 
for the solution of problems such as roots of functions, approximation, integration, 
systems of linear equations and least squares methods. Credit not allowed for both 
Mathematics 355 and Computer Science 355. P — Mathematics 112, Mathematics 121, and 
Computer Science 111. 

357, 358. Mathematical Statistics I, II. (4,4) Probability distributions, mathematical 
expectation, sampling distributions, estimation and testing of hypotheses, regression, 
correlation, and analysis of variance. C — Mathematics 113, or P — Permission of instruc- 
tor. 



150 



361. Selected Topics. (2,3/ or 4) Topics in mathematics which are not considered in regular 
courses or which continue study begun in regular courses. Content varies. 

381. Individual Study. (2,3, or 4) A course of independent study directed by a faculty 
adviser. By prearrangement. 



Medieval Studies 



(Interdisciplinary Minor) 
Gillian Overing and Gale Sigal (English), Coordinators 

The interdisciplinary minor in medieval studies requires twenty-four credits, chosen 
from at least three different departments. Courses from the student's major may count in 
the minor. Students are encouraged, but not required, to attend the six-week Summer 
Medieval Program at Oxford University in England, for which they receive six credits 
(two courses) which count toward the minor. (For details about application to the Oxford 
program, and possible financial aid, consult Gale Sigal in the English department.) 
Courses may be chosen from the following list. (See course descriptions under appropri- 
ate listings.) 



Art 



English 



French 

German 

History 



Humanities 



Music 

Philosophy 

Religion 



252. Romanesque Art. (4) 

253. The Gothic Cathedral. (4) 

254. Luxury Arts in the Middle Ages. (4) 
267. Early Italian Renaissance Art. (4) 

296. Art History Seminar: b. Medieval Art. (2,4) 

305. Old English Language and Literature. (4) 

310. The Medieval World. (4) 

311. The Legend of Arthur. (4) 

312. Medieval Poetry. (4) 
315. Chaucer. (4) 

320. British Drama to 1642. (4) 

330. Seminar in Medieval Studies. (4) 

249. German Literature before 1700. (4) 

306. The Early Middle Ages. (4) 

307. The High Middle Ages Through the Renaissance. (4) 
335. Italy. Medieval and Renaissance. (4) 

320. Perspectives on the Middle Ages. (4) 

361. Dante I. (2) 

362. Dante II. (2) 

220. Seminar in Medieval and Renaissance Music. (3,4) 
232. Ancient and Medieval Philosophy. (4) 
367. The Mystics of the Church. (4) 

372. History of Christian Thought: b. Medieval and Reformation 
Thought. (2,4) 



151 



Spanish 231. Medieval and Pre-Renaissance Spanish Literature. (4) 

Theater 260. Histon/ of Western Theater I (Beginnings to 1642). (4) 

Students intending to minor in Medieval Studies should consult one of the coordina- 
tors, preferably during the sophomore year. 



Military Science 



Lieutenant Colonel Donald J. Moser, Professor 

Lieutenant Colonel Kenneth M. Walker, Adjunct Professor 

Assistant Professors: Major James C. Brand, Captain Patrick L. Rimron, 

Captain Kathy A. Underwood 

Instructor: Sergeant First Class Anthony Pardella 

Adjunct Instructor: Major Stephen J. Huebner 

Completion of Army Reserve Officers' Training Corps (AROTC) requirements and 
recommendation for appointment by the professor of military science may result in 
commissioning as a second lieutenant in the active or reserve forces components of the 
Army of the United States, as determined by the Secretary of the Army. The AROTC 
program is composed of the Basic Course and the Advanced Course. The Basic Course is 
composed of four core courses (121, 122, 123, and 124), sometimes with either 117 or 118 
taken each semester as a co-requisite. No military obligation is incurred by enrollment in 
the Basic Course, except by Army ROTC Scholarship cadets, and then only when 
beginning their sophomore year. The Basic Course may be completed, partially or fully, 
by various alternative methods (i.e., through credit for specific types of Junior ROTC or 
other military training, as determined by the professor of military science, or through 
completion of a six-week summer Basic Camp). The Advanced Course is composed of 
four core courses (225, 226, 227, and 228), with either 117 or 118 taken each semester as a 
co-requisite, and a six-week Advanced Camp, usually attended during the summer 
between the junior and senior years. Army ROTC scholarships are available to qualified 
applicants (both those already enrolled in the AROTC program and those not yet enrolled) through 
annual competition. 

112. Operations in Special Environments. (2) Planning and preparation for military 
operations in mountain, desert, jungle, and arctic environments; fundamentals of sur- 
vival; mountaineering techniques. 

114. Leadership. (2) An examination of the fundamentals contributing to the develop- 
ment of a personal style of leadership with emphasis on the dimensions of junior executive 
management. 

116. Orienteering. (2) A study of navigational aids, linear time/distance relationships, 
and mapping techniques. Includes navigating in unfamiliar terrain. 



152 



117, 118. Leadership Laboratory. (0,0) Basic military skills instruction designed to 
technically and tactically qualify the student for assumption of an officer leadership 
position at the small-unit level. Either 117 (fall) or 118 (spring) is required each semester 
for contracted AROTC cadets (including those conditionally contracted), advance desig- 
nee scholarship winners, and non-contracted AROTC cadets taking their third and fourth 
military science core courses. Pass/fail only. C — Any other military science core course. 
P — Permission of the professor of military science, except when required as explained 
above. 






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AROTC students practice rappelling from the tower. 



153 



121. Introduction to Army ROTC and the US Army. (2) An introduction to the Army 
Reserve Officers' Training Corps and to the United States Army, exploring roles, 
organization, customs and traditions. C — Military Science 117 or 118, as appropriate. 

122. Introduction to Military Leadership. (2) Introduction to military leadership, plan- 
ning, organizing, communication skills and problem analysis. Techniques of motivation 
and management of subordinates. Examination of moral issues, requirements and 
dilemma of the military profession. P — Military Science 121 or permission of the professor 
of military science. C — Military Science 117 or 118, as appropriate. 

123. Land Navigation and Terrain Analysis. (2) A study of the methods of land 
navigation and terrain analysis for military operations. P — Military Science 121 and 122, 
or permission of the professor of military science. C — Military Science 117 or 118, as 
appropriate. 

124. Tactics and Leadership in the US Army. (2) An introduction to planning, organiz- 
ing, and conducting military ground operations, with a consideration of the principles of 
war. Focuses on current leadership doctrine within the Army. P — Military Science 121, 
122, and 123, or permission of the professor of military science. C — Military Science 117 
or 118, as appropriate. 

225. Military Operations. (2) An in-depth study of the principles of combined arms 
operations. P — Military Science 121 through 124 (or equivalent credit as determined by 
the professor of military science). C — Military Science 117. 

226. Advanced Military Operations. (2) A continuation of Military Science 225 with an 
emphasis on the leadership aspect of combined arms operations Specific preparation for 
the AROTC Advanced Camp. P — Military Science 121 through 124 (or equivalent credit 
as determined by the professor of military science) and Military Science 225. C — Military 
Science 118. 

227. Leadership and Management in the US Army I. (2) The theory and practice of 
military leadership. Emphasis on the Uniform Code of Military Justice, the Manual for 
Courts-Martial, the Law of Land Warfare and the Army's personnel, training, and 
logistical management systems. P — Military Science 121 through 124 (or equivalent credit 
as determined by the professor of military science) and Military Science 225 and 226. C — 
Military Science 117. 

228. Leadership and Management in the US Army II. (2) A continuation of Military 
Science 227 with emphasis on the transition from cadet to officer. P — Military Science 121 
through 124 (or equivalent credit as determined by the professor of military science) and 
Military Science 225 through 227. C — Military Science 118. 

229. American Military History. (4) The American military experience with emphasis on 
the ideas and activities contributing to the development of the United States' unique 
military establishment. Particular emphasis on civilian control of the military. P— 
Permission of the professor of military science. Credit not allowed for this course if credit 
has been earned for History 369. 



154 



Music 

David B. Levy, Chair 

Professors Susan Harden Borwick, Louis Goldstein 

Associate Professors Stewart Carter, Peter Kairoff, David B. Levy, 

Dan Locklair (Composer-in-Residence), Teresa Radomski 

Part-time Assistant Professor Pamela Howland 

Director of Instrumental Ensembles George W. Trautwein 

Assistant Director of Instrumental Ensembles C. Kevin Bovven 

Director of Choral Ensembles Brian Gorelick 

Part-time Instructors Patricia Dixon, Kathryn Levy 

A major in music requires forty-eight credits. This includes a basic curriculum of thirty- 
six credits (Music Theory 171, 172, 173, and 174, sixteen credits; Music History 181, 182, 
six credits; ten credits of individual instruction; and four credits of ensemble, taken in four 
semesters) plus six semesters of Music Recitals 100 and twelve credits of elective courses 
in music, excluding ensembles and Music 165-169, 175-179. In addition to the course work, 
music majors are required to present a senior recital, lecture-recital, or project. 

Students anticipating a major in music are urged to begin their studies during their first 
year and are required to audition during the second semester of their sophomore year 
before officially being admitted to the program. 

Highly qualified majors may be invited by the music faculty to apply for admission to 
the honors program in music. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Music," 
a candidate must have a 3.0 overall GPA and a 3.5 GPA in courses in the major. In addition, 
the candidate must be nominated for this honor by a music faculty member and must 
complete one of the following requirements: (1) an honors-level research paper, (2) an 
analysis project, (3) an original composition, (4) a lecture-recital, (5) a solo recital, (6) a 
chamber-music recital, (7) a solo concert with ensemble, or (8) a conducting project. More 
complete information is available from the Department of Music. 

A minor in music requires twenty-four credits: Music 171, 172; 181, 182; two credits of 
ensemble, taken in two semesters; two semesters of individual instruction (performance 
level must be equal to the level expected of majors at the time of the sophomore audition); 
six credits of music electives (excluding ensemble); and four semesters of Music Recitals 
100. Each minor will be assigned an adviser in the music department and is encouraged 
to begin individual lessons, Music 171, and Music 100 as early as possible. 

Regarding ensemble requirements for the major or minor in music, students who, upon 
the advice of their private instructor, take the sophomore audition in voice must fulfill the 
ensemble requirement by singing in Music 112, 115, and/or 116. Students who, upon the 
advice of their private instructor, take the sophomore audition on a band or orchestral 
instrument must fulfill the ensemble requirement by performing on that instrument in 
Music 1 1 3, 1 1 7, 1 1 9, and / or 1 21 . In the case of majors who concentrate in music education, 
Music 117 may fulfill up to two, but no more than two, semesters of the four-semester 
ensemble requirement. 

Any student interested in majoring or minoring in music should consult the chair of the 
department as soon as possible after entering the University. 



155 



General Music 

100. Recitals. (0) Recitals, concerts, and guest lectures sponsored by the Department of 
Music and the Secrest Artists Series. (Specific attendance requirements will be established 
at the beginning of each semester.) Six semesters are required of music majors; four 
semesters are required of music minors. (P/F only) 

101. Introduction to the Language of Music. (3,4) Basic theoretical concepts and musical 
terminology. Survey of musical styles, composers, and selected works from the Middle 
Ages through the twentieth century. Satisfies the Division V requirement. For students 
not majoring in music. 

102. Language of Music I. (3,4) Survey of musical styles, composers, and selected works 
from the Middle Ages through the twentieth century. For students who can read music. 
Not open to music majors. Satisfies the Division V requirement. P — Permission of 
instructor. 

110. Writing about the Arts. (4) Training in expository writing; frequent essays based 
on music and other arts experiences on campus and in the community, and on 
readings in music and the arts. Fulfills the basic requirement in English. P— Permis- 
sion of instructor and the Department of English. 

202. Language of Music II. (2) An in-depth study of selected major works. Not open to 
music majors. P — Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

Music Theory 

104. Basic Music Reading and Skills. (2) A study of the fundamentals of music theory 
including key signatures, scales, intervals, chords, and basic sight-singing and ear- 
training skills. Designed for students wishing to participate in University ensembles and 
those wishing to pursue vocal, instrumental, and compositional instruction. May not 
count toward the music major or minor. 

105. Music Theory for Non-Majors. (4) A study and application of music fundamentals 
and music theory for the non-music major; analytical and compositional techniques. P — 
Music 104 or permission of instructor. 

171. Music Theory I. (4) Music fundamentals: key signatures, scales, modes, intervals, 
triads, elements of music. Ear training, sight-singing, and rhythm skills. Fall. 

172. Music Theory II. (4) Seventh chords, beginning part-writing, basic counterpoint, ear 
training, sight-singing, rhythm skills, keyboard harmony. Spring. P — Music 171. 

173. Music Theory III. (4) Altered chords, continuation of part-writing, eighteenth and 
nineteenth century forms, ear training, sight-singing, rhythm skills, keyboard harmony. 
Fall. P— Music 172. 

174. Music Theory IV. (4) Expanded harmonic system of Impressionism and the 
twentieth century. New concepts of style and form. Ear training, sight-singing, rhythm 
skills, keyboard harmony. Spring. P — Music 173. 



156 



270. Sixteenth Century Counterpoint. (2) Analysis of sixteenth century contrapuntal 
music, in particular that of Palestiina. Examination of Renaissance writings on counter- 
point. Composition of canon and motet. P — Music 174. 

271. Eighteenth Century Counterpoint. (2) Analysis of eighteenth century contrapuntal 
styles, with concentration on the Well-Tempered Clavier and Art of the Fugue of J. S. Bach. 
Composition of invention, canon, and fugue. P — Music 174. 

272. Analysis Seminar. (2) A study of analytical writings of theorists and composers and 
the development of practical skills as they can be used in research and performance 
preparation. P — Music 174. 

273. Composition. (1 or 2) Individual instruction in the craft of musical composition. May 
be repeated for credit. P — Permission of instructor. 

276. Current Practices. (2) A survey of twentieth century compositional techniques, 
notation, and performance problems involving the study of music and theoretical 
writings associated with major trends from 1900 to the present. P — Music 174. 

280. Orchestration. (4) A study of the orchestral and wind band instruments, how 
composers have used them throughout history, and the development of practical scoring 
and manuscript skills. (Also offered by the Department of Education as Education 280.) 
Spring. P — Music 174, 182, or permission of instructor. 

Music History 

181. Music History I. (3) History of music from the Greeks to 1750. Satisfies the Division V 
requirement. P — Permission of instructor. 

182. Music History II. (3) History of music from 1750 to the present. Satisfies the Division V 
requirement. P — Permission of instructor. 

203. History of Jazz. (4) A survey of American jazz from its origin to the present. Open to 
majors and non-majors. P — Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

204. Survey of Choral Music. (4) A historical overview of important genera (i.e., anthem, 
cantata, motet, mass, oratorio) with an emphasis on church music and liturgical function. 
Open to majors and non-majors. P — Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

205. Survey of Orchestral Music. (4) A historical overview of important orchestral 
repertoire (i.e., symphony, concerto, overture, symphonic poem). Open to majors and 
non-majors. P — Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

206. Survey of Opera. (4) A study of the development of opera from 1600 to the present. 
Selected operas by European and American composers will be examined in class via 
record, score, and film. Class will attend opera performances when possible. Open to 
majors and non-majors. P — Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 



157 




David B. Levy, associate professor of music, works with undergraduate students in the music lab. 



158 



207. Music in America. (4) A study of the music and musical trends in America from 1650 
to the present. The course will survey sacred and secular music from the Pilgrims to the 
current trends of American composers. P — Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

208. Women and Music. (4) A historical overview of women musicians in society. P — 
Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

212. Music in the Church. (4) Function of church musicians and the relationship of their 
work to the church program. Offered fall semester of odd years. P— Permission of instructor. 

213. Beethoven. (4) Compositional process, analysis, criticism, and performance prac tices 
in selected works by Ludwig van Beethoven. P — Music 101 or permission of instructor. 

215. Philosophy of Music. (2) A survey of philosophical writings about music. Musical 
aesthetics; social, religious, and political concerns. P — Music 174, 182, or permission of 
instructor. 

220. Seminar in Medieval and Renaissance Music. (3,4) A study of music before 1600, its 
theory, notation, and performance practices. P — Music 174, 182, or permission of instruc- 
tor. 

221. Seminar in Baroque Music. (3,4) Musical activity from about 1600 to Bach and 
Handel. Special emphasis on the development of national styles and their resolutions 
toward the end of the era. P — Music 174, 182, or permission of instructor. 

222. Seminar in Eighteenth Century Music. (3,4) Musical developments from the sons of 
Bach through the Viennese Classicism of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. P — Music 174, 
182, or permission of instructor. 

223. Seminar in Nineteenth Century Music. (3,4) Music from the latter part of Beethoven's 
career through Wagner and Brahms. Special emphasis on the post-Beethoven schism and 
its ramifications. P — Music 174, 182, or permission of instructor. 

224. Seminar in Twentieth Century Music. (3,4) A study of the major musical styles, 
techniques, and media of contemporary music from Debussy to the present. P — Music 
174, 182, or permission of instructor. 

230. History of Musical Instruments. (4) Historical overview of the form and function 
of musical instruments from the Middle Ages to the present. Emphasis on instru- 
ments in art music of Western Europe and the United States. P — Music 101, 181, 182, 
or permission of instructor. 

284. Music Literature Seminar. (3,4) A survey of repertoire, including an examination of 
teaching materials in the student's special area of interest. Also offered by the Department 
of Education as Education 284. P — Permission of instructor. 

a. Instrumental Literature d. Guitar Literature 

b. Choral Literature e. Vocal Literature 

c. Piano Literature 



159 



Music Education 

Music 280, 282, 284, 289, and 354 also appear as Education 280, 282, 284, 289, and 354. These 
courses may be taken as music or education but not both. 

186. String Instruments. (2) Fundamentals of playing and teaching all instruments of the 
string family. Offered spring semester of odd years. 

187. Woodwind Instruments. (2) Fundamentals of playing and teaching all principal 
instruments of the woodwind family. Offered fall semester of even years. 

188. Brass and Percussion Instruments. (2) Fundamentals of playing and teaching brass 
and percussion. Offered spring semester of even years. 

280. Orchestration. (4) See page 154 for a course description. 

282. Conducting. (4) See page 159 for a course description. 

284. Music Literature Seminar. (3,4) See page 155 for a course description. 

289. Ensemble Methods. (2) A practical study of choral and instrumental training 
techniques. Discussion of tonal development, administration, bibliography, and choral 
and instrumental problems. Also offered by the Department of Education as Education 
289. Fall. P — Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

354. Methods and Materials of Teaching Music. (4) Methods, materials, and techniques 
used in the teaching and supervision of choral and instrumental music in the public 
schools, all grades. Also offered by the Department of Education as Education 354. Spring. 
P— Music 174, 182. 

Honors and Individual Study 

297. Senior Project. (1,2,3, or 4) A major project varying in format according to the 
student's area of concentration. By pre-arrangement. 

298. Individual Study. (1,2,3, or 4) A project in an area of study not otherwise available 
in the department. By pre-arrangement. 

299. Honors in Music. (1,2,3, or 4) Individual study for honors candidates who have 
fulfilled the specific requirements. 

Ensemble 

Departmental ensembles are open to all students. Credit is earned on the basis of one 
credit per semester of participation in each ensemble. 

111. Opera Workshop. Study, staging, and performance of standard and contemporary 
operatic works. P — Permission of instructor. 



160 



112. Collegium Musicum. An ensemble stressing the performance practices and the 
performance of music of the medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque eras. 

113. Orchestra. Study and performance of orchestral works from the classical and 
contemporary repertoire. P — Audition. 

114. Madrigal Singers. A vocal chamber ensemble which specializes in the performance 
of secular repertoire. P — Audition. 

115. Concert Choir. A select touring choir of forty-five voices which performs a variety 
of choral literature from all periods. Regular performances on and off campus, including 
an annual tour. P — Audition. 

116. Choral Union. A large oratorio chorus which concentrates on the performance of 
major choral works. P — Audition. 

117. Marching Deacons Band. Performs for most football games. Meets twice weekly. 
Regular performances on and off campus. Fall. P — Permission of instructor. 

118. Chamber Winds. Study and performance of music for mixed chamber ensembles of 
winds, brass, and percussion. Fall. P — Permission of instructor. 

119. Symphonic Band. Study and performance of music for symphonic band. Regular 
performances on and off campus. Spring. P — Permission of instructor. 

120. Small Chamber Ensemble. Study and performance of music for small ensemble. 
Performers are strongly urged to participate in a larger ensemble as well. P — Permission 
of instructor. 

a. percussion ensemble e. brass 

b. flute choir f. woodwind 

c. string g. guitar 

d. saxophone h. mixed 

121. Jazz Ensemble. Study and performance of written and improvised jazz for a twenty- 
member ensemble. P — Audition. 

Individual Instruction 

Courses in individual instruction are open to students with the permission of the 
instructor on a space available basis. Credit is earned on the basis of lesson duration 
and weekly preparation. One credit per semester implies a half-hour of instruction 
weekly and a minimum of one hour of daily practice. Two credits per semester imply 
an hour of instruction weekly and a minimum of two hours daily practice. With the 
permission of the music faculty and with a proportional increase in practice, a student 
may earn three or four credits per semester. Students in individual instruction who 
do not have basic knowledge of notation and rhythm are advised to enroll in Music 
101 or 104 either prior to or in conjunction with individual instruction. An individual 
instruction music fee is charged for all individual instruction. (See page 22 of this 
bulletin for specific information regarding the fee.) 



161 



161. Individual Instruction. (1) May be repeated for credit. Technical studies and 
repertoire of progressive difficulty selected to meet the needs and abilities of the student. 



a. violin 


g. clarinet 


m. baritone 


v. voice 


b. viola 


h. bassoon 


n. tuba 


zo. recorder 


c. cello 


i. saxophone 


o. organ 


x. viola da gamba 


d. bass 


j. trumpet 


p. piano 


y. harpsichord 


e. flute 


k. French horn 


q. percussion 




f. oboe 


I. trombone 


r. guitar 




31. Individual Instruction. (2,3, or 4) P 


4ay be repeated 


for credit. P — Permission of 



instructor. 

165j. Class Brass. (1) Introduction to the fundamentals of playing brass instruments. 
Designed for students with musical experience as well as beginners with no prior musical 
training. Spring. P — Permission of instructor. 

165p. Class Piano. (1) Scales, chords, inversions, and appropriate repertoire, with 
emphasis on sight-reading, harmonization, and simple transposition. Designed for the 
beginning piano student. 

165q. Class Percussion. (1) Introduction to the fundamentals of playing percussion 
instruments. Includes an introduction to reading music as well as basic techniques on 
instruments of the percussion family. P — Permission of instructor. 

165r. Class Guitar I. (1) Introduction to guitar techniques: strumming, plucking, arpeg- 
gios, and damping. Reading and playing from musical notation and guitar tablature. For 
beginning students. 

166r. Class Guitar II. (1) Continuation of guitar techniques. Emphasis on chordal 
progressions, scales, accompanying patterns, and sight-reading. P — Music 165r. 

165v. Class Voice 1.(1) Introduction to the fundamental principles of singing, concepts of 
breath control, tone, and resonance. Fall. 

166v. Class Voice II. (1) Continuation of fundamental vocal techniques. P — Music 165v 
or permission of instructor. 

165w. Class Recorder. (1) Introduction to recorder techniques: breath control, articula- 
tion, F and C fingering systems. Emphasis on ensemble playing. Designed for beginning 
and intermediate recorder players. This course is intended to prepare students for Music 
112, but is not a prerequisite. 

167v. Theatrical Singing I: Class Voice. (1) Basic techniques of singing, breath control, 
phonation, and resonance, with emphasis on theatrical projection. Study and perfor- 
mance of musical theater repertoire. (One hour per week.) Fall. 

168v. Theatrical Singing II: Class Voice. (1 ) Continuation of theatrical singing techniques 
with increased study and performance of musical theater repertoire. P — Music 167v or 
permission of instructor. (One hour per week.) 



162 



169. Musical Theater Practicum. (1 ) Musical stage experiences for vocalists or instrumen- 
talists who participate in a departmental ly sponsored theatrical production. May not be 
counted toward a major or minor in music. Credit may be earned in a given semester for 
either Music 169 or Theater 283, but not both. Course may be repeated for no more than 
4 credits. Pass/fail only. P — Permission of instructor. 

175v. Advanced Voice Class. (1) Development of advanced vocal technique and reper- 
toire. Limited to eight students. (Two hours per week; may be repeated.) P — Music 166v 
or permission of instructor. 

177v. Advanced Theatrical Singing. (1) Development of advanced theatrical singing 
technique and performance of musical theater repertoire. Limited to eight students. (Two 
hours per week; may be repeated.) P — Music 168v or permission of instructor. 

190. Diction for Singers. (2) Study of articulation in singing, with emphasis on modifica- 
tion of English; pronunciation of Italian, German, and French. Development of articula- 
tory and aural skills with use of the international phonetic alphabet. Individual perfor- 
mance and coaching in class. (Two hours per week.) 

282. Conducting. (4) A study of conducting techniques; practical experience with 
ensembles. Offered spring semester of odd years. (Also offered by the Department of 
Education as Education 282.) P — Music 174 or permission of instructor. 



Natural Sciences 

Dudley Shapere, Reynolds Professor of 
Philosophy and History of Science 

301. The Beginnings of the Modern World- View. (4) A study of the transition from 
ancient views of the world to the perspective of modern science, with focus on the works 
of the pre-Socratic philosophers, Plato, and Aristotle. (Also listed as History 301 and 
Philosophy 231.) 

302. The Mechanistic View of Nature. (4) An examination of the philosophical and 
scientific roots, in Descartes, Newton, and Leibniz, of the belief that the universe and 
human beings are "machines" subject to deterministic natural laws, and the relevance to 
this issue of modern scientific ideas. (Also listed as History 302 and Philosophy 242.) 

303. Revolutions in Modern Science. (4) An analysis of the ways in which radically new 
ideas are introduced and accepted in science. Cases studied are space and time in relativity 
theory, the nature of reality in quantum mechanics, evolution of species, and continental 
drift. P — At least one course in one of the relevant areas of science or permission of 
instructor. (Also listed as History 303.) 

320. The Universe of Modern Science. (4) A survey of the contemporary scientific picture 
of the universe and its evolution, and of the major evidence for that picture. 



163 



351. Philosophy of Science. (4) A systematic and critical examination of major views 
concerning the methods of scientific inquiry, and the bases, goals, and implications of 
the scientific conclusions which result from such inquiry. P — One 200-level course in 
philosophy or permission of the instructor. (Also listed as Philosophy 373.) 

352. Modern Science and Human Values. (4) Four revolutionary developments in 
science and technology are studied with a focus on their potential to affect human values: 
biotechnology, cognitive science, recent primate research, and the search for extraterres- 
trial life. (Also listed as History 305.) 

396. Individual Study. (1-4) Individual projects in the philosophy and history of science. 
By invitation only. 



Philosophy 



Win-chiat Lee, Chair 

Worrell Professor Robert M. Helm 

A.C. Reid Visiting Professor J. Martin Hollis 

Professors Thomas K. Hearn Jr., Marcus B. Hester, Charles M. Lewis 

Associate Professors Ralph C. Kennedy III, Win-chiat Lee 

Assistant Professor Josefine C. Nauckhoff 

Visiting Assistant Professor H. Lee Overton 

Lecturer Hanna M. Hardgrave 

Instructor N. Dane Scott 

The objective of the program in philosophy is to lead the student to an understanding of 
philosophical thinking — past and present — about such fundamental questions as what it 
is to exist, to know, to be good, right, true, beautiful, or sacred. In examining such matters, 
philosophy may be said to investigate the presuppositions that inform all human action 
and inquiry and thus to be an essentially interdisciplinary kind of subject. The study of 
philosophy can, therefore, play a useful role in preparing the student for a career in almost 
any field, including law, politics, religion, medicine, business, the arts, and the natural and 
social sciences. 

The thirty-six credits in philosophy required for graduation with a major in the subject 
must include a general introduction to philosophy (Philosophy 111), one course in logic 
(selected from Group II), three courses in the history of philosophy (one from each of 
Groups III, IV and V) and two 200-level or higher topics courses (Group VI), the total to 
include at least three courses at the 300-level. 

A minor in philosophy requires 20 credits in philosophy, which must include at least 
two 200-level or higher courses and one 300-level course. Philosophy being an intrinsi- 
cally interdisciplinary subject, a minor in philosophy can be designed to complement any 
major subject. Students interested in minoring in philosophy should consult with the 
department about choosing an appropriate sequence of courses. 

Highly qualified majors are invited to apply in the spring semester of their junior year 
to the honors program in philosophy. Candidates must have an overall grade-point 



164 



average of at least 3.0 and a grade-point average in philosophy courses of at least 3.3. 
Graduation with honors in philosophy requires successful completion of Honors I and II 
in the fall and spring semesters, respectively, of their senior year. The credits earned in 
these two courses do not count toward the thirty-six credits required of all majors. 

Group I — Introduction to Philosophy 

I'll. Basic Problems of Philosophy. (4) An examination of the basic concepts of several 
representative philosophers, including their accounts of the nature of knowledge, per- 
sons, God, mind, and matter. 

Group II — Logic 

121. Logic. (4) An elementary study of the laws of valid inference, recognition of fallacies, 
and logical analysis. 

221. Symbolic Logic. (4) Basic concepts and techniques of first-order logic; applications 
of first-order logic to arguments expressed in English; some discussion of such topics as 
the unsolvability of the decision problem for first-order logic, the completeness of first- 
order logic, and Godel's incompleteness theorem. 

Group III — Classical Ancient Philosophy 

231. Beginnings of the Modern World-View. (4) A study of the transition from ancient 
views of the world to the perspective of modern science, with focus on the works of the 
Presocratic philosophers, Plato, and Aristotle. (Also offered as History 301 and Natural 
Sciences 301.) 

232. Ancient and Medieval Philosophy. (4) A study of philosophical problems such as 
the nature of faith, reason, universals, and God in the thought of Plato, Aristotle, 
Augustine, Abelard, Anselm, Aquinas, and Ockham. P — Philosophy 111. 

331. Plato. (4) A detailed analysis of selected dialogues, covering Plato's most important 
contributions to moral and political philosophy, theory of knowledge, metaphysics, and 
theology. P — One 200-level course in philosophy or permission of instructor. 

332. Aristotle. (4) A study of the major texts, with emphasis on metaphysics, ethics, and 
theory of knowledge. P — One 200-level course in philosophy or permission of instructor. 

Group IV — Classical Modern Philosophy 

241. Modern Philosophy. (4) A survey of major philosophers from Descartes to Nietzsche. 
P— Philosophy 111. 

242. The Mechanistic View of Nature. (4) An examination of the philosophical and 
scientific roots, in Descartes, Newton, and Leibniz, of the belief that the universe and 
human beings are "machines" subject to deterministic natural laws, and the relevance to 



165 



this issue of modern scientific ideas. (Also offered as History 302, Interdisciplinary 
Honors 252, and Natural Sciences 302.) 

341. Kant. (4) A detailed study of selected works covering Kant's most important 
contributions to theory of knowledge, metaphysics, ethics, religion, and aesthetics. P — 
One 200-level course in philosophy or permission of instructor. 

Group V — Other History 

251. American Philosophy. (4) A study exploring the philosophies of Jonathan Edwards, 
Ralph Waldo Emerson, C.S. Peirce, William James, John Dewey, and others, examining 
their views on logic, experience, science, reality, nature, art, education, and God. P — 
Philosophy 111. 

252. Contemporary Philosophy. (4) A study of the principal works of several represen- 
tative twentieth-century philosophers. P — Philosophy 111. 

253. Main Streams of Chinese Philosophy and Religion. (4) An introduction to the most 
important traditions in Chinese philosophy and religion: Confucianism, Daoism (Tao- 
ism), and Chinese Buddhism or Chinese Chan (Zen) Buddhism. (Also offered as Religion 
380.) 

351. Early German Idealism. (4) An examination of the development of post-Kantian 
idealism through the works of Fichte, Schelling, and Schleiermacher, with particular 
emphasis on their efforts to address the challenge of critical philosophy. P — One 200-level 
course in philosophy or permission of instructor. 

352. Hegel, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche. (4) An examination of selected sources embody- 
ing the basic concepts of Hegel, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche, especially as they relate to 
each other in terms of influence, development, and opposition. P — One 200-level course 
in philosophy or permission of instructor. 

353. Heidegger. (4) An examination of the structure and development of Heidegger's 
philosophy from the ontological analysis in Being and Time to his later work in the 
philosophy of language and poetry. P — One 200-level course in philosophy or permission 
of instructor. 

354. Wittgenstein. (4) The work of Ludwig Wittgenstein on several central philosophical 
problems studied and compared with that of Frege, James, and Russell. Topics include the 
picture theory of meaning, truth, skepticism, private languages, thinking, feeling, the 
mystical, and the ethical. P — One 200-level course in philosophy or permission of 
instructor. 

Group VI — Topics in Philosophy 

161. Medical Ethics. (4) A study of moral problems in the practice of medicine, including 
informed consent, experimentation on human subjects, truthtelling, confidentiality, 
abortion, and the allocation of scarce medical resources. 



166 



162. Applied Ethics. (4) A critical analysis of contemporary moral issues, including capital 
punishment, minority rights and their protection, civil disobedience, euthanasia, family 
relationships, and sexual conduct. 

261. Ethics. (4) A critical study of selected problems and representative works in ethical 
theory. P — Philosophy 111. 

262. Philosophy of Law. (4) A philosophical inquiry into the nature of law and its relation 
to morality. Classroom discussions of readings from the works of classical and modern 
authors focus on issues of contemporary concern involving questions of legal principle, 
personal liberty, human rights, responsibility, justice, and punishment. P — Philosophy 111. 

361. Topics in Ethics. (2-4) P — One 200-level course in philosophy or permission of 
instructor. 

362. Social and Political Philosophy. (4) A systematic examination of selected social and 
political philosophers of different traditions, with concentration on Plato, Marx, Rawls, 
and Nozick. Topics include rights, justice, equality, private property, the state, the 
common good, and the relation of individuals to society. P — One 200-level course in 
philosophy or permission of instructor. 

171. Space and Time in Fact and Fiction. (4) Are space and time fundamentally different? 
Are they properties of the physical world or of minds only? Are they finite or infinite in 
extension and duration? Other questions cover problems and paradoxes in the concept of 
space and in the concept of time travel. 

371. Philosophy of Art. (4) A critical examination of several philosophies of art, with 
emphasis upon the application of these theories to particular works of art. P — One 200- 
level course in philosophy or permission of instructor. 

372. Philosophy of Religion. (4) An analysis of the logic of religious language and belief, 
including an examination of religious experience, mysticism, revelation, and arguments 
for the nature and existence of God. P — One 200-level course in philosophy or permission 
of instructor. 

373. Philosophy of Science. (4) A systematic and critical examination of major views 
concerning the methods of scientific inquiry, and the bases, goals, and implications of the 
scientific conclusions which result from such inquiry. P — One 200-level course in philoso- 
phy or permission of instructor. 

374. Philosophy of Mind. (4) A selection from the following topics: the mind-body 
problem; personal identity; the unity of consciousness; minds and machines; the nature 
of experience; action, intention, and the will. Readings from classical and contemporary 
sources. P — One 200-level course in philosophy or permission of instructor. 

375. Philosophy of Language. (4) A study of such philosophical issues about language as 
truth and meaning, reference and description, proper names, indexicals, modality, tense, 
the semantical paradoxes, and the differences between languages and other sorts of sign- 
systems. P — One 200-level course in philosophy or permission of instructor. (Also listed 
as Linguistics 375.) 

381. Topics in Epistemology. (4) The sources, scope and structure of human knowledge. 
Topics include: skepticism; perception, memory, and reason; the definition of knowledge; 



167 



the nature of justification; theories of truth. P — One 200-level course in philosophy or 
permission of instructor. 

382. Topics in Metaphysics. (4) P — One 200-level course in philosophy or permission of 
instructor. 

Group VII — Honors and Independent Study 

385. Seminar. (2-4) Offered by members of the faculty on specialized topics of their 
choice. With permission, may be repeated for credit. P — Permission of instructor. 

391. Honors I. (2) Directed study and research in preparation for writing a major paper. 
Must be taken in the fall semester of the senior year. P — Admission to the honors program 
in philosophy. 

392. Honors II. (2) Completion of the project begun in Philosophy 391. Requires defense 
of the paper in an oral examination conducted by at least two members of the department. 
Taken in the spring semester of the senior year. P — Philosophy 391. 

395. Independent Study. (2-4) 



Physics 



Howard W. Shields, Chair 

Reynolds Professor Richard T. Williams 

Professors George M. Holzwarth, Natalie A. W. Holzwarth, William C. Kerr, 

George Eric Matthews, Howard W. Shields, George P. Williams Jr. 

Associate Professor Keith D. Bonin 

Assistant Professors Paul R. Anderson, Eric D. Carlson 

Adjunct Professors Monroe J. Cowan, George B. Cvijanovich 

Adjunct Assistant Professor Peter Santago 

The program for each student majoring in physics is developed through consultation with 
the student's major adviser and may lead to either a bachelor of arts or a bachelor of science 
degree. The BA degree requires a minimum of basic physics courses and allows a wide 
selection of electives related to the student's interests in other disciplines, such as 
medicine, law, and business. The BS degree is designed for students planning careers in 
physics. 

The BA degree in physics requires thirty-two credits in physics and must include the 
following courses: 113, 114, 141, 162, 165, 166, and 230. The remaining eight credits may 
be satisfied with any other 300-level courses in the department. Mathematics 251 also is 
required. Depending on what other physics courses the student takes, additional math- 
ematics courses may be required; e.g., Mathematics 301 is a prerequisite for Physics 339. 
The bachelor of science degree in physics requires forty-seven credits in physics and must 
include the following courses: 113, 1 14, 141, 162, 165, 166, 230, 301, 302, 343, 344, 345, 337, 
339, 340, and 351 . The remaining credits may be satisfied with any other 300-level course 



168 



in the department. In addition, Mathematics 251, 301, 302, and 304 are required; Math- 
ematics 303 is strongly recommended. 
A typical schedule for the first two years: 

First Year Sophomore 

Basic and divisional requirements Basic and divisional requirements 

Physics 113, 114 Physics 141, 162, 165, 166 

Mathematics 111, 112 Mathematics 251, 302, 304 
Foreign language 

If this sequence is followed, the physics major may be completed with considerable 
flexibility in exercising various options, such as the five year BA/MS program. This saves 
time, and the outstanding student may qualify for a tuition scholarship in the senior year 
of the five-year program. A candidate for the 3-2 engineering program would also 
complete three years of the BS physics major program prior to transfer. (Consult the chair 
of the department for additional information on these five-year programs.) 

A minor in physics requires twenty-two credits, which must include the courses 113, 
114, 141, and 162. A minor in astrophysics requires twenty-two credits and consists of the 
courses 113, 114, 141, 310, and 312. Students interested in either minor should so advise 
the faculty member responsible for advising physics majors (inquire in Olin Physical 
Laboratory Room 100). 

If physics is not taken in the first year, the degree requirements in physics may still be 
completed by the end of the senior year if a beginning course is taken in the sophomore 
year. No student may be a candidate for a degree with a major in physics with a grade less 
than C in Gmeral Physics without special permission of the department. 

Physics courses satisfying Division II requirements must be taken at Wake Forest. 

Satisfactory completion of the laboratory work is required for a passing grade in all 
courses with a laboratory. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in physics through the major adviser. To be graduated with the 
designation "Honors in Physics," students must pass Physics 381, write a paper on the 
results of the research in that course, pass an oral exam on the research and related topics 
given by a committee of three physics faculty members, and obtain a GPA of 3.5 in physics 
and 3.0 overall. 

105. Descriptive Astronomy. (4) An introductory study of the universe, from the solar 
system to the galaxies. No lab. Does not satisfy Division II requirements. 

109. Astronomy. (5) An introductory study of the universe consisting of descriptive 
astronomy, the historical development of astronomical theories, and astrophysics. Knowl- 
edge of basic algebra and trigonometry is required. Lab — two hours. 

110. Introductory Physics. (5) A conceptual, non-calculus one-semester survey of the 
essentials of physics, including mechanics, wave motion, heat, sound, electricity, magne- 
tism, optics, and modern physics. Not recommended for premedical, mathematics or 
science students. Credit not allowed for both 110 and 113. Lab — two hours. 



169 



113, 114. General Physics. (5,5) Essentials of mechanics, wave motion, heat, sound, 
electricity, magnetism, optics, and modern physics treated with some use of calculus. 
Recommended for science, mathematics, and premedical students. C — Mathematics 111 
or equivalent. P — 113 is prerequisite for 114. Lab — two hours. 

141. Elementary Modern Physics. (4) The development of twentieth century physics and 
an introduction to quantum ideas. P — Physics 114 and Mathematics 111. C — Physics 165. 

162. Mechanics. (4) A study of the equations of motion describing several kinds of 
physical systems: velocity-dependent forces; damped and forced simple harmonic 
motion; orbital motion; inertial and non-inertial reference frames; and relativistic me- 
chanics. The course includes extensive use of computers. P — Physics 113 and Mathemat- 
ics 111 or equivalent. 

165, 166. Intermediate Laboratory. (1,1) Experiments on mechanics, modern physics, 
electronics, and computer simulations. C — Physics 141 (for Physics 165); Physics 162 (for 
Physics 166). P — Physics 165 (for Physics 166). 

230. Electronics. (4) Introduction to the theory and application of transistors and elec- 
tronic circuits. Lab — three hours. P — Physics 165 or equivalent. Non-physics major 
wishing to take Physics 230 should audit the relevant portions of Physics 165. 

301, 302. Physics Seminar. (0,0) Discussion of contemporary research, usually with 
visiting scientists. Attendance required of junior and senior physics majors. 

303, 304. Physics of Medicine and Biology. (4,4) Analysis and application of the physics 
involved both in physiological function (e.g., diffusion in cells, fluid flow in blood vessels, 
electrical conduction in nerves) and in modern medical technology (e.g., magnetic 
resonance imaging, X-ray and positron emission tomography, ultrasound). Both macro- 
scopic and molecular descriptions will be included. P — Physics 141, 162. 

310. Extragalactic Astronomy and Cosmology. (4) Topics covered include galactic 
structure, models for galaxies and galaxy formation, the large scale structure of the 
universe, the big bang model of the universe, physical processes such as nucleosynthesis 
in the early universe, and observational cosmology. P — Physics 114, 141. 

312. Introduction to Stellar Astronomy. (4) The physics of stellar atmospheres and 
interiors. Topics covered will include radiation transfer, absorption and emission of 
radiation, formation of spectra, models for stellar interiors, nuclear fusion reactions, and 
stellar evolution. Methods of measuring distances to stars and interpretation of stellar 
spectra also will be included. P — Physics 114, 141, Mathematics 301. 

320. The Physics of Macromolecules. (4) The physics of polymers, especially proteins and 
nucleic acids, including the molecular basis for their secondary and tertiary structure. P — 
Physics 351 or Chemistry 341 or Biology 371. 

330. Data Acquisition and Analysis. (4) Advanced treatment of computer interfacing, 
signal processing methods, non-ideal integrated circuit behavior, and data reduction and 
fitting procedures. P — Physics 130, 230. 



170 



337. Analytical Mechanics. (2) The Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations of me- 
chanics with applications. This course is taught in the first half of the fall semester. P — 
Physics 162, Mathematics 251. 

339, 340, 342. Electricity and Magnetism. (2,2,2) Electrostatics, magnetostatics, dielectric 
and magnetic materials, Maxwell's equations and applications to radiation, relativistic 
formulation. The first half course is taught in the second half of the fall semester, following 
Physics 337. The other two are taught in the first and second halves of the spring semester. 
These should be taken in sequence. P — Physics 114, Mathematics 251 and 301. 

343, 344. Quantum Physics. (4,4) Application of the elementary principles of quantum 
mechanics to atomic, molecular, solid state, and nuclear physics. P— Physics 141 and 
Mathematics 251. 

346. Advanced Physics Laboratory. (1) Lab — three hours. P — Physics 166 and Physics 

343. 

351. Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics. (4) Introduction to classical and 
statistical thermodynamics and distribution functions. 

352. Physical Optics and Optical Design. (5) Interaction of light with materials; diffrac- 
tion and coherent optics; ray trace methods of optical design. Lab — three hours. 

354. Introduction to Solid State Physics. (4) A survey of the structure, composition, 
physical properties, and technological applications of condensed matter. P — Physics 343. 

381, 382. Research. (2-4, 2-4) Library, conference, computation and laboratory work 
performed on an individual basis. 




171 



Politics 

Jack D. Fleer, Chair 

Professors David B. Broyles, Jack D. Fleer, Charles H. Kennedy, 

Richard D. Sears, Kathleen B. Smith 

Zachary T. Smith Associate Professor Katy J. Harriger 

Associate Professors Wei-chin Lee, David P. Weinstein 

Assistant Professor Helga A. Welsh 

Visiting Professor Jerry Pubantz 

Visiting Associate Professor Yomi Durotoye 

Instructors Tomoaki Nomi, Thomas W. Smith 

hi its broadest conception, the aim of the study of politics is to understand the way in 
which policy for a society is formulated and executed and to understand the moral 
standards by which policy is or ought to be set. This center of interest is often described 
alternatively as the study of power, of government, of the state, or of human relations in 
their political context. For teaching purposes, the study of politics has been divided by the 
department into the following fields: (1) American politics, (2) comparative politics, (3) 
political philosophy, and (4) international politics. Introductory courses in these fields 
provide broad and flexible approaches to studying political life. 

The major in politics consists of thirty-six credits, at least half of which must be 
completed at Wake Forest University. The courses must include the following: (a) a first 
course selected from Politics 113, 114, 115, or 116; (b) any non-seminar course in each of 
the four fields of the discipline except Politics 280, 284, 285, 287, 288, 289; (c) one seminar 
in politics (usually a student takes no more than one seminar in each field and no more 
than three seminars overall). No more than four credits for any one or any combination 
of the following courses may be counted toward the thirty-six credits required for the 
major: Politics 287, 288, and 289. Politics majors who have taken at least 20 credits in the 
Department of Politics are not allowed to take 100-level politics courses. A minimum 
grade average of C on all courses attempted in politics is required for graduation. Majors 
should consult with their advisers concerning additional regulations. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in politics. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Politics," 
one must successfully complete Politics 284 and 285. Politics 284 and 285 must be taken 
as additional courses beyond the thirty-six credits ordinarily required. For additional 
information members of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

The minor in politics consists of twenty credits, including Politics 113 but excluding 
individual study (Politics 287, 288, and 289) and seminar courses. No more than eight 
credits may be from among the following courses: Politics 113, 114, 115, or 116. Sixteen of 
the credits must be taken at Wake Forest and any transfer courses must be approved by 
the chair. None of the courses may be taken pass/fail. 

A student who selects politics to fulfill the Division IV requirement must take one of the 
following courses: Politics 113, 114, 115, or 116. Students who are not majors in politics 
may take upper level courses as electives without having had lower-level courses, unless 
a prerequisite is specified. 



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American Politics 

113. American Government and Politics. (4) The nature of politics, political principles, 
and political institutions, with emphasis on their application to the United States. 

210. Major Topics in Public Policy. (2,3, or 4) A study of major policies on the current 
public agenda in the United States, including consideration of alternative policy re- 
sponses and the politics which surround them. Possible topics include the politics of 
poverty and welfare, medical care, education, crime, and energy. Credit varies with the 
number of topics studied. 

211. Political Parties and Voting Behavior. (4) An examination of party competition, 
party organizations, the electorate and electoral activities of parties, and the responsibili- 
ties of parties for governing. 

213. Public Administration. (4) Introduction to the study of public administration 
emphasizing policymaking in government agencies. 

215. Citizen and Community. (4) An examination of the role and responsibilities of 
citizens in democratic policymaking. Includes discussion of democratic theory, emphasis 
on a policy issue of national importance (i.e. poverty, crime, environment), and involve- 
ment of students in projects that examine the dimension of the issue in their community. 
P — Permission of instructor. 

217. Politics and the Mass Media. (4) Exploration of the relationship between the political 
system and the mass media. Two broad concerns will be the regulation of the mass media 
and the impact of media on political processes and events. 

218. Congress and Policymaking. (4) An examination of the composition, authority 
structures, external influences, and procedures of Congress with emphasis on their 
implications for policymaking in the United States. 

219. Fundamentals of Public Policy Analysis. (4) Fundamentals of public policy analysis 
with emphasis on techniques of decision-making such as cost benefit analysis and utility 
analysis. Each student will participate in a major collective research project centered on 
a local issue. 

220. The American Presidency. (4) Emphasis on the office and the role; contributions by 
contemporary presidents considered in perspective. 

222. Urban Politics. (4) Political structures and processes in American cities and suburbs 
as they relate to the social, economic, and political problems of the metropolis. 

223. Blacks in American Politics. (4) A survey of selected topics, including black political 
participation, political organizations, political leadership, and political issues. It will also 
show the relationship of these phenomena to American political institutions and pro- 
cesses as a whole. 

225. American Constitutional Law: Separation of Powers and the Federal System. (4) 

An analysis of Supreme Court decisions affecting the three branches of the national 
government and federal/state relations. Not open to first-year students. 



173 



226. American Constitutional Law: Civil Liberties. (4) Judicial interpretations of First 
Amendment freedoms, racial equality, and the rights of the criminally accused. Not open 
to first-year students. 

227. Politics, Law, and Courts. (4) Analysis of the nature and role of law in American 
society and the structure and procedure of American courts. Questions of judicial 
organization, personnel, and decision-making, as well as the impact of law and court 
decisions on the social order, are explored at local, state, and national levels. 

229. Women and Politics. (4) The course will examine classical and contemporary 
arguments regarding the participation of women in politics as well as current policy 
issues and changes in women's political participation. 

Comparative Politics 

114. Comparative Government and Politics. (4) A survey of political processes and 
principles as applied to traditional, developing, and mature states. 

231. Western European Politics. (4) Analysis of the political systems of Great Britain, 
France, and Italy, focusing primarily on the problems of stable democracy. 

232. Politics in Russia and Eastern Europe. (4) Analysis of the political, economic, and 
social patterns of the region emphasizing the internal dynamics of the political and 
economic transition processes currently underway. 

233. The Politics of Modern Germany. (4) A study of the historical legacy, the political 
behavior, and governmental institutions of contemporary Germany (newly unified 
Germany). 

236. Government and Politics in Latin America. (4) Comparative analysis of the 
institutions and processes of politics in the Latin American region. 

237. Comparative Public Policy in Selected Industrialized Democracies. (4) An inves- 
tigation of the public policy choices involving such matters as health, education, and 
income maintenance plans in selected Western European countries. The origins, develop- 
ment, and trends of the "welfare state" will be examined in Great Britain, Germany, and 
Sweden. 

238. Comparative Economic Development and Political Change. (4) An overview of the 
relationship between economic development, socio-structural change, and politics since 
the creation of the international capitalist system in the sixteenth century. The course is 
organized around case studies of what we now recognize as industrialized democracies, 
evolving Communist systems and command economies, and "Third World" countries. 

242. Topics in Comparative Politics. (4) An intensive study of one or more major 
problems in contemporary comparative politics. 

244. Politics and Literature. (2,3, or 4) An examination of how literature can extend our 
knowledge of politics and political systems. The course considers the insights of selected 
novelists, such as Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Heinrich Boll, Robert Perm Warren, George 
Orwell, and Gabriel Garcia Marquez. 



174 



245. Politics of Ethnicity. (4) This course is concerned with the role of ethnicity in world 
politics. It focuses on both theoretical and substantive issues relating to: (a) the nature of 
ethnicity and ethnic group identity; (b) the sources of ethnic conflict; (c) the politics of 
ethnic conflict; (d) the policy management of ethnic conflict; and (e) international 
intervention in ethnic conflict. 

246. Politics and Policies in South Asia. (4) A survey of major issues relevant to politics 
and policy in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. 

247. Islam and Politics. (4) The course explores the interrelationship of Islam and politics 
in the contemporary world. The course has two main foci. The first deals with Islam as a 
political ideology which shapes the structure of political institutions and behavior. The 
second looks at Islam in practice by examining the interaction between Islam and the 
political systems of Iran, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and others. 

248. Government and Politics of China. (4) A survey of the political institutions and 
processes in China (People's Republic of China and Republic of China). Emphasis on 
group conflict, elites, ideology, as well as current policy changes in the process of 
modernization. 

249. Government and Politics of Japan. (4) A survey of the political institutions and 
processes in Japan. Attention also is given to the relationship between politics and 
economics. 

International Politics 

116. International Politics. (4) A survey of the forces which shape relations among states 
and some of the major problems of contemporary international politics. 

250. Global Crises. (4) An introductory survey of the major current issues in international 
affairs. Students leant how to effectively read and criticize materials and present critiques 
in oral and written fashion. 

251. The Foreign Policy of Decline: Britain since 1945. (4) The course will study the efforts 
of Great Britain to maintain its status as a world power after 1945 and then, when it 
recognized that this was not possible, to find, or adjust to, a new role in the international 
system. Both theories of international politics and historical analysis will be employed in 
seeking to understand the policies which were adopted and rejected. 

252. Topics in International Politics. (4) An intensive study of one or more major 
problems of contemporary international politics. 

253. International Political Economy. (4) An introduction to major current issues of 
international political economy, such as monetary policy, trade policy, and ideologies 
in international relations. 

254. American Foreign Policy: Contemporary Problems. (4) A critical examination of 
different methods of studying American foreign policy and of selected policies followed 
by the United States since the early 1960s. 



175 



256. Nuclear Weapons and National Security. (2 or 4) An analysis of the strategic, 
political, and moral implications of nuclear weapons as instruments of national policy. 
Both American and Soviet perspectives will be considered and special attention will be 
given to contemporary debates over the possession and control of nuclear weapons. 

258. U.S. National Security Policymaking. (4) A critical analysis of how U.S. national 
security policy is made with particular emphasis on the period 1960 to present. 

259. The Arab-Israeli Conflict. (4) An analysis of factors influencing the relationship 
between Israel and its neighbors relative to fundamental aspects of United States, Israeli, 
Palestinian, and Arab states policies. 

260. East Asian International Relations. (4) An analytical survey of the bilateral and 
multilateral political relations of the East Asian states, with particular emphasis on the 
security relations and economic interactions. 

261. International Law and Organizations. (4) Examination of the theoretical and 
substantive problems relating to the development and functioning of international 
law and international organizations and their contributions to international politics. 
Topics such as the United Nations system, human rights, and the law of the sea will 
be considered. 

267. America in Vietnam: Myth and Reality. (4) An analysis of American policy towards 
Vietnam with special emphasis on the period of 1954-75. The focus will be on the 
relationship between American policies and the problems posed by Vietnamese and 
American cultures. 

Political Philosophy 

115. Political Philosophy. (4) A survey of major systematic statements of the rules and 
principles of political life. Representative writers are Tocqueville, Dahl, and Aristotle. 

270. Topics in Political Theory. (4) An intensive study of one or more major topics in 
political theory. 

271. Plato, Aristotle, and Classical Political Philosophy. (4) An examination of the nature 
and goals of the classical position, with attention to its origins in ancient Athens and its 
diffusion through Rome. Representative writers are Plato, Aristotle, and Cicero. 

273. Radical Critiques of Political Society. (4) Anarchist, socialist, and communist 
criticisms of and alternatives to existing political societies, with special attention to such 
problems as utopianism and alienation. Representative writers are Marx and Nietzsche. 

274. Noble Greeks and Romans. (4) The good man and the good citizen as comprehended 
in classical political philosophy. Representative writers are Aristotle, Plutarch, Aquinas, 
Shakespeare. 

275. American Political Philosophy. (4) Critical examination of the nature of the Ameri- 
can polity as expressed by its founders and leading statesmen. Representative writers are 
the Federalists, Lincoln, modern political scientists, and radical critics. 



176 



278. Modern Political Philosophy. (4) Political thought in the period from Machiavelli to 
the present, including such topics as democracy, equality, liberty, radical theories, and/ 
or the rise of "scientific" political theory. Representative writers include Hobbes, Locke, 
Rousseau, Kant, Marx and Heidegger. 

279. Contemporary Political Theory. (4) An examination of representative twentieth 
century political thinkers such as Arendt, Dewey, Foucault, Rawls, and Weber. 

Honors and Additional Courses 

280. Political Science Methods. (4) An overview of the methods currently prominent 
in studying politics. Special attention will be given to the relationships between 
theory, method, and findings by focusing on the need to make empirical observation 
systematic. 

284. Honors Study. (3) Directed study and research in preparation for a major paper on 
a subject of special interest to the student. Taken in the fall semester of the senior year by 
all candidates for departmental honors. 

285. Honors Study. (3) Directed study toward completion of the project begun in Politics 
284 and to the writing and defense of an honors paper. Taken in the spring semester of the 
senior year by all candidates for departmental honors. P — Politics 284. 

287. Individual Study. (2,3, or 4) Intensive research leading to the completion of an 
analytical paper conducted under the direction of a faculty member. Students are 
responsible for initiating the project and securing the permission of an appropriate 
instructor. P — Permission of instructor. 

288. Directed Reading. (1-4) Concentrated reading in an area of study not otherwise 
available. Students are responsible for initiating the project and securing the permission 
of an appropriate instructor. P — Permission of instructor. 

289. Internship in Politics. (2,3, or 4) Field work in a public or private setting with related 
readings and an analytical paper under the direction of a faculty member. Students are 
responsible for initiating the project and securing the permission of an appropriate 
instructor. Normally one course in an appropriate subfield will have been taken prior to 
the internship. P — Permission of instructor. 

Seminars 

291. Seminar in American Politics. (4) Readings, research, and independent study on 
selected topics. P — Permission of instructor. 

292. Seminar in Comparative Politics. (4) Readings, research, and independent study on 
selected topics. P — Permission of instructor. 

293. Seminar in International Politics. (4) Readings, research, and independent study on 
selected topics. P — Permission of instructor. 



177 



294. Seminar in Political Philosophy. (4) Readings, research, and independent study on 
selected topics. P — Permission of instructor. 



Psychology 



Deborah L. Best, Chair 

Wake Forest Professor John E. Williams 

Professors Robert C. Beck, Deborah L. Best, Robert H. Dufort, Philippe R. 

Falkenberg, David A. Hills, Mark R. Leary, Charles L. Richman 

Associate Professors Terry D. Blumenthal, Dale Dagenbach, 

Catherine E. Seta, Cecilia H. Solano 

Assistant Professors Christy M. Buchanan, Eric R. Stone 

Adjunct Professor W. Jack Rejeski Jr. 

Adjunct Associate Professors C. Drew Edwards, Jay R. Kaplan, Frank B. Wood 

Adjunct Assistant Professors Phillip G. Batten, Jerry W. Noble, 

Marianne A. Schubert, William W. Sloan Jr. 

Adjunct Instructor Stephen W. Davis 

Visiting Instructor Mark V. Pezzo 

Psychology 151 is prerequisite to all courses of a higher number. Courses numbered 
below 151 do not count toward Division IV requirements or toward the major in 
psychology. Psychology 21 1, or special permission of the instructor, is prerequisite for all 
300-level courses except 313, 335, 344, 357, 359, and 367. 

It is recommended that students who are considering psychology as a major take 
Psychology 151 in their first year and Psychology 211 no later than the fall of their junior 
year. An average of C or higher in psychology courses is required at the time the major 
is elected. The major in psychology requires the completion of a minimum of forty credits 
in psychology, including 151, 211, 212, and 313. In addition, the major student must 
complete at least one course from each of the following groups: 320, 326, 329, 331, and 333; 
341, 351, 355, and 362. No more than forty-eight psychology credits may be counted 
toward the graduation requirements of 144 credits. 

The minor in psychology requires twenty credits in psychology including: 151; 210 or 
211; at least two of the following courses, at least one of which must be at the 300-level — 
241, 245, 255, 260, 268, 320, 323, 326, 329, 331, 333, and 362. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to participate in the honors 
program in psychology. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Psychology," 
the student must complete satisfactorily a special sequence of courses (381, 383) and pass 
an oral or written examination, hi addition, the honors student normally has a non-credit 
research apprenticeship with a faculty member. For more detailed information, members 
of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

100. Learning to Learn. (2,3, or 4) A workshop designed primarily for first- and second- 
year students who wish to improve their academic skills through the application of basic 
principles of learning, memory, organization, etc. Third- and fourth-year students by 
permission of the instructor only. No prerequisites. Pass/fail only. 



178 



102. Exploration of Career Planning. (2,3, or 4) Examination of educational /vocational 
planning as a personal process, based on knowledge of self and the work world. No 
prerequisite. 

151. Introductory Psychology. (4) A systematic survey of psychology as the scientific 
study of behavior. Prerequisite to all courses of a higher number. 

210. Methods in Psychological Research. (4) An introduction to statistics and research 
design for students minoring in psychology. P — Psychology 151 and permission of 
instructor. Fall only. 

211, 212. Research Methods in Psychology. (5, 5) Introduction to the design and statistical 
analysis of psychological research. Lab — twice weekly. P — Psychology 151 and permis- 
sion of instructor. 

239. Altered States of Consciousness. (4) Examination of altered states of consciousness 
with special reference to sleep and dreams, meditation, hypnosis, and drugs. P — 
Psychology 151. 

241. Developmental Psychology. (4) Survey of physical, emotional, cognitive, and social 
development in humans from conception to death. P — Psychology 151. 

245. Survey of Abnormal Behavior. (4) Study of problem behaviors such as depression, 
alcoholism, antisocial personality, the schizophrenias, and pathogenic personality pat- 
terns, with emphasis on causes, prevention, and the relationships of these disorders to 
normal lifestyles. P — Psychology 151. 

250. Psychology Abroad. (4) The study of psychology in foreign countries. Content and 
travel plans vary from year to year depending upon interests of faculty and students. 
Usually offered in summer. P — Psychology 151. 

255. Personality. (4) Survey of theory and research on the structure and function of human 
personality, with attention to the relationship to cognition, emotion, motivation, and 
behavior. P — Psychology 151. 

260. Social Psychology. (4) A survey of the field, including theories of social behavior, 
interpersonal attraction, attitudes and attitude change, and group behavior. P — Psychol- 
ogy 151. 

265. Human Sexuality. (4) An exploration of the psychological and physiological aspects 
of human sexuality, with attention to sexual mores, sexual deviances, sexual dysfunction, 
and sex-related roles. P — Psychology 151. 

268. Psychology of Business and Industry. (4) Psychological principles and methods 
applied to problems commonly encountered in business and industry. P — Psychology 
151. 

270. Topics in Psychology. (1,2, or 3) The student selects from among a group of short one- 
credit courses dealing with topics of special interest. The courses meet sequentially, not 
concurrently, and options are offered in each portion of the semester. P — Psychology 151. 



179 



270A Child Development and 270R The Human Factor: Designing 

Social Policy Your Own World 

270B Persuasion and Social 270S Primate Cognition 

Propaganda 270X1 The Self and Social Behavior 

270E Emotion 270W judgment and Decision Making 

27 OH Intelligence 27 OX Psychobiology 

270] Memory 270Y Women, Health, and Culture 

270N Liking and Loving Relationships 270Z Primate Models of Human Disorder 

270P Animal Flying Behavior 

280. Directed Study. (1-4) Student research performed under faculty supervision. P — 
Psychology 151 and approval of faculty member prior to registration. 

313. History and Systems of Psychology. (4) The development of psychological thought 
and research from ancient Greece to the present. P — Two psychology courses beyond 151 
or permission of instructor. 

320. Physiological Psychology. (4) Neurophysiological and neuroanatomical explana- 
tions of behavior. P — Psychology 210 or 211 or permission of instructor. 

322. Psychopharmacology. (4) A survey of the influences of a wide range of psychoactive 
drugs, both legal and illegal, on human physiology, cognition, and behavior. P — 
Psychology 151. 

323. Animal Behavior. (4) A survey of laboratory and field research on animal behavior. 
This course may count as biology or psychology but not both; choice to be made at 
registration. P — Psychology or biology major or permission of Instructor. 

326. Learning Theory and Research. (4) Survey of concepts and research in learning, with 
particular emphasis on recent developments. P — Psychology 210 or 211. 

329. Perception. (4) Survey of theory and research findings on various sensory systems 
(vision, hearing, touch, taste). P — Psychology 210 or 211. 

331. Cognition. (4) Current theory and research in cognitive processes. Emphasis on 
memory, attention, visual and auditory information processing, concept identification/ 
formation, and language. P — Psychology 210 or 211. 

333, Motivation of Behavior. (4) Survey of basic motivational concepts and related 
evidence. P — Psychology 210 or 211. 

335. Fundamentals of Human Motivation. (4) Description and analysis of some funda- 
mental motivational phenomena, with special reference to human problems; includes 
reward and punishment, conflict anxiety, affection, needs for achievement and power, 
aggression, creativity, and curiosity. P — Psychology 151. 

341. Research in Child Development. (4) Methodological issues and selected research in 
child development. Research projects required. P — Psychology 210 or 211. 



180 



344. Abnormal Psychology. (4) Descriptive analysis of the major types of abnormal 
behavior with attention to organic, psychological, and cultural causes and major modes 
of therapy. Offered in the summer. P — Psychology 151. 

346. Psychological Disorders of Childhood. (4) Survey of problems including conduct 
disorders, attention deficits disorders, depression, and autism. Emphasis on causes, 
prevention, treatment, and the relationships of disorders to normal child development 
and family life. P — Psychology 245 or 344 or permission of instructor. 

351. Personality Research. (4) The application of a variety of research procedures to the 
study of human personality. Research projects required. P — Psychology 210 or 211. 

355. Research in Social Psychology. (4) Methodological issues and selected research in the 
study of the human as a social animal. Research projects required. P — Psychology 210 or 211. 

357. Cross-Cultural Psychology. (4) An examination of differences in psychological 
processes (e.g., attitudes, perception, mental health, organizational behavior) associated 
with cultural variation. P — Psychology 151. 

359. Psychology of Gender. (4) An exploration of the psychological similarities and 
differences between human males and females, including consideration of social, 
cognitive, motivational, biological, and developmental determinants of behavior. P — 
Psychology 151. 

362. Psychological Testing. (4) Theory and application of psychological assessment 
procedures in the areas of intelligence, aptitude, vocational interest, and personality. P — 
Psychology 210 or 211. 

363. Survey of Clinical Psychology. (4) An overview of the field of clinical psychology. 
P — Psychology 245 and senior standing or permission of instructor. 

364. Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism. (4) A comparison of cross-cultural similari- 
ties and differences in the initiation, maintenance, and treatment of prejudice, discrimi- 
nation, and racism, with an emphasis on past and current trends in the United States. P — 
Psychology 151 or permission of instructor. 

367. Effectiveness in Parent/Child Relations. (4) A survey of popular approaches to 
child-rearing, with examination of the research literature on parent/child interaction and 
actual training in parental skills. P — Psychology 151. 

381. Honors Seminar. (3) Seminar on selected problems in psychology. Intended prima- 
rily for students in the departmental honors program. P — Psychology 21 1 and permission 
of instructor. 

383. Honors Research. (3) Seminar in selected issues in research design, followed by 
independent empirical research under the supervision of a member of the departmental 
faculty. P — Psychology 211 and permission of instructor. 

392. Contemporary Problems in Psychology. (4) Seminar treatment of current theory and 
research in several "frontier" areas of psychology. Principally for senior majors planning 
to attend graduate school. P — Psychology 211 and senior standing. 



181 



Religion 



Samuel T. Gladding, Interim Chair 

Charles A. Kimball, Chair-elect 

Albritton Professor of the Bible Fred L. Horton Jr. 

John Easley Professor of Religion Ralph C. Wood Jr. 

University Professor James A. Martin 

Wake Forest Professor Charles H. Talbert 

Professor John E. Collins 

Associate Professors Stephen B. Boyd, Kenneth G. Hoglund, Alton B. Pollard III 

Adjunct Associate Professor Mark Jensen 

Assistant Professor Simeon Ilesanmi 

The department offers courses designed to give every student an opportunity to acquire 
at least an introduction to the field of religion. 

A course in religion is required for all degrees. Any four credits at the 100-level offered 
by the department is accepted to meet the Division III requirement. 

A major in religion requires a minimum of thirty-two credits, at least half of which must 
be in courses above the 100-level. 

A minor in religion requires twenty credits, eight of which must be above the 1 00-level. 
The required courses may include one pass / fail course if the course is offered on the pass / 
fail basis only. The department will provide advisers for students electing the minor in 
religion. 

Pre-seminary students are advised to include in their program of study, in addition to 
courses in religion, courses in psychology, history, public speaking, and at least two 
languages (Hebrew, Greek, Latin, German, or French). 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in religion. To graduate with the designation, "Honors in Religion," a 
student must apply to the department chair for admission to the honors program, 
normally by February of the junior year. Upon completion of all the requirements, the 
candidate may graduate with "Honors in Religion." For additional information, consult 
any member of the departmental faculty. 

101. Introduction to Religion. (4) A study of meaning and value as expressed in religious 
experience, thought, and practice. 

111. Introduction to the Old Testament. (4) A survey of the Old Testament designed to 
introduce the student to the history, literature, and religion of the ancient Hebrews. 

112. Introduction to the New Testament. (4) A survey of the literature of the New 
Testament in the context of early Christian history. 

120. Introduction to the Bible. (4) A consideration of prominent themes found in the Old 
and New Testaments. 

131. Basic Christian Ethics. (4) A study of prominent themes, figures, and issues in 
Christian ethics, with attention to selected contemporarv problems. 



182 



151. Religion and Society. (4) A study of religion as a social phenomenon and its 
relationship to the structures of society — political, economic, and others, with special 
focus on the contemporary United States. (Also listed as Sociology 301.) 

161. World Religions. (4) An introductory study of major religious traditions with an 
emphasis on the fundamental teachings of selected sacred texts. Two of the following 
will be studied: (a) Buddhism, (b) Primal Religion (Taoism and Native American), (c) 
Hinduism, and (d) Islam. 

164. The Formation of the Christian Tradition. (4) A survey of the history of the Christian 
church from its origins to the Reformation. 

165. History of Christianity in Modern Times. (4) A survey of the history of the Christian 
church from the Reformation to the present. 

166. Religious Life in the United States. (4) A study of the history, organization, worship 
and beliefs of American religious bodies in the United States, with particular attention 
to cultural factors. 

173. Problems of Religious Thought. (4) An introduction to central themes and issues 
in the history of religious thought, with special emphasis on contemporary develop- 
ments and world religions. 

177. Faith and Imagination. (4) A study of modern writers, including C.S. Lewis and J.R.R. 
Tolkien, who seek to retell the Christian story in imaginative terms. 

218. Seminar in the Mediterranean World. (4) Travel and study in such countries as 
Greece, Italy, Turkey, Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, and Israel. 

219. Art and Religious Life in Northern Europe, 1400-1600: A Travel Seminar. (4) An 

introduction to Northern Renaissance art and its religious background, based on the 
study of great collections in museums in Vienna, Amsterdam, and elsewhere, as well 
as on visits to monasteries, late medieval cities, centers of the printing industry, and 
sites important in the history and religion of the beginning of the Reformation era. 

(Summer only.) 

235. Passion, Mind, and Power. (4) An examination of the relation between emotion, 
reason, and will in Christian ethical theory, ancient to modern, including feminist. 

262. Contemporary Judaism. (2) A survey of Judaism today, including a study of some 
major religious, political, and literary figures. 

263. Contemporary Catholicism. (2) An introduction to recent thought and practice in the 
Roman Catholic Church. 

266. Religious Sects and Cults. (4) An examination of certain religious sects in America, 
including such groups as Jehovah's Witnesses, communal groups, and contemporary 
movements. 

267. The Baptists. (2) A survey of Baptist history, thought, and polity, including an 
examination of various Baptist groups and a study of important controversies. 



183 



270. Theology and Modern Literature. (4) An introduction to such modern theologians 
as Karl Barth and Reinhold Niebuhr, and to literary figures who share their concerns, 
including Flannery O'Connor and Walker Percy. 

282. Honors in Religion. (4) A conference course including directed reading and the 
writing of a research project. 

285. Seminar in Early Christian Studies. (4) This seminar is designed specially to meet 
the needs of students earning the interdisciplinary minor in early Christian studies, 
but is not limited to them. It will explore from various points of view the culture of the 
Mediterranean world from which Christianity was born and grew: literature and art, 
history and economics, religions and philosophies. May be repeated for credit. (Also 
listed as Classical Languages 285.) 

286, 287. Directed Reading. (1-4, 1-4) A project in an area of study not otherwise available 
in the department. P — Permission of instructor. 

300. Meaning of Religion. (4) A phenomenological study of different ways of defining 
religion, including the views of representative philosophers, psychologists, sociologists, 
anthropologists, theologians, and historians of religion. 

301. Myth. (4) A study of the approaches to the interpretation of myth, with a focus on the 
meaning and values implicit in the myths of contemporary culture. 

302. Mysticism. (4) A study of mysticism from a multireligious perspective, with 
emphasis on the psychological and sociological aspects of the phenomenon. 

303. Religion and Science. (4) An examination of the ways in which religion and science 
have conflicted with, criticized, and complemented one another in the history of Western 
thought from Galileo to the present. 

310. The Prophetic Literature. (4) An examination of the development and theological 
contents of the literary products of Israel's prophetic movement. 

311. The Psalms. (2,4) A study of Hebrew poetry in English translation with special 
attention to its types, its literary and rhetorical characteristics, and its importance for our 
understanding of the religion and culture of ancient Israel. (The first half of the course 
may be taken for two credits and is a prerequisite for the second half.) 

312. The Critical Study of the Pentateuch. (4) A study of the five traditional books of 
Moses (the Torah) and the various lines of analysis that modern Biblical critics have used 
to interpret their composition and role in the development of Israelite theological thought. 

313. Near Eastern Archeology. (4) A survey of twentieth century archeology in the Near 
East with attention to its importance for Biblical studies. 

314. Ancient Israel and Her Neighbors. (2) A study of ancient Near Eastern archeology 
with special emphasis on Israel's relationships with surrounding peoples. 

315, 316. Field Research in Biblical Archeology. (4,4) A study of the religion and culture 
of the ancient Near East through the excavation and interpretation of an ancient site. 



184 



317. The Wisdom Literature. (4) An examination of the development, literary charac- 
teristics and theological contents of the works of ancient Israel's sages. 

319. Visions of the End: Jewish and Christian Apocalyptic. (4) Reading and study of 
Daniel, Revelation, and certain non-Biblical apocalyptic texts. 

320. Jesus and the Synoptic Gospels. (4) A study of Jesus' proclamation and activity in 
light of modern critical research on the Gospels. 

322. The General Epistles. (4) An exegetical study of two or more of the general Epistles, 
with emphasis on the setting of the Epistles in the life of the Early Church. 

326. Early Christian Theologians: Paul. (4) An introduction to the Pauline interpretation 
of Christianity and its place in the life of the Early Church. 

327. Early Christian Theologians: The Fourth Evangelist. (4) An examination of the 
Johannine interpretation of Jesus and the Christian faith. 

328. The New Testament and Ethics. (4) A study of selected ethical issues in the New 
Testament within the context of Mediterranean culture. 

329. New Testament and Theology. (4) A consideration of the implications of the 
critical study of the New Testament for theology. 

330. Comparative Religious Ethics. (4) A comparative study of the moral values and 
socio-ethical positions in the major religious traditions of the world, with particular 
focus on their various methods of reasoning and sources of authority. 

331. Christian Ethics and Social Justice. (4) An inquiry from a Christian perspective 
into different theoretical and practical responses to issues of justice in society. 

335. Christian Ethics and the Problem of War. (4) An examination of the causes and 
characteristics of war, various Christian responses to it, and approaches to peacemak- 
ing, with attention to selected contemporary issues. 

337. The Authority of Scripture for Ethics. (4) An examination of theological questions 
resulting from the claim that the biblical canon has primary authority among the 
sources of Christian ethics. 

339. Religion, Society and Power in Africa. (4) An interdisciplinary study of the 
growth and transformations of Africa's major religious traditions (Christianity, Islam, 
and the indigenous religions), and of their relations with secular social changes. 

340. Men's Studies and Religion. (4) An examination of how masculine sex-role 
expectations and male experiences have both shaped religious ideas, symbols, rituals, 
institutions, and forms of spirituality and been shaped by them. Attention will be 
given to the ways in which race, class, and sexual orientation affect those dynamics. 

341. Civil Rights and Black Consciousness Movements. (4) A social and religious history 
of the African- American struggle for citizenship rights and freedom from World War II 
to the present. (Also listed as History 376.) 



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342. Religion, Culture, and Modernity. (4) An inquiry into the origins and development 
of modernity as idea and ideology, with special emphasis on its significance for non- 
Western social and religious movements. 

343. The City as Symbol. (4) A study of the city, past and present, as a unique repository 
and symbol of human values and aspirations. 

345. The African-American Religious Experience. (4) An exploration of the religious 
dimensions of African-American life from its African antecedents to contemporary 
figures and movements. 

347. The Emerging Church in the Two-Thirds World. (4) An investigation of contempo- 
rary Christian communities in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and Latin America with special 
attention to theological, political, and economic activities. 

348. Struggles for Freedom in Southern Africa and the United States. (4) Comparison 
of the liberatory movements in Southern Africa and the United States during the 
twentieth century. (Also listed as History 378.) 

350. Psychology of Religion. (4) An examination of the psychological elements in the 
origin, development, and expression of religious experience. 

354. Religious Development of the Individual. (4) A study of growth and development 
through childhood and adolescence to adulthood, with emphasis on the role of the home 
and the church in religious education. 

355. Theology of Pastoral Care and Counseling. (4) A study of the relationship between 
theology and the purpose, theories, and methods of pastoral care. 

358. Twentieth Century Christian Theologians. (4) A study of the major exponents of 
the Catholic, Protestant, and Orthodox traditions. 

361. Buddhism. (4) An advanced study of the Buddhist tradition and its impact on the 
culture of Asia. Permission of instructor required. 

365. History of Religions in America. (4) A study of American religions from colonial 
times until the present. 

366. Gender and Religion. (4) An examination of the historical and contemporary 
interaction between religion and sex roles, sexism, and sexuality. 

367. The Mystics of the Church. (4) A historical study of the lives and thought of selected 
Christian mystics with special attention to their religious experience. 

368. The Protestant and Catholic Reformations. (4) A study of the origin and develop- 
ment of Reformation theology and ecclesiology. 

369. Radical Christian Movements. (4) A study of selected radical movements in the 
Christian tradition and their relation to contemporary issues. 

370. Women and Christianity. (4) A study of the roles and contributions of women 
within the Christian tradition throughout history and an analysis of the mechanisms 
of their oppression. 



186 



371. Sexuality and Christian Thought. (4) A survey of theological responses to human 
sexuality with special emphasis on contemporary issues. 

372. History of Christian Thought. (2,4) A study of the history of Christian thought, 
beginning with its Hebraic and Greek backgrounds and tracing its rise and development 
to modern times. The course may be divided into halves for two credits each. 

372 (a) Patristic Thought 

372 (b) Medieval and Reformation Thought 

373. Cinema and the Sacred. (4) An investigation of select theological and religious 
themes in contemporary film. 

374. Contemporary Christian Thought. (4) An examination of the major issues and 
personalities in modern theology. 

375. Major Themes in Catholic Theology. (4) A detailed examination of the central 
themes of Christian theology through the study oi major Roman Catholic theologians. 

376. Christian Literary Classics. (4) A study of Christian texts which are masterpieces of 
literature as well as faith, including works by Augustine, Dante, Pascal, Bunyan, Milton, 
and Newman. 

377. The Problem of Evil from Job to Shakespeare. (4) A comparative analysis of the 
source and remedy of evil in Job, Aeschylus, Sophocles, Plato, Dante, and Shakespeare. 

378. Aesthetics and Religion. (4) An examination of aesthetic and religious theories of 
selected thinkers, noting what the arts and religion have in common as modes of 
perception and expression. 

380. The Main Streams of Chinese Philosophy and Religion. (4) An introduction to 
the most important traditions in Chinese philosophy and religion: Confucianism, 
Daoism (Taoism), and Chinese Buddhism or Chinese Chan (Zen) Buddhism. (Also 
listed as Philosophy 253.) 

422. The Quest of the Historical Jesus. (4) An investigation of the possibility and 
relevance of historical knowledge about Jesus through a consideration of the seminal 
"Lives of Jesus" since the eighteenth century. 

463. Hellenistic Religions. (4) Consideration of available source materials, questions of 
method, and bibliography related to such Hellenistic religions as the mysteries, Hellenis- 
tic Judaism, and Gnosticism. 



Near Eastern Languages and Literature 

111, 112. Elementary Hebrew. (4,4) A course for beginners in the classical Hebrew of the 
Bible, with emphasis on the principles of Hebrew grammar and the reading of Biblical 
texts. Both semesters must be completed. 



187 



117. Akkadian I. (4) An analysis of the phonology, morphology, and syntax of the East 
Semitic languages of the ancient Near East as they relate to the larger family of Semitic 
languages. Offered on demand. 

118. Akkadian II. (4) A continuation of Akkadian 117 with further emphasis on 
building expertise in vocabulary and syntax through the reading of texts from the 
Middle Babylonian period. On demand. 

153. Intermediate Hebrew. (4) Intensive work in Hebrew grammar and syntax based 
upon the readings of selected texts. Readings emphasize post-Biblical Hebrew. P — 
Hebrew 111, 112, or the equivalent. 

211. Hebrew Literature. (4) The reading and discussion of significant Biblical Hebrew 
texts. P — Hebrew 153. 

212. Hebrew Literature II. (4) The reading and discussion of significant Biblical and post- 
Biblical texts. On demand. P — Hebrew 153. 

301. Introduction to Semitic Languages. (4) A study of the history and structure of four 
languages from the Hamito-Semitic family. 



Romance Languages 



Byron R. Wells, Chair 

Candelas M. Newton, Chair-elect 

Wake Forest Professor Kathleen M. Glenn 

Professors Milorad Margitic, Candelas M. Newton, Byron R. Wells 

Associate Professors Jane W. Albrecht, Sarah E. Barbour, Mary L. Friedman, 

Judy K. Kem, Stephen Murphy, Antonio C. Vitti, Kari Weil, M. Stanley Whitley 

Assistant Professors Debra S. Boyd, Constance L. Dickey, Ramiro Fernandez, Linda 

S. Howe, Soledad Miguel-Prendes, Juan Orbe 

Visiting Assistant Professors Melissa Lockhart, Patricia McEachern 

Lecturer Eva Marie Rodtwitt 

Instructors Alexandra Iruela, Anne Gilfoil, Sabine Loucif, Jenny Puckett, 

Catherine Rodgers, Nelson J. Sanchez, Jennifer Sault 

Anna- Vera Sullam (Venice) 

The major in French literature requires a minimum of thirty-six credits above French 
213. French 215, 216, 217, 219, and 220 or their equivalents are required, as are three 
additional literature courses. The major in French language and culture requires a 
minimum of thirty-six credits above French 213. French 219, 220, 222, and 323 or their 
equivalents are required, as are two of the following courses: 229, 321, 324; students 
also must complete two of the three survey courses: 215, 216, 217. History 321 and 322 
are recommended. An average of at least a C must be earned in all courses taken in the 
major. 



188 



The minor in French language and culture requires twenty credits in French above 
French 213. It includes French 219, 220, 323, or their equivalents. The minor in French 
literature requires twenty credits in French literature above French 213. 

The major in Spanish requires a minimum of thirty-six credits above Spanish 213. 
Spanish 217, 218, 219, 220, 223, 224, or their equivalents, plus one additional advanced 
course in Spanish literature and one in Spanish- American literature are required. Spanish 
181,1 829, and 1 87 may not count toward the major. An average of at least C must be earned 
in all courses taken in the major. 

The minor in Spanish language and culture requires twenty credits in Spanish above 
Spanish 213. It includes 217 or 218, plus 219, 220, 223, and 224, and one additional course. 
With departmental approval, equivalent courses may be selected from the programs in 
Salamanca or Bogota, and certain other substitutions may be made. 

The minor in Italian language and culture requires twenty credits in Italian above 
Italian 153. It includes Italian 215, 216, 219, 220, and 224 or their equivalents. An average 
of at least C must be earned in all courses taken in the minor. 

All majors are strongly urged to take advantage of the department's study abroad 
programs. (French majors are urged to live for at least a semester at the French House, a 
foreign language theme house for students of French.) 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in French or Spanish. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in 
French" or "Honors in Spanish," a candidate must complete French or Spanish 280 and 
281 and pass a comprehensive written and oral examination. The oral examination may 
be conducted, at least in part, in the major language. For additional information, members 
of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

French 

111, 112. Elementary French. (4,4) A course for beginners, covering the principles of 
French grammar and emphasizing speaking, writing, and the reading of elementary texts. 
Lab required. 

113. Intensive Elementary French. (5) A one-semester course covering the elements of 
grammar and skills presented in French 111, 112. Intended for students whose prepara- 
tion for French 153 is inadequate. Not open to students who have received credit for 
French 112. Lab required. 

153. Intermediate French. (5) A review of grammar and composition with practice in 
conversation. Reading of selected texts. Lab required. P — French 112, 113, or two years 
of high school French and placement. 

153x. Intermediate French. (4) Open to students by placement or permission. Lab 
required. 

155. Intermediate Conversation. (4) Practice in spoken French, stressing correct 
sentence structure, transitions, and pronunciation. Special attention will be given to 



189 



different registers of spoken French and to vocabulary acquisition. An elective, 
recommended for students at the level of 153 or 213. 

199. French Individual Study. (2-4) P — Permission of the department. 

213. Introduction to French Literature. (4) Reading of selected texts in French. Particular 
periods, genres, and authors may vary from section to section. Parallel reading and 
reports. Does not count toward the major or the minor. P — French 153 or equivalent. 

215. Survey of French Literature 1: Medieval through Baroque. (4) Study of move- 
ments and selected representative texts. P — French 213 or permission of instructor. 

216. Survey of French Literature 2: Classicism through Romanticism. (4) Study of 
movements and selected representative texts. P — French 213 or permission of instruc- 
tor. 

217. Survey of French Literature 3: Realism to the Present. (4) Study of movements and 
selected representative texts. P — French 213 or permission of instructor. 

219. Composition and Review of Grammar. (4) A systematic review of the fundamental 
principles of comparative grammar, with practical training in writing idiomatic French. 
Required for major. P — French 153 or equivalent. 

220. Conversation and Composition. (4) Practice in speaking and writing French, 
stressing correctness of sentence structure, phonetics, pronunciation, fluency, and vo- 
cabulary for everyday situations. Required for major. Lab required. P — French 153 or 
equivalent. 

222. French Phonetics. (4) A study of the principles of standard French pronunciation, 
with emphasis on their practical application as well as on their theoretical basis. 

229. Business French. (4) A study of French used in business procedures, emphasizing 
specialized vocabulary pertaining to business correspondence, corporate organization, 
banking, and governmental relations, with practice in translation and interpretations, 
oral and written. P — French 219 and 220 or permission of instructor. 

280. Directed Research. (2) Required for honors in French. 

281. Directed Study. (3,4) Extensive reading and/or research to meet individual 
needs. Required for departmental honors. P — Permission of the department. 

319. Advanced Grammar and Stylistics. (4) Review and application of grammatical 
structures with emphasis placed on written French in a variety of discourse types. 
Attention given to stylistic differences in English and French. Graduate-level students 
will research and present topics related to the integration of reading and process 
writing in the classroom. P — French 219 or equivalent or permission of instructor. 

321. History and Structure of the Language. (4) Study of the historical development of 
French in a cultural and linguistic context from its earliest stages to the present and 



190 



analysis of the phonology, morphology, and syntax of modern French. P — French 219 and 
220. 

323. French Civilization. (4) An introduction to French culture and its historical 
development through the French Revolution. Emphasis on intellectual, artistic, 
political, social, and economic life in France. P — French 220 or permission of instructor. 

324. Modern and Contemporary France. (4) An introduction to French culture and its 
historical development after the fall of the Ancien Regime and a study of present-day 
France, including geography and consideration of intellectual, artistic, political, 
social, economic, and educational factors. P — French 220 or permission of instructor. 

330. Seminar in Medieval Studies. (4) An examination and study of literary, social, 
and cultural themes. Topics may include: piety and religious satire; alterity and unity; 
the literary construction of collective and personal identity; the conception of women 
and the act of writing; Arthurian literature. P — French 215 or 216 or 217 or permission 
of instructor. 

333. Form and Ideology in the Renaissance. (4) A study of the more important 
currents of thought and taste (Petrarchism, Platonism, Reformation, Mannerism, 
Baroque), and literary forms (prose fiction, essay, and dialogue; lyric and epic poetry). 
P — French 215 or 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

342. The Baroque and Classicism. (4) Study of a rich and diverse period through the 
analysis of texts by major authors (such as Corneille, Racine, Moliere, Saint-Amant, 
LaFontaine, Lafayette), as well as some others (such as Theophile, Retz, Scarron). 
Particular attention will be paid to the notions of baroque and classicisme, the key 
manifestations of which will be followed through the development of various genres 
(poetry, drama, prose). P — French 215 or 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

351, Enlightenment Discourse. (4) Reading and discussion of selected works of 
Voltaire, Diderot, Rousseau, and other philosphes, and an assessment of their writings 
as both form and social commitment. P — French 215 or 216 or 217 or permission of 
instructor. 

352. Rococo and Sentimentalism. (4) A study of various literary manifestations of 
sensuality and sentimentality, in their idealized and subverted forms, from Prevost 
to Sade. P — French 215 or 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

360. Literary Currents in Post-Revolutionary France. (4) A study of social, political, 
intellectual, and esthetic aspects of topics such as French Romanticism, realism, 
naturalism, and symbolism, as reflected in texts by selected authors. P — French 215 
or 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

363. Trends in French Poetry. (4) A study of the development of the poetic genre with 
analysis and interpretation of works from each period. P — French 215 or 216 or 217 or 
permission of instructor. 



191 



364. French Novel. (4) A broad survey of French prose fiction, with critical study of several 
masterpieces in the field. P — French 215 or 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

365. French Drama. (4) A study of the chief trends in French dramatic art, with 
reading and discussion of representative plays from selected periods: Baroque, 
Classicism, and Romanticism, among others. P — French 215 or 216 or 217 or 
permission of instructor. 

371. Beyond Realism. (4) A study of modern and post-modern literature as it 
represents a dialogue with predecessors, as well as a search for innovative 
language and forms, correspondent to changing perceptions of reality. Topics 
may include: narrative in cinema, autobiographical writing, symbolist influences, 
surrealism, existentialism, the nouveau roman, theories oil'absurde. P — French 215 
or 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

374. The Black Experience in Francophone Literature. (4) A study of poetry, 
prose, and drama by writers from French-speaking Africa and the Caribbean. 
Emphasis will be placed on the negritude movement, the African oral tradition, 
colonial and post-colonial works and women's voices. P — French 215 or 216 or 217 
or permission of instructor. 

375. Special Topics. (2,4) Selected themes and approaches to French literature tran- 
scending boundaries of time and genre. Topics to be chosen by staff in consultation 
with majors prior to the term the course is offered. May be repeated once for credit. 
P — French 215 or 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

Semester in France 

The department sponsors a semester in France in Dijon, the site of a well-established 
French university. Students go as a group in the fall semester, accompanied by a 
departmental faculty member. 

No particular major is required for eligibility. However, a student (1 ) should be of junior 
standing and (2) should have taken as prerequisite French 220 or its equivalent or at least 
one French course beyond the intermediate level. At least one semester's residence in the 
French House is strongly recommended. 

Students are placed in language courses according to their level of ability in French, as 
ascertained by a test given at Dijon. Courses are taught by native French professors. The 
resident director supervises academic, residential, and extracurricular affairs and has 
general oversight of independent study projects. 

2192. Advanced Oral and Written French. (4) Study of grammar, composition, pronun- 
ciation, and phonetics, with extensive practice in oral and written French. 

2232. Contemporary France. (4) A study of present-day France, including aspects of 
geography and consideration of social, political, and educational factors in French life 
today. 



192 



2242. French Civilization. (4) An introduction to French culture and its historical 
development. Field trips to museums and to points of historical and cultural significance 
in Paris and the French provinces. 

2402. Independent Study. (2-4) One of several fields; scholar's journal and research paper. 
Supervision by the director of the semester in France. Work may be supplemented by 
lectures on the subject given at the Universite de Bourgogne Faculte des Lettres et Sciences 
Humaines. 

2742. Special Topics in French Literature. (2) Selected topics in French literature; topics 
vary from year to year. 

2752. French Literature. (2) Topics in the novel, theater, and poetry of France, largely of 
the period since 1850. 

Art 2712. Studies in French Art. (2) Lectures and field trips in French painting, sculpture, 
and architecture, concentrating on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. 

Spanish 

111, 112. Elementary Spanish. (4,4) A course for beginners, covering grammar essentials 
and emphasizing speaking, writing, and the reading of elementary texts. Lab required. 

113. Intensive Elementary Spanish. (5) A one-semester course covering the elements of 
grammar and skills presented in Spanish 111, 112. Intended for students whose prepara- 
tion for Spanish 153 is inadequate or who have demonstrated proficiency in another 
language. Not open to students who have received credit for Spanish 112. Lab required. 

153. Intermediate Spanish. (5) A review of grammar and composition with practice in 
conversation. Reading of selected texts. P — Spanish 112 or 113 or two years of high school 
Spanish and placement. Lab required. 

153x. Intermediate Spanish. (4) Open by placement or permission. Lab required. 

199. Individual Study. (2-4) P — Permission of the department. 

213. Introduction to Hispanic Literature. (4) Selected readings in Spanish and Spanish 
American literature. Does not count toward the major or the minor. P — Spanish 153 or 
equivalent. 

217. Masterpieces of Spanish Literature. (4) Study of selected texts, trends, and move- 
ments. Intended for students interested in continuing Spanish beyond the basic require- 
ment. P — Spanish 213 or permission of instructor. 

218. Masterpieces of Spanish American Literature. (4) Study of selected texts, trends, and 
movements. Intended for students interested in continuing Spanish beyond the basic 
requirement. P — Spanish 213 or permission of instructor. 

219. Grammar and Composition. (4) A systematic study of Spanish morphology, 
sentence structure, and expository usage applied to various kinds of composition: 
description, narration, argumentation, etc. P — Spanish 213 or equivalent. 



193 



220. Conversation. (4) Practice with oral Spanish, stressing fluency, listening comprehen- 
sion, vocabulary growth, and proficiency in handling everyday situations, with addi- 
tional work on support writing skills. Lab required. P — Spanish 213 or equivalent. 

222. Spanish Phonology. (4) Description of, and practice with, the sound system of 
Spanish. Systematic analysis of the phonemes, allophones, and stress and intonation 
patterns of the language, and discussion of dialectal and stylistic variation. Lab required. 
P — Spanish 219 and 220 or permission of instructor. 

223. Latin American Civilization. (4) The culture and its historical development; empha- 
sis on intellectual, artistic, political, social, and economic life. P — Spanish 217 or 218. 

224. Spanish Civilization. (4) The culture and its historical development; emphasis on 
intellectual, artistic, political, social, and economic life. P — Spanish 217 or 218. 

228. Spanish for the Professions. (2) Spanish usage of a selected professional area. 
Emphasis on communication in typical situations and interactions, specialized vocabu- 
lary, cultural differences, and related technical readings in the subject matter. Topics 
offered from following list: a. Health Occupations; b. Social Work; c. Law and Law 
Enforcement; d. Other (on demand). P — Spanish 219, 220, and permission of instructor. 

229. Commercial, Official, and Social Correspondence. (4) Instruction in the special 
vocabularies, formats, and styles required in written communications, with an emphasis 
on business Spanish. Students write in Spanish communications appropriate to each type 
of correspondence. P — Spanish 219 and 220 or permission of instructor. 

280. Directed Research. (2) Required for honors in Spanish. 

281. Directed Study. (3-4) Extensive reading and/or research, to meet individual needs. 
Required for departmental honors. P — Permission of the department. 

319. Advanced Grammar and Composition. (4) Advanced-level review of Spanish 
morphology and syntax applied to the refinement of writing techniques. P — Spanish 
219 or permission of instructor. 

320. Advanced Conversation. (4) Intensive immersion in the situations and skills of 
advanced and superior levels of oral proficiency. P — Spanish 219 and 220 or permis- 
sion of instructor. 

321. History and Structure of the Spanish Language. (4) Study of the historical develop- 
ment of Spanish in a cultural and linguistic context from its earliest stages to the present. 
Analysis of its current and internal changes. P — Spanish 219 and 220 or permission of 
instructor. 

323. Topics in Hispanic Civilization. (4) Exploration of themes and trends in His- 
panic society and culture, such as cross-national questions, and the exile experience. 
P — Spanish 223 or 224 or permission of instructor. 

330. Spanish American Literature. (4) Extensive reading and study of works from the 
colonial through the contemporary periods, with emphasis on the late nineteenth and 
twentieth centuries. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 



194 



331. Medieval and Pre-Renaissance Spanish Literature. (4) Study of the major literary 
works of the Middle Ages and pre-Renaissance. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of 
instructor. 

332. Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Spanish Literature. (4) Study of the major 
literary' works of the Golden Age. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

333. Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Spanish Literature. (4) Study of a representa- 
tive selection of poetry, drama, essays, and novels of these two centuries. P — Spanish 217 
or 218 or permission of instructor. 

341. Golden Age Drama. (4) A study of the major dramatic works of Lope de Vega, 
Calderon de la Barca, Tirso de Molina, Ruiz de Alarcon, and others. P — Spanish 217 or 218 
or permission of instructor. 

343. Cervantes. (4) Intensive study of the life and works of Cervantes, with special 
attention on the Quixote arid the novelets ejemplares. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission 
of instructor. 

352. Spanish Poetry. (2-4) A study of selected topics, such as gongorismo, the Romancero, 
and the Generation of 1927. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 








♦ > Vi 



Tribble Hall accommodates many of the humanities departments, with classrooms, seminar rooms, 
and a philosophy library. 



195 



362. Spanish-American Poetry. (4) Intensive study and textual analysis of Spanish- 
American poetry with special emphasis on representative poets and major trends: 
Culteranismo, epic poetry, gaucho poetry, Modernismo, avant garde poetry, and anti- 
poetry. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

363. Contemporary Spanish- American Theater. (4) A study of the Spanish- American 
dramatic production from the end of the nineteenth century to the present. The course 
focuses on the development of some of the main dramatic movements of the twentieth 
century: realism, absurdism, avant garde, and collective theater. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or 
permission of instructor. 

364. Spanish- American Short Story. (4) Intensive study of the twentieth century Spanish- 
American short story with emphasis on major trends and representative authors, such as 
Quiroga, Rulfo, Borges, Cortazar, Donoso, Garcia Marquez. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or 
permission of instructor. 

365. Spanish-American Novel. (4) A study of the novel in Spanish-America from its 
beginning through the contemporary period. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of 
instructor. 

366. Seminar in Spanish-American Novel. (2-4) A study of one or more categories of 
Spanish-American novels, such as romantic, indianista, realistic, gauchesca, and social 
protest. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

373. Modern Spanish Novel. (4) A study of representative Spanish novels from the 
Generation of 1898 through the contemporary period. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permis- 
sion of instructor. 

374. Modern Spanish Literature. (2 or 4) An analysis of selected contemporary works 
representative of the novel, poetry, theater, and essay. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permis- 
sion of instructor. 

375. Special Topics. (2-4) Selected special topics in Spanish literature. P — Spanish 217 or 
permission of instructor. 

387. Special Topics. (2-4) Selected special topics in Spanish-American literature. 
P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

388. Special Topics in Hispanic Linguistics. (4) Investigation of key areas in Spanish 
languages research, such as dialectology, history, language acquisition, and usage. 
P — Spanish 222 or 321, or the combination of 219 or 220 and Linguistics 150, or 
permission of instructor. 

Semester in Spain 

The department offers a semester in Spain at Salamanca, the site of a well-established 
Spanish university. Students go as a group in the spring semester, accompanied by a 
professor from the College. 



196 



No particular major is required for eligibility. However, students (1 ) should be of junior 
standing, (2) should have completed Spanish 220, and (3) should be approved by both 
their major department and the Department of Romance Languages. Interested students 
should contact Professor Candelas Newton in the Romance languages department. 

1829. Introduction to Spain. (2-4) Familiarization with the Spanish people, Spanish 
culture, and daily life in Spain. Classes in conversational and idiomatic Spanish, excur- 
sions to points of historical and artistic interest, and lectures on selected topics. 

2019. Intensive Spanish. (2) Intensive study and practice of the oral and written language. 
P — Permission of instructor. 

2049. Spanish Phonetics and Phonology. (4) Theory and practical application of the 
elements involved in speaking correct Spanish. 

2199. Advanced Spanish. (4) Study of grammar, composition, and pronunciation, with 
extensive practice of the written and oral language. P — Permission of instructor. 

2259. Survey of Spanish Literature from the Middle Ages through the Seventeenth 
Century. (4) Extensive reading and study of trends and influences. 

2279. Spanish American Literature. (4) Extensive reading and study of works from the 
colonial through the contemporary periods, with emphasis on the late nineteenth and 
twentieth centuries. 

2419. Spanish Literature of the Golden Age. (4) A survey of the most important authors 
and genres of the Golden Age, with particular emphasis on the novel and the drama. 

2759. Contemporary Spanish Literature. (4) A study of general trends and representative 
works of selected prose writers, dramatists, and poets from the modern period. 

Sociology 2029. Social-Political Structures of Present-Day Spain. (4) A study of the 
various social and political elements which affect the modern Spanish state. 

History 2019. General History of Spain. (4) History of Spain from the pre-Roman period 
to the present day. 

Art 2029. Spanish Art and Architecture. (4) A study of the development and uniqueness 
of Spanish art and architecture within the framework of Mediterranean and Western art 
in general. 

Italian 

111, 112. Elementary Italian. (4,4) A course for beginners, covering grammar essentials 
and emphasizing speaking, writing, and the reading of elementary texts. Lab required. 

113. Intensive Elementary Italian. (5) Intensive course for beginners, emphasizing the 
structure of the language and oral practice. Recommended for students in the Venice 
program and for language majors. Lab required. Lecture — five hours. Offered, every 
semester. 



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127. Basic Conversation. (2) Brief review of grammar; emphasis on vocabulary building 
and conversation for everyday survival while discovering Italy and Italian culture 
through film, TV, documentaries and literature. P — Italian 113 or equivalent. Does not 
satisfy requirements for minor or certification in Italian studies. 

153. Intermediate Italian. (5) Continuation of 113, with emphasis on reading and 
speaking. Lab required. Lecture — five hours. P — Italian 113 or two years of high school 
Italian. 

153x. Intermediate Italian. (4) Open by placement or permission. Lab required. 

199. Individual Study. (2-4) P — Permission of instructor. 

215. Introduction to Italian Literature I. (4) Reading of selected texts in Italian. Satisfies 
basic requirement in foreign language. Offered in the spring. P — Italian 153 or equivalent. 
Also offered in Venice. 

216. Introduction to Italian Literature II. (4) May alternate with 215. Satisfies basic 
requirement in foreign language. P — Italian 153 or equivalent. 

219. Advanced Grammar and Composition. (4) A thorough review of the basics of 
structure and vocabulary featuring a more detailed examination of complex syntax and 
idiomatic expressions; practice in translation of texts of diverse styles and from varied 
sources, and free composition. P — Italian 215 or equivalent. 

220. Advanced Conversation and Composition. (4) Practice in speaking and writing 
Italian, stressing correctness of sentence structure, phonetics, pronunciation, fluency, and 
vocabulary for everyday situations. P — Italian 219 or 275. 

2213. Spoken Italian. (4) Course in oral Italian, offered only in Venice. Students are placed 
in small groups according to their levels of fluency. Elective credit. 

224. Italian Civilization 1.(4) The culture arid its historical development from Charlemagne 
to the Risorgimento; emphasis on intellectual, artistic, political, social, and economic life. 
P— Italian 215 or 216. 

225. Italian Civilization II. (4) The historical development of modern Italian culture from 
the Risorgimento to the present. Use of newspapers, magazines, TV broadcasts, films, and 
literary readings to stimulate oral and written responses to the problems of contemporary 
Italy. P— Italian 215 or 216. 

275. Special Topics. (4) Selected special topics in Italian literature. P — Italian 215 or 216. 

Semester in Venice 

2153. Introduction to Italian Literature I. (4) 
2163. Introduction to Italian Literature II. (4) 
2213. Spoken Italian. (4) 

See the course listings under Italian (above) for descriptions and prerequisites. 



198 



Sociology 



Philip J. Perricone, Chair 

Wake Forest Professor Charles F. Longino 

Professors John R. Earle, Catherine T. Harris, 

Willie Pearson Jr., Philip J. Perricone 

Associate Professors H. Kenneth Bechtel, Cheryl B. Leggon, Ian M. Taplin 

Instructor Jonathon S. Epstein 

Visiting Instructor Teresa R. Smith 

A major in sociology requires thirty-six credits and must include Sociology 151, 370, 371, 
and 372. A minimum average of 2.0 in sociology courses is required at the time the major 
is declared. A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in all sociology courses is required for 
graduation. 

A minor in sociology requires twenty credits and must include Sociology 151 and 370. 
A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in sociology courses is required at the time the 
minor is declared. A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in sociology courses is required 
for certification as a minor. Students who intend to pursue a sociology minor are 
encouraged to notify the department early in their junior year, and they are invited to 
participate in all departmental functions. 

The program in sociology provides majors with several options. In addition to pursuing 
a regular major in sociology, students may choose to specialize in any of four concentra- 
tions: 1) family studies, 2) crime, law, and social control, 3) health and society, and 4) 
business and society. These concentrations are described in detail in the Handbook for 
Sociology/ Students, a copy of which may be obtained from the sociology office or any 
member of the departmental faculty. 

To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Sociology," highly qualified majors 
are invited to apply to the department for admission to the honors program. They must 
complete a senior research project, document their research, and satisfactorily defend 
their work in an oral examination. For additional information members of the departmen- 
tal faculty should be consulted. 

A student who selects sociology to fulfill the Division IV requirement must take one of 
the following courses: Sociology 151, 152, 153, or 154. No introductory-level course is 
required for students taking a sociology course as an elective unless such a prerequisite 
is specified in the course description. 

151. Principles of Sociology. (4) General introduction to the field; social organization and 
disorganization, socialization, culture, social change, and other aspects. Required for all 
sociology majors and minors. 

152. Social Problems. (4) Survey of contemporary American social problems. 

153. Marriage and the Family. (4) The social basis of the family, emphasizing the problems 
growing out of modem conditions and social change. 



199 



154. The Sociology of Deviant Behavior. (4) A sociological analysis of the nature and 
causes of and societal reaction to deviant behavior patterns such as mental illness, suicide, 
drug and alcohol addiction, sexual deviation, and criminal behavior. 

205. Photography in the Social Sciences. (4) Explores the use of photography as a 
research technique for the social sciences; camera and darkroom instruction included. 
Lab to be arranged. Not open to students who have had Art 119. P — Permission of 
instructor. 

206. Concerned Photographers and Their Works. (4) Explores the contributions of 
concerned photographers in the identification and understanding of social issues. Ad- 
vanced camera and darkroom instruction is included. P — Sociology 205 and /or permis- 
sion of instructor. 

301. Religion and Society. (4) Study of religion as a social phenomenon and its relation- 
ship to the other structures of society — political, economic and others, with special focus 
on the contemporary United States. (Also offered as Religion 151.) 

302. Bureaucracy and Society. (4) The sociological analysis of complex organizations 
focusing on bureaucracy, power, authority, decision making, and change. Attention will 
be given to business as well as government and other non-profit organizations. 

303. Business and Society. (4) Historical development, organization, and current prob- 
lems of business enterprises in American society. 

305. Male and Female Roles in Society. (4) Changing male and female roles in the context 
of societal institutions and sociological theories that explain such changes. Consideration 
of feminism as a social movement and of consequences of changing roles for human 
interaction. 

308. Sociology of Art. (2) Art as an institution, its functions, organization, relationship to 
social change and to the communication of meanings. 

309. Sexuality and Society. (4) Study of the societal forces that impinge on human sexual 
behavior, emphasizing the effects of social change, the implications of changing gender 
roles, cross-cultural and subcultural variations, and the influence of the mass media. 

310. Death and Dying. (2) Study of some of the basic issues and problems of modern man 
in accepting and facing death. 

311. Women in Professions. (4) Emphasis on the status of women in professional 
occupations (e.g., law, medicine, science, business, etc.) in socio-historical perspective. 

325. Self and Society. An Interactionist Perspective. (4) An analysis of the effects of social 
relationships upon self-development, self-preservation, and the learning of social roles 
and norms, with special emphasis on language and symbolic interaction. 

326. Interpersonal Crime. (4) Analysis of the dynamics of nonconsensual face-to-face 
crime and deviance from an interactionist perspective. Includes exploration of the 
standpoints of offenders, victims, control agents, and the public toward rape, incest, 
spouse battering, robbery, child physical abuse, and sexual harassment. 



200 



327. Qualitative Methods in Deviance Research. (4) An exploration of field observation 
and depth interview research methods for studying deviance and crime. Emphasis on 
entering field settings and collecting data in collaboration with the instructor. 

332. Social Epidemiology. (2) This course will integrate sociology and epidemiology, 
paying particular attention to such variables as age, gender, race and ethnicity as they bear 
on health, illness and medical services, including the risk factors of chronic disease. It does 
not presuppose advanced knowledge of epidemiological methods. 

334. Society and Higher Education. (4) An analysis of the social forces that shape 
educational policies in the United States. Assessment of significant contemporary writ- 
ings on the manifest and latent functions of education. 

335. Sociology of Health and Illness. (4) Analysis of the social variables associated with 
health and illness. 

336. Sociology of Health Care. (4) An analysis of health care systems, including the social 
organization of medical practice, health care payment, the education of medical practi- 
tioners, and the division of the labor in health care. 

337. Aging in Modern Society. (4) Basic social problems and processes of aging. Social 
and psychological issues discussed. Course requirements will include field placement in 
a nursing home or similar institution. P — Permission of instructor. 

338. Sociological Issues in Criminal Justice. (4) Introduction to the structure, organiza- 
tion and operation of the various components of the criminal justice system with emphasis 
on the police and correctional institutions. 

339. Sociology of Violence. (4) A survey of the societal factors associated with individual 
and collective violence. Discussion will focus on the contemporary and historical condi- 
tions which have contributed to various patterns of violence in American society. 

340. Sociological Issues in Human Development. (4) Socialization through the life span 
in the light of contemporary behavioral science, emphasizing the significance of changes 
in contemporary society. 

341. Criminology. (4) Crime, its nature, causes, consequences, methods of treatment, and 
prevention. 

342. Juvenile Delinquency. (4) The nature and extent of juvenile delinquency; an 
examination of prevention, control, and treatment problems. 

343. Sociology of Law. (4) Consideration will be given to a variety of special issues: 
conditions under which laws develop and change, relationships between the legal and 
political system, the impact of social class and stratification upon the legal order. 

344. Women and Crime. (4) Course will focus on four major areas related to women and 
crime: women as offenders, the processing of women by the criminal justice system, 
women as victims, and women as criminal justice professionals. P — 341 and permission 
of instructor. 



201 



345. Advanced Topics Seminar in Criminology. (4) Emphasis on current topics in the 
field of criminology and criminal justice such as measurement issues, ethical issues, 
history, crime and mass media, and theoretical debates. P — 341 and permission of 
instructor. 

347. Society, Culture, and Sport. (4) An examination of the interrelationship of sport and 
other social institutions. Emphasis on the study of both the structure of sport and the 
functions of sport for society. 

348. Sociology of the Family. (4) The family as a field of sociological study. Assessment 
of significant historical and contemporary writings. An analysis of the structure, organi- 
zation, and function of the family in America. 

349. Sociology of Science and Technology. (4) Explores the reciprocal impact of science 
and technology on society. Issues to include the impact of science and technology on 
various populations (including underparticipating groups, such as women and racial/ 
ethnic minorities) and the environment, the talent pool, and the workplace. 

350. Mass Communications and Public Opinion. (4) The study of the increasing 
importance of collective behavior, emphasizing the relationship between the media and 
a changing society. 

351. Management and Organizations. (4) A study of macro organizational processes and 
changes in contemporary industrial societies and their effects upon managerial systems, 
managerial ideologies and managers in firms. 

352. White-Collar Crime. (4) Study of criminal activity committed in the course of 
legitimate occupations including workplace crime, graft, and business crime. P — 341. 

353. Families in Later Life. (2,4) Analysis of current issues affecting later-life families, 
including the unmarried, marital relations, divorce, widowhood, remarriage, kinship, 
family caregiving, and institutional care. 

358. Population and Society. (4) Techniques used in the study of population data. 
Reciprocal relationship of social and demographic variables. 

359. Race and Ethnic Relations. (4) Racial and ethnic group prejudice and discrimination 
and their effect on social relationships. Emphasis on psychological and sociological 
theories of prejudice. 

360. Social Stratification. (4) The study of structured social inequality with particular 
emphasis on economic class, social status, and political power. 

361. Sociology of the Black Experience. (4) A survey and an analysis of contemporary 
writings on the status of black Americans in various American social institutions (e.g., 
education, sports, entertainment, science, politics, etc.). 

362. Sociology of Work. (4) Changing trends in the U.S. labor force. The individual's view 
of work and the effect of large organizations on white and blue collar workers. Use of some 
cross-cultural data. 



202 



363. Markets and Industry. (4) An analysis of industrial organization, including discus- 
sion of market relations and the behavior of firms, the structure of industrial develop- 
ment, and labor relations and the growth of trade unions. 

364. Political Sociology. (4) Examination of the structure and organization of power in 
society with emphasis on political socialization, political ideology, and the growth of the 
welfare state. 

370. Sociological Theory. (4) A survey of the history and development of sociological 
theory, emphasizing the critical reading of primary source materials and the evalu- 
ation of the current status of sociological theory. P — Sociology 151 or permission of 
instructor. 

371. Social Statistics. (4) A computer-based survey of basic statistics utilized in 
sociological research. P — Sociology 151 or permission of instructor. 

372. Research Methods in Sociology. (4) An overview of both quantitative and 
qualitative research methods. Research projects required. P — Sociology 371. 

373. Honors Seminar. (4) Seminar on selected problems in sociology. Intended for 
students in the departmental honors program. P — Sociology 372 and permission of 
instructor. 

374. Honors Research. (2) Directory study toward completion of the project begun in 
Sociology 373 and to the writing and defense of an honors paper. P — Sociology 373 and 
permission of instructor. 

385, 386. Special Problems Seminar. (4) Intensive investigation of current scientific 
research within the discipline which concentrates on problems of contemporary interest. 
P — Permission of instructor. 

398, 399. Individual Study. (1-4, 1-4) Reading, research, or internship courses designed 
to meet the needs and interests of selected students, to be carried out under the 
supervision of a departmental faculty member. 



Spanish Studies 

(Foreign Area Study) 
Kathleen M. Glenn (Romance Languages), Coordinator 

Students are required to participate in the semester in Spain program at Salamanca. They 
also are required to take History 2019, General History of Spain (4) taught in Salamanca; 
Sociology 2029, Social and Political Structures of Present Day Spain (4) taught in Salamanca; 
either Art 2029, Spanish Art and Architecture (4) taught in Salamanca or Spanish 224, Spanish 
Civilization (4); and Spanish 217, Masterpieces of Spanish Literature (4). 

Students must take twelve additional credits from the advanced courses in Spanish 
language and the literature of Spain offered by the Department of Romance Languages, 
or from those offered at the University of Salamanca. 



203 



Theater 

Donald H. Wolfe, Chair 

Professors James H. Dodding, Harold C. Tedford, Donald H. Wolfe 

Adjunct Professor Darwin R. Payne 

Adjunct Assistant Professor R. Craig Hamilton 

Instructor and Director of Dance Lisa L. Blanton (Fall 1995) 

Instructor and interim Director of Dance Kimberly L. Klose (Spring 1996) 

Lecturers Sharon Andrews, Zanna Beswick (London), Jonathan H. Christman, 

John E. R. Friedenberg, Patricia W. Toole, Mary R. Wayne-Thomas 

A major in theater consists of a minimum of forty credits, at least eight of which must be 
at the 300-level. This includes a required core of thirty-six credits: Theater 110 or 112, 140, 
150, 250, 251 or 252, 260, 261, 340, 381 and 385. (Students interested in a theater major 
should elect Theater 112.) Four semesters of Theater 100 (0 credits) also are required. 
Majors may choose their remaining courses from the offerings listed under the Depart- 
ment of Theater. A minimum grade of 2.0 in all theater courses attempted is required for 
graduation. Majors should consult with their advisers about additional regulations. 
Theater majors are required to take two courses in dramatic literature from the Depart- 
ments of English or Classical Languages or from Humanities. 

Those who plan to be theater majors are urged to begin their studies during their first 
year. 

Highly qualified majors (departmental GPA of 3.3, overall GPA of 3.0) are invited by 
the department to apply for admission to the honors program in theater. To be graduated 
with the designation "Honors in Theater," a student must successfully complete Theater 
292 (4). Honors projects may consist of a) a research paper of exceptional quality; b) a 
creative project in playwriting or design; or c) a directing or acting project. The theater 
honors project must be presented and defended before the departmental Honors Com- 
mittee. The department can furnish honors candidates complete information on prepa- 
ration and completion of projects. 

A minor in theater requires twenty-four credits: Theater 110 or 112, 140, 150, 260 or 261, 
two theater electives and two semesters of Theater 100 participation. Theater minors are 
required to take one course in dramatic literature from the Departments of English or 
Classical Languages or from Humanities. 

Any person who is interested in a theater major or minor should contact the chair of the 
department soon after arrival on the campus. 

100, Participation. (0) Attendance/participation in Mainstage and Studio performances; and 
other events as established by the department. (Specific attendance/participation require- 
ments will be established at the beginning of each semester.) Four semesters, or a minimum 
of eight University Theater productions, are required of theater majors. Participation in at least 
two of the eight productions must be in technical production. Two semesters, or a minimum 
of four University Theater productions, are required of theater minors. Participation in one of 
the four productions must be in technical production. Assignments for technical production 
are made through consultation with the technical and design faculty. 



204 



110. Introduction to the Theater. (4) For the theater novice. A survey of the theory and 
practice of the major disciplines of theater art: acting, directing, playwriting, and design. 
Participation in Studio and Mainstage productions. Students planning to major in theater 
are encouraged to take THE 112. Credit will not be given for both THE 110 and 112. May 
be used to satisfy a requirement in Division I. 

112. Introduction to the Theater. (4) For the experienced theater student. A survey of the 
theory and practice of the major disciplines of theater art: acting, directing, playwriting, 
and design. Students planning to major in theater are encouraged to take THE 112. Credit 
will not be given for both THE 110 and 112. Experience in Studio and Mainstage 
productions. May be used to satisfy a requirement in Division I. 

126. Stage Makeup. (2) A study of the design and application of theatrical makeup in 
relationship to historical period and character development. 

140. Acting I. (4) Fundamental acting theory and techniques including exercises, mono- 
logues and scene work. 

141. On-Camera Performance. (4) Designed to introduce students to the theory and 
practice of performing for the camera. This course covers basic method acting, 
newscasting, and other performance formats. (Also listed as Communication 116.) 




A shideni in Professor James H. Dodding's mime class. 



205 



143. Speech for Stage and Workplace. (4) Vocal resonance, articulation, awareness of 
regional dialects, ear training, phonetics and body tensions are explored in conjunction 
with text. Exercises, readings and performances. 

144. Mime. (2) An introductory study of basic mime forms. The student will gain skills and 
understanding of this theatrical form through practical exercises, readings, rehearsals, 
and performances. 

146. Performance Techniques. (4) A course focusing on acting styles appropriate to 
various modes of theatrical production. Specialized techniques such as dance, stage 
combat, etc., may also be included. (Suitable for non-majors.) 

150. Introduction to Design & Production. (4) An introduction to the architecture and 
technology of the theater, including the essentials of the operation of the scene shop, stage 
equipment, and occupational health and safety. The course stresses the collaborative art 
of the theater through an introduction to theater design including script analysis, visual 
research, communication of the design, drafting, and color. 

155. Stagecraft. (4) This introductory course focuses on contemporary materials, con- 
struction methods, and rigging practices employed in the planning, fabrication and 
installation of stage scenery. Emphasis on using current technologies for problem solving. 

188. The Contemporary English Theater. (2) An exploration of the English theater 
through theater attendance in London and other English theater centers. Readings, 
lectures. Participants submit reviews of the plays arid complete a journal of informal 
reactions to the plays, the sites and the variety of cultural differences observed. Two weeks. 
Offered in London before spiing term. P — Permission of instructor. 

241. Stage Movement. (4) An advanced class exploring stage movement theories, 
techniques, and skills, drawing upon the theories of Alexander, LeCoq, Fialka, Kantor, 
Pisk, and others. P— THE 140. 

244. Advanced Mime. (4) This course enlarges upon skills and techniques acquired in 
THE 144 (Mime), with the addition of other mime forms. The course includes exercises, 
rehearsals, and performances. P — THE 144. 

245. Acting II. (4) Advanced study and practice of the skills introduced in Acting I. P — 
THE 140, 143. 

246. Period and Style. (4) A study of social customs, movement, dances, and theatrical 
styles relating to the performance of drama in historical settings as well as in period plays. 
The course includes performances in class. P — THE 140, 143. 

250. Theatrical Scene Design. (4) A study of the fundamental principles and techniques 
of stage design. Drafting, model building, perspective rendering, historical research, and 
scene painting will be emphasized. P — THE 150. 

251. Costume and Makeup Design. (4) A study of the fundamental principles and 
techniques of costume and makeup design with an emphasis on historical research. The 



206 



basics of costume rendering, costume construction and stage makeup will be explored. 
P— THE 150. 

252. Lighting and Sound Design. (4) An exploration of the lighting and sound designer's 
process from script to production. A variety of staging situations will be studied, 
including proscenium, thrust and arena production. P — THE 150. 

259. Theater Management: Principles and Practices. (4) This course reviews the devel- 
opment of theater management in the U.S. with emphasis on the role of the producer; 
explores commercial and not-for-profit theater with attention to planning, personnel, and 
the economics of theater. Includes readings, lectures, and reports. 

260. History of Western Theater I (Beginnings to 1642). (4) A survey of the development 
of Western theater and drama through the Greek, Roman, medieval, and Renaissance 
theaters to 1642; includes lectures, readings and reports. (Suitable for non-majors.) 

261. History of Western Theater II (1642 to the Present). (4) A survey of Western theater 
and drama from the French Neoclassic theater through the English Restoration, the 
eighteenth century, Romanticism, Realism, the revolts against Realism and the post- 
modern theater; includes lectures, readings and reports. (Suitable for non-majors.) 

281. Acting Workshop. (2) Scene work with student directors utilizing realistic texts. 
Offered pass/fail only. P — THE 140 or permission of instructor. 

283. Practicum. (1-2) Projects under faculty supervision. May be repeated for no more than 
four credits. P — Permission of the department. 

290. Special Seminar. (2-4) The intensive study of selected topics in theater. May be 
repeated. 

292. Theater Honors. (4) A tutorial involving intensive work in the area of special interest 
for qualified seniors who wish to graduate with departmental honors. P — Permission of 
department. 

294. Individual Study. (1-4) Special research and readings in an area of interest to be 
approved and supervised by a faculty adviser. May be taken for no more than four credits. 
P — Permission of department. 

2650. The English Theater, 1660-1940. (4) A study of the major developments in the 
English theater from the Restoration to World War II, including the plays, playwrights, 
actors, audiences, theater architecture, theater management, costumes and sets. Field 
trips include visits to theaters, museums, and performances. Offered in London. 

340. Directing. (4) An introduction to the theory and practice of play directing. P — THE 
110/112,140 and 150; C— THE 381. 

344. Acting Shakespeare. (4) A practical study of varying styles in interpreting and acting 
Shakespeare's plays from the time of the Elizabethans to the present day. P — THE 140, 
143. 



207 



381. Directing Workshop. (2) The practical application of directing techniques in realistic 
scene study utilizing student actors. This course is a co-requisite of THE 340. 

385. Studio Production. (2) The organization, techniques and problems encountered in 
the production of a play for the public. P — THE 340 and permission of department. 

390, 391. Special Seminar. (2-4) The intensive study of selected topics in the theater. May 
be repeated. 

Dance 

A dance minor requires twenty-four credits and must include Dance 120, 121, 122, 123, 
126, 127, 128 (or 129, or 131)*, 201 and 202; Music 101 or 102; Theater 110 or 112. The 
remaining credits may be chosen from Music 161, 165p, 165r, 167v, 190, 261; and Theater 
140, 144, 150, 251, 252. 

119. Aerobic Dance (1) 

120. Beginning Dance Technique (1) 

121. Intermediate Dance Technique. (2) P — Dance 120 or permission of instructor. 

122. Advanced Dance Technique. (2) P — Dance 121 or permission of instructor. 

123. Dance Composition (1) P — Dance 121. 

124. Social Dance. (1) 

125. Folk and Social Dance. (1) 

126. Jazz Dance. (1) 

127. Beginner Classical Ballet Techniques. (1) 

128. Dance Theater. (1) May be repeated for a maximum of eight credits. P — Permission 
of instructor. 

129. Intermediate Classical Ballet. (2) 
131. Advanced Classical Ballet. (2) 

201. Senior Dance Project. (2) A course involving the creative process of developing a 
dance. 

202. History of American Dance. (4) A survey of American dance from the 1600s to the 
present with emphasis on scope, style, and function. 



*The dance minor requires only one course in classical ballet. Most dancers take Dance 127, Beginner 
Classical Ballet Techniques; however, students who arrive at Wake Forest with extensive dance 
preparation may enter the program at the intermediate or advanced level. 



208 



Urban Studies 

(h 1 terdisciplinary Minor) 
Donald E. Frey (Economics), Coordinator 

The interdisciplinary minor in Urban Studies requires twenty credits, of which at least 
twelve must be chosen from the following courses. (See course descriptions under 
appropriate listings.) 

Art 296. Art History Seminar. J. Special Topics: Urbanism. (4) 

Economics 246. Urban Economics. (4) P — Economics 150. 

Politics 222. Urban Politics. (4) 

Religion 343. The City as Symbol. (4) 

Sociology 280. Urban Community. (4) Offered at Salem College. 

Courses needed to complete twenty credits may be chosen from among the following 
courses. (See course descriptions under appropriate listings.) 

Education 271. Geography: Tiie Human Environment. (4) 

History 2253. History of Venice. (4) Offered in Venice. 

2260. History of London. (4) Offered in London. 

352. U.S. Social History since 1850. (4) 
Politics 289. Internship in Politics. (2,3,4)* 

Sociology 152. Social Problems. (4) 

*To count toward the Urban Studies minor, an internship 
must be overseen by the instructor of Politics 222. 

Students intending to minor in Urban Studies should consult the coordinator as early 
as possible to discuss scheduling of courses not offered annually, approvals required to 
take the course offered at Salem College, advice on careers in urban studies, and other 
issues. No additional cost is involved for the Salem College course, and the grade for the 
course is evaluated as if earned at Wake Forest. In exceptional cases, the coordinator may 
approve limited substitutions for the listed courses. 



Women's Studies 

(Interdisciplinary Minor) 

Mary K. DeShazer (English), Coordinator 

Susan Harden Borwick (Music), Coordinator-elect 



The interdisciplinary minor in Women's Studies requires the core course, Women's 
Studies 221 , and a minimum of twenty additional credits, for a total of twenty-four credits. 



209 



It is recommended that the upper division seminar, Women's Studies 321, be included. If 
courses not designated Women's Studies are taken, they must be balanced between the 
humanities and the social sciences. This structure gives students an understanding of the 
interdisciplinary nature of Women's Studies within the context of the traditional liberal 
arts curriculum. 

A student minoring in Women's Studies might take Women's Studies 221 as a 
sophomore, eight to twelve credits as a junior, and the remaining eight to twelve credits, 
including the Seminar in Women's Studies, as a senior. 

111. Writing and Women's Issues. (4) This writing-intensive seminar explores com- 
plex issues with special impact on women in U.S. society, such as: women and 
creativity; women, work, and family; abortion and reproductive rights; violence 
against women; and combating racism and homophobia. Emphasis on expository 
writing, critical thinking, and exchange of ideas in a discussion and workshop setting. 
Satisfies the basic composition requirement. 

221. Introduction to Women's Studies. (4) An interdisciplinary course, taught by 
faculty representing at least two fields, that integrates materials from the humani- 
ties and the social sciences. Topics include methods and goals of women's studies, 
feminist critical theory, and the place of women in culture and society. 

321. Seminar in Women's Studies. (4) Consideration of theoretical and methodological 
questions and research in one of these areas: women's health issues, feminist theory, 
war and peace, etc. 

350. Biocultural Perspectives on Women and Aging. (4) A course that examines 
biological, sociopsychological, and cultural issues affecting older women. 

358. Mothers and Daughters. (4) A course that examines literature, psychology, and 
feminist theories on motherhood and the mother-daughter relationship. 

359. Fathers and Daughters. (4) The ways in which fathers influence their daughters' 
emotional, psychological, and intellectual development. Selected materials from psychol- 
ogy, mythology, film, and contemporary literature. 

377. Special Topics in Women's Studies. (4,3) Includes such topics as Jewish- 
American women writers, African- American women writers, and feminist pedagogy. 

396. Independent Study. (1-4) Independent projects in women's studies which either 
continue study begun in regular courses or develop new areas of interest. By prearrange- 
ment. 

397. Internships in Women's Studies. (2-4) Practicum opportunities for work and for 
research in conjunction with a local women's or justice organization: Winston-Salem 
Family Services, NOW, Council on the Status of Women, the North Carolina Center for 
Laws Affecting Women, the AIDS Task Force, etc. Pass /fail only. 



210 



In addition to the Women's Studies courses listed above, the following courses may be 
included in the minor. (See course descriptions under appropriate listings.) 



Courses in the Humanities 



Art 

Classics 

English 



History 



Humanities 



Music 
Religion 



251 
252 
340 



377. 
381. 
310 
341. 
365. 
230. 
320. 



347. 
353, 
208. 
340, 
366. 
370. 
371. 



Women and Art. (4) 

Women in Antiquity. (3,4) 

Studies in Women and Literature. (4) 

a. The woman writer in society 

b. Feminist critical approaches to literature 
American Jewish Literature. (4) 

Studies in Black American Literature. (4) 
History of Sexuality in the United States. (4,3) 
History of Women in Modern Asia. (4) 
Women in American History. (4) 
Women Writers in Contemporary Italy. (4) 
Perspectives on the Middle Ages. (4) 

a. Medieval women 

b. Medieval constructs of gender, race, and class 
Women Writers in Japanese Culture. (4) 

African and Caribbean Women Writers. (4) 
Women and Music. (4) 
Men's Studies and Religion. (4) 
Gender and Religion. (4) 
Women and Christianity. (4) 
Sexuality and Christian Thought. (4) 



Courses in the Social Sciences/Sciences 

Biology 318. Gender and Science. (3) 

Politics 229. Women and Politics. (4) 

Psychology 265. Human Sexuality. (4) 

359. Psychology of Gender. (4) 
Sociology 153. Marriage and the Family. (4) 

305. Male and Female Roles in Society. (4) 
Sociology 309. Sexuality and Society. (4) 

311. Women in Professions. (4) 

348. Sociology of the Family. (4) 

359. Race and Ethnic Relations. (4) 

361. Sociology of the Black Experience. (4) 

Students intending to minor in Women's Studies should consult the coordinator of 
Women's Studies in Tribble Hall A-106B, preferably during their sophomore year. 



211 



Overseas Courses 



WFU courses taught on overseas campuses during the last five school years 
Fall 1990-Spring 1995 

BEIJING, China Semesters Taught 

CHI 1131. Elementary Chinese (10) 

CHI 1521. Communism in China. Contemporary 

Issues in Historical Perspective (4) 
CHI 1551. Pre-Advanced Intermediate Chinese 

Perspective (10) 
HMN 2431 . China in Perspective (2) 
HMN 3641 . Issues in Contemporary China (4) 
HMN 3641. Communism in China. Contemporary 

Issues in Historical Perspective (4) 
POL 2421. Problems in Con temp. Chinese Politics (4) 



Fall: 


1993, 1991, 1990 


Fall: 


1991 


Fall: 


1991, 1990 


Fall: 


1993, 1991, 1990 


Fall: 


1990 


Fall: 


1991 


Fall: 


1993 



BERLIN, Germany 



ART 5007. German Art & Arch, in 20th Cent. (4) 

BUS 5007. Bus. & Trade with Cen/East Europe (4) 

GER 2167. Theatre in Berlin (4) 

GER 2177. Adv. Composition & Conversation (4) 

GER 2177. Topics in Adv. Comp. & Conv. II (4) 

GER 2187. Topics in Adv. Comp. & Conv. II (4) 

GER 2707. Ger. Art & Arch, in 20th Century (4) 

GER 2707. Germany and European Unification (4) 

GER 2707. History of Modern Berlin (4) 

GER 2707. Theatre in Berlin (4) 

GER 2707. Topics in Ger. Soc. Hist. Since 1945 (4) 

HMN 5007. Geo. Time: Dev. Geo. His. 1700/1830 (4) 

HMN 5017. Mentopolis (4) 



Spring 


1994, 


1995 


Spring 


1994 




Spring 


1995 




Spring 


1994 




Spring 


1994 




Spring 


1995 




Spring 


1994 




Spring 


1995 




Spring 


1994 




Spring 


1994, 


1995 


Spring 


1994, 


1995 


Spring 


1995 




Spring 


1995 





BOGOTA, Colombia 



HST 33211. Hist. Unin. Soviet (4) Spring: 1995 

HST 50011. Caribbean History (4) Spring: 1995 

POL 11511. History of Political Ideas (4) Fall: 1993 

POL 11611. International Politics I (4) Fall: 1993 

POL 24211. Colombian Constitutional Pol. (4) Spring: 1995 

POL 50011. Colombian Pol. Development (4) Spring: 1995 

SPA 22311. 20th Century Latin American History (4) Fall: 1993 

SPA 26611. Rulfo-Marquez-Onetti (4) Fall: 1993 

SPA 50011. Advanced Spanish (4) Spring: 1995 



212 



SPA 5001 1 . Colombia Today (4) 

SPA 501 1 1 . Latin America and the World (4) 

SPA 501 1 1 . Colombian Literature (4) 



Spring: 1995 
Spring: 1995 
Spring: 1995 



DIJON, France 

ART 2712. Studies in French Art (2) 

FRH 2192. Advanced Oral & Written French (4) 

FRH 2232. Advanced Oral & Written French (4) 

FRH 2232. Contemporary France (4) 

FRH 2242. French Civilization (4) 

FRH 2282. Contemporary France (4) 

FRH 2292. French Civilization (4) 

FRH 2402. independent Study (2) 

FRH 2742. Special Topics in French Literature (2) 

FRH 2752. French Literature (2) 



Fall: 


1993, 1992, 
1990 


1991 


Fall: 


1993, 1992 




Fall: 


1991, 1990 




Fall: 


1993 




Fall: 


1993, 1992 




Fall: 


1991, 1990 




Fall: 


1992, 1991, 


1990 


Fall: 


1993, 1992, 


1991 


Fall: 


1990 




Fall: 


1993, 1992, 
1990 


1991 



FREIBURG-im-BREISGAU, Germany 



ART 5007. Contemporary Ger. Stage II (4) 

ART 5017. Velazquez (4) 

BUS 5007. European Business Law (4) 

ECN 1507. European Market Integration (4) 

ECN 2317. European Economic Policies (4) 

ECN 2487. Economy and Environment (4) 

ECN 2517. European Market Integration (4) 

ECN 2517. Internat. Econ. Relations of the EC (4) 

ECN 2527. Internat. Econ. Relations of the EC (4) 

ECN 2537. Europe in Transition (4) 

ECN 2537. European Market Integration (4) 

ECN 2587. Internat. Econ. Relations of the EC (4) 

ECN 2717. Economy and Environment (4) 

ECN 2717. Germany as an Economic Power (4) 

ECN 2727. Introduction to the Eur. Community (1) 

GER 2167. Cont. Ger. Lit: Realism-Exile Lit. (4) 

GER 2167. Contemporary German Lit. II (4) 

GER 2167. Intro. Mod. Ger. Lit: 20th Cen. Prose (4) 

GER 2167. Intro. /Study of Mod. Ger. Lit. (4) 

GER 21 67. Vienna Theater I (in German) (4) 

GER 2177. Adv. Comp. Read. & Conv. (4) 



Spring 


1995 




Spring 


1995 




Fall 


1993, 


1992 


Fall 


1993 




Fall 


1992 




Fall 


1993 




Spring 


1992, 


1995 


Fall 


1993, 


1992 


Spring 


1992 




Fall 


1993 




Fall 


1992 




Spring 


1992 




Spring 


1993 




Spring 


1993 




Spring 


1992 




Fall 


1993, 


1992 


Fall 


1992 




Spring 


1995 




Spring 


1993 




Spring 


1993 




Fall 


1992 




Fall 


1992 




Spring 


1995 





213 



GER 21 77. Advanced German (4) 

GER 2187. Adv. Comp. Read. & Conv. (4) 

GER 2187. Conversation & Composition (4) 

GER 2187. Intermediate German II (4) 

GER 2187. Topics Adv. Comp. & Conv. (4) 

GER 2197. Adv. Comp. Read, and Conv. (4) 

GER 2197. Oral Ex. Texts/Improv. Speech (4) 

GER 2197. Top. in Adv. Comp. & Conv. (4) 

GER 221 7. Ger. History & Ger. Nation (4) 

GER 2317. Auth. & Dem. Trad, of Germany (4) 

GER 2427. Ger. Unit, as Prob. in Domestic Pol. (4) 

GER 2707. Antisemitism in the Empire (4) 

GER 2707. Auth. & Dem. Trad, of Germany (4) 

GER 2707. Contemporary Ger. Stage I (4) 

GER 2707. Contemporary Ger. Stage II (4) 

GER 2707. Elementary German II (4) 

GER 2707. Exercises on Ger. Area Studies (3) 

GER 2707. For Pol/Ger Unificat/Eur. Int. (4) 

GER 2707. Ger. Art & Architec. in 20 Cen. (4) 

GER 2707. Ger. Art Btwn. Conform. & Provcat. (4) 

GER 2707. Ger. Unif. as Prob. in Domestic Pol. (4) 

GER 2707. Intermediate German I (4) 

GER 2707. Intermediate German II (4) 

GER 2707. Introduction to Folklore (4) 

GER 2707. Post-War Dev. of Ger. 1945-1949 (4) 

GER 2707. Pronun. & Intonation Training (1) 

GER 2707. Topics in Adv. Comp & Conv. (4) 

GER 2707. 20th Cent. Ger. Short Prose A/1945 (4) 

GER 2707. 20th Cent. German Short Stories (4) 

GER 2817. 20th Cent. Ger. Short Works in Prose (4) 

GER 2857. Contemporary German Liter. II (4) 

GER 2857. Ger. Short Prose Lit. AR/1900 (4) 

HST 3207. German History & German Nation (4) 

HST 5007. Authorit. & Dem. Trad, of Germany (4) 

HST 5007. Hist, of East. Eur.: 1848-1945 (4) 

HST 5007. Intro. Hst. of Habsburg Monar. (4) 

MUS 5007. Music & Song in Concentration Camps (4) 

POL 2337. Ger. Unifi/Prob. Domestic Pol. (4) 

POL 2427. European Political Cultures (4) 

POL 2427. Pol. Institutions of the Eur. Community: 

Policies of European Integration (4) 

POL 2427. Pol. Reform in East. Europe (4) 

POL 2517. European Market Integration (4) 

POL 2527. Europe in Transition (4) 



Fall: 


1993 


Spring: 


1993 


Fall: 


1992 


Fall: 


1993 


Spring: 


1994 


Spring: 


1992, 1995 


Spring: 


1994 


Spring: 


1993 


Fall: 


1993 


Spring: 


1993, 1992 


Fall: 


1992 


Spring: 


1993 


Spring: 


1993 


Fall: 


1993 


Spring: 


1994 


Spring: 


1992 


Spring: 


1993 


Spring: 


1995 


Spring: 


1995 


Spring: 


1995 


Fall: 


1992 


Spring: 


1992 


Fall: 


1992, 1991 


Fall: 


1993 


Spring: 


1993 


Spring: 


1993 


Spring: 


1994 


Spring: 


1993 


Spring: 


1994 


Spring: 


1993 


Spring: 


1992 


Spring: 


1994 


Spring: 


1994 


Fall: 


1992 


Spring: 


1994 


Fall: 


1992 


Spring: 


1995 


Spring: 


1992 


Fall: 


1993 


Fall: 


1993 


Spring: 


1992 


Fall: 


1992 


Spring: 


1992 


Spring: 


1992 



214 



POL 2527 Foreign Policy Between Ger. Unifi. 

and European Integration (4) 

POL 2527. Internat. Organ. I: E. Integration (4) 

POL 2527. The U.N.: Ex. of Int. Con. Settle. (4) 

POL 2527. Top. in Curr. East. Eur. Pol I (4) 

POL 2707. The Federalist Papers (4) 

POL 2877. European Political Cultures (4) 

SOC 3987. Institutions- Asylum, Pub., Homes (4) 

SOC 3997. The Body and Technology (4) 

THE 1107. The Contemporary German Stage (4) 



Spring 


1993, 1992 


Fall 


1993 


Fall 


1993 


Spring 


1993 


Fall 


1992 


Spring 


1993 


Spring 


1992 


Spring 


1994 


Spring 


1994 


Fall 


1992 



HIRATSUKA, Japan (Tokai University) 



HMN 3421 . Japan in Perspective (2) 

HST 3461. Foreign Encounters with Japan (4) 

JPN 2191. Advanced Japanese (10) 

JPN 3421. Japan in Perspective (2) 

PSY 2801 . Directed Study (2) 

PSY 3571 . Cross-Cultural Psychology (4) 

SCT 3711. Comparative Communication (4) 



Fall 


1992, 1991 


Fall 


1992 


Fall 


1993, 1992, 1991 


Fall 


1993 


Fall 


1993 


Fall 


1993 


Fall 


1991 



KIEV, Ukraine 



HST 3328. 
POL 2328. 
POL 2428. 

POL 2528. 

POL 2528. 
RUS 2158. 
RUS 2188. 
RUS 2508. 
RUS 2708. 



Russian and Soviet Hist.: 1880-Present (4) 

Current Political Events in the USSR (4) 

Form. & Development. Problems of the 

Pol. Syst. of the Common, of Ind. States (4) 

Hist, of Internat. Relations & Foreign 

Policy 1975-1992 (4) 

Topics in Soviet-American Relations (4) 

Topics in Adv. Russian Liter. (4) 

Russ. & Soviet Liter. & the Mass Media (4) 

History of World Art & Culture (4) 

Adv. Russian Language (6) 



Fall 


1991 


Fall 


1991 


Spring 


1992 


Spring 


1992 


Fall 


1991 


Spriiig 
Fall 


1992 
1991 


Spring 

Spring 

Fall 


1992 
1992 
1991 



LONDON, England 



ART 1030. Intro, to Visual Arts (4) 

ART 2320. English Art, Hogarth to Present (2,4) 

ART 2320. English Art, Hogarth to Present (2,3,4) 

ECN 2650. Economic Philosophers (4) 



Fall: 1993 

Fall: 1993,1992,1991, 
1990 
Spring: 1995, 1994, 1993, 

1991 
Spring: 1992 



215 



ECN 2710. Selected Areas in Economics (2,4) 

ECN 2900. Individual Study (2,4) 

ENG 3020 Spirit of Place in British Literature (3,4) 

ENG 3300. British Liter, of the Eighteenth Century (4) 

ENG 3700. The English Theatre 1660-1940 (3,4) 

ENG 3800. Henry James in England (4) 

HST 2260. Llistory of London (2,3,4) 



HST 2340. Georgian & Victorian Society & Culture (4) 

HST 2880. Honors in History (4) 

HST 3260. Industrial Revolution in England (4) 

HST 3760. Anglo-Amer. Relations Since 1940 (2) 

HST 3990. Directed Reading (2) 

POL 1160. International Politics (4) 

POL 2510. Foreign Pol. Decline: Brit, since 1945 (4) 

POL 2520. Prob. in International Politics (4) 

SCT 3300. Modern English & Continental Drama (4) 

(also THE 3300.) 

SCT 3310. Survey English Theatre History (4) 

SOC 2040. Social Institutions of Britain (4) 

SOC 3650 European Business & Society (4) 

THE 2650. The English Theatre, 1660-1940 

THE 2660. Mod. Eng. Cont'l. Drama/Lon. Stage (4) 



Spring 


1992 


Spring 


1992 


Spring 


1994 


Fall 


1992, 1991, 1990 


Spring 


1995 


Spring 


1994 


Fall 


1990 


Spring 


1995, 1994, 1993 




1992, 1991 


Fall 


1993, 1992, 1991, 




1990 


Fall 


1991 


Fall 


1992, 1991 


Fall 


1992 


Fall 


1992 


Fall 


1992 


Spring 


1993 


Spring 


1993 


Spring 


1993 


Spring 


1992, 1991 


Fall 


1992, 1991 


Spring 


1992, 1991 


Spring 


1995 


Spring 


1995 


Fall 


1993 


Spring 


1995 


Spring 


1993 



MOSCOW, Russia 



ANT 3988/ individual Study (2) 

ECN 2088.* Intermediate Macroeconomics II (4) 

ECN 2538.** Political Economy of Russia (4) 

HST 3318.* Russia: Origins to 1917 (4) 

HST 3328.* Hist, of Rus. Empire & Sov. Union (4) 

HMN 5008.* Masterworks of 20th Cent. Rus. Lit. (4) 

MTH 1098. Elem. Probability & Statistics (5) 

MTH 2518. Ordinary Differential Equations (4) 

PHI 3958.** History of Russian Philosophy (4) 

RUS 2168.* Intro, to Russian Literature (4) 

RUS 2188.* Masterworks 20th Cent. Rus. Liter. (4) 

RUS 2188.* Russ. & Sov. Lit. & the Mass Media (4) 

RUS 2308.* The Structure of Russian (4) 

RUS 2408.* Seminar in Translation (4) 



Spring 


1993 


Spring 


1995 


Spring 


1993 


Fall 


1993 


Spring 


1994 


Spring 


1994 


Spring 


1992 


Spring 


1992 


Spring 


1993 


Spring 


1994 


Spring 


1994 


Spring 


1993 


Spring 


1993 


Spring 


1993, 1992 


Fall 


1993 



*Moscow State 
** Russian State Humanities Institute 



>16 



RUS 2428.* Research on Culture in Russian (2) 

RUS 2508.* Russian Culture & Civilization (4) 

RUS 2708.* Advanced Russian (8) 

RUS 2708.* Independent Study (2,4,6,8,12) 

RUS 2708.** Intensive Rus. Lang. - Intermediate (4) 

RUS 2708.** Intermediate Russian Language (4) 

RUS 2708.** Rus. Lit. of 19th & 20th Cent. (4) 

SOC 3988.* Sociology of the Rus. Republic (4) 



Fall 


1993 


Fall 


1993 


Spring 


1994 


Spring 


1995, 1993, 1992 


Fall 


1993 


Spring 


1993 


Spring 


1993 


Spring 


1993 


Spring 


1994 



SALAMANCA, Spain 

ART 2029. Spanish Art & Architecture (2,3,4) 

ART 5009. Art History III (8) 

CLA 2519. Art and Mythology (4) 

HST 2019. General History of Spain (4) 

SOC 2029. Social and Political Structures of 

Present-Day Spain (4) 

SPA 1829. Introduction to Spain (2-4) 

SPA 2019. Intensive Spanish (2) 

SPA 2029. Advanced Spanish (2,4) 

SPA 2059. History of the Spanish Language (4) 

SPA 2199. Advanced Spanish (4) 

SPA 2279. Spanish- American Literature (4) 

SPA 2419. Literature of the Golden Age I (4) 

SPA 2739. 20th Century Spanish Novel (4) 

SPA 2759. Spanish- American Short Story (4) 

SPA 2879. Spec. Topic: Cult. ID in Lat Am. & US (4) 



Spring: 


1995, 1994, 
1992, 1991 


1993, 


Spring: 


1994 




Spring: 


1994 




Spring: 


1995, 1994, 
1992, 1991 


1993, 


Spring: 


1995, 1994, 
1992, 1991 


1993, 


Spring: 


1995, 1994, 
1992, 1991 


1993, 


Spring: 


1995, 1994, 


1992 


Spring: 


1991 




Spring: 


1991 




Spring: 


1995, 1994, 
1992 


1993, 


Spring: 


1994 




Spring: 


1995, 1994, 
1992, 1991 


1993, 


Spring: 


1995, 1993, 


1991 


Spring: 


1992 




Spring: 


1995 





VENICE, Italy 



ART 2693. Venetian Renaissance Art (4) 



CLA 2553. 
CLA 2553. 



Spring: 1995, 1994, 1993, 
1992, 1991 
Fall: 1993,1992,1991, 
1990 



The World of Myth, in Ovid's Metamorph. (4) Fall 



World of Myth in Virgil & Ovid (4) 



Spring 



CLA 2713. The Roman Civilization of Ancient Venetia (3) Fall 



Spring: 1995 



1992 
1995 
1992 



*Moscou< State 
** Russian State Humanities Institute 



217 



CLA 2883. Individual Study - Venice (2,4) 

ENG 3613. The Italian Experience (4) 

ENG 3653. Twentieth-Century British Fiction (4) 

ENG 3863. Independent Study (4) 

HON 1313. Approaches to Human Experience 1 (4) 

HON 1353. Approaches to Human Experience (4) 

HON 2433. Literature, Travel & Discovery (4) 

HST 2253. History of Venice (4) 

HST 2263. Venetian Society & Culture (4) 

HMN 2603. Rom/Ital. Forerunners: Western Liter. (4) 

IT A 1533. Intermediate Italian (4) 

ITA 1993. Independent Study (4,2) 

ITA 2153. Introduction to Italian Literature I (4) 



ITA 2163. Introduction to Italian Literature II (4) 
ITA 2213. Spoken Italian: Venice (4) 



MUS 2143. The Language of Music in Italy (4) 

POL 1143. Intro, to Politics: Comparative (4) 

POL 2423. Problems in Comparative Politics (4) 

POL 2533. Pol. of Internat. ECN Relations (4) 

POL 2703. Topics in Political Theory (4) 

POL 2873. Individual Study (2,4) 

PSY 2413. Developmental Psychology (4) 

PSY 2803. Directed Study (4) 

PSY 3573. Cross-Cultural Psychology (4) 



Spring 


1995 




Fall 


1990 




Fall 


1991 




Spring 


1992 




Spring 


1994 




Fall 


1991 




Spring 


1995, 1991 




Fall 


1992, 1991 




Spring 


1992 




Fall 


1993 




Spring 


1994 




Fall 


1990 




Spring 


1991 




Fall 


1993, 1990 




Spring 


1994, 1992 




Spring 


1995, 1993, 
1990 


1991, 


Fall 


1993, 1992, 
1990 


1991, 


Spring 


1995, 1994, 


1993 


Fall 


1991, 1990 




Spring 


1995, 1994, 
1992 


1993 


Fall 


1993, 1992, 


1991 


Spring 


1995, 1991 




Spring 


1992 




Fall 


1993 




Spring 


1992 




Fall 


1993 




Spring 


1992 




Fall 


1993 




Spring 


1993 




Spring 


1993 




Spring 


1993 





VIENNA, Austria 



ANT 3507. Reemerg. of Ethnic Iden. in East. Eur. (4) 

ANT 5007. Hist, of E. Eur. Jews: Coex & Con (4) 

ART 1037. Austria: Art & Architecture (4) 

ART 5007. Austria: Art & Architecture (4) 

ART 5017. Art Analysis (4) 

BUS 221 7. International Trade & Marketing (4) 

BUS 2237. International Trade & Marketing (4) 



Spring 


1993 


Spring 


1995 


Spring 


1995 


Spring 


1994, 1993, 1992 


FaU 


1993 


Spring 


1993 


Spring 


1992 


Spring 


1992, 1995 



218 



BUS 2317. International Finance (4) 

BUS 2347. International Finance (4) 

BUS 5007. Bus. & Mar. East. & E. Cent. Eur. (4) 

BUS 5007. International Trade & Marketing (4) 

BUS 5017. International Finance (4) 

BUS 50 1 7. International Trade & Marketing (4) 

BUS 5017. Multinational Bus. Enterprises (4) 

BUS 5027. Supervised Bus. Internship (4) 

ECN 2727. Intro, to the European Commun. (1) 

EDU 2027. Supervised Teaching Internship (4,2) 

EDU 2037. Supervised Teaching Internship (2) 

ENG 5007. Austrian Literature in Comp. Eur. (4) 

GER1117. Elementary German (4) 

GER1117. Elementary German I (4) 

GER1127. Elementary German II (4) 

GER 1537. Intermediate German I (4) 

GER 2187. Conversation & Composition (4) 

GER 2187. Intermediate German (4) 

GER 2187. Intermediate German II (4) 

GER 2297. Business German (4) 

GER 2707. Advanced German (4) 

GER 2707. Conversation & Composition (1, 4) 

GER 2707. Elementary German II (1) 

GER 2707. Intermediate German (1) 

GER 2707. Intermediate German I (4) 

GER 2707. Intermediate German II (4) 

GER 2707. Osterreich in Text & Film II (4) 

GER 2707. Theater in Vienna II (in German) (4) 

GER 2817. Vienna Theater II (4) 

HMN 2157. Austrian Lit. in a Compar. Eur. Perspec. (4) 

HMN 5007. Comparative C Eur. Lit. II (4) 

HST 1027. Hist, of Eastern Europe: 1918-Present (4) 

HST 5007. Hist, of E. Eur. Jews: Coexist/Conflict (4) 

HST 5007. Hist, of Eastern Europe: 1918-Present (4) 

HST 5007. Vienna: Growth of Urban Civil. (4) 

HST 5007. Vienna 1900: Le Fin de Siecle (4) 

HST 5017. Hist, of Austria Since 1918 (4) 

HST 5017. East Europe: World War II to Present (4) 

HST 5037. Vienna 1900: Le Fin de Siecle (4) 

HST 5047. Hist, of Eastern Europe: 1918-Present (4) 

MUS 1017 Music in Performance (4) 



Spring 

Spring 

Fall 

Spring 

Spring 

Spring 

Fall 

Fall 

Fall 

Spring 

Spring 

Spring 

Spring 

Fall 

Fall 

Spring 

Spring 

Spring 

Spring 

Spring 

Fall 

Fall 

Spring 

Spring 

Spring 

Spring 

Spring 

Spring 

Fall 

Spring 

Spring 

Spring 

Spring 

Fall 

Spring 

Spring 

Spring 

Spring 

Fall 

Spring 

Spring 

Spring 

Spring 

Spring 

Fall 

Spring 



1992 

1992 

1993 

1993 

1993 

1992 

1993 

1993 

1993 

1993, 1995 

1995 

1992 

1992 

1992 

1993 

1995 

1993, 1995 

1995 

1995 

1992 

1993 

1993 

1995 

1994 

1993. 1992, 1995 
1994 

1993 

1992 

1993 

1995 

1992, 1995 

1993 

1993, 1992 

1992 

1995 

1992 

1994 

1992 

1993 

1994. 1993, 1995 
1994 

1994, 1995 

1992 

1992 

1992 

1995 



219 



MUS 2237. Music from Mozart to Mahler (4) 

MUS 5007. Music from Mozart to Mahler (4) 

MUS 5007. Music in Performance (4) 

PHI 3957. Philos. of the Vienna Circle (4) 

POL 2327. Political Reform in E. Eur. (4) 

POL 2427. Neutral and New-Dem. Co. Chang. Eur. (4) 

POL 2457. Reemerg. of Ethnic Iden. in East. Eur. (4) 

POL 2527. Internat. Law & Trans. Corp. (4) 

POL 2527. Internat. Organ. I: Eur. Integration (4) 

POL 2527. Topics in East Eur. Politics I (4) 

POL 5007. Internat. Law & Transnat. Corporations (4) 

POL 5007. Political Reform in East Eur. (4) 

POL 5007. Top. in Current E. Eur. I (4) 

PSY 2557. Personality & Psychopathology (4) 

PSY 2807. Psychoanalysis & Exist. Psy. (4) 

PSY 3357. Motivation & Aggression (4) 

PSY 5007 Psychoanal. & Existential. Psy. (4) 



Spring 


1995 


Spring 


1994 


Spring 


1993, 1992 


Spring 


1993 


Spring 


1995 


Fall 


1993 


Fall 


1993 


Spring 


1995 


Fall 


1993 


Spring 


1994 


Spring 


1992 


Fall 


1993 


Fall 


1993 


Fall 


1992 


Spring 


1993 


Fall 


1993 


Spring 


1995 



AFRICA 



Courses on Other Sites 



HMN 225S. The Sahel Encounter (3) (Niger 
Republic, Burkina Faso, Senegal) 



Summer: 1995 



ASIA, PACIFIC RIM 



BUS 290. International Management Study Tour (4) 

(China, Japan, Hong Kong) 
EDU 272B. Geography Study Tour (4) 



Summer: 1993,1992 



Summer: 1992 



EUROPE 



ACC 290. International Accounting (4) (Belgium, 

France, Germany, Switzerland, UK) 
BUS 208S. European Business Environment (4) 
BUS 216. European Business Environment (4) 
BUS 223. International Marketing (4) 
BUS 291 . International Marketing Field Study (4) 

(Austria, England, France, Germany, 
Italy, Switzerland) 



Summer: 1995,1994,1993, 

1992 
Summer: 1995 
Summer: 1994 
Summer: 1994 
Summer: 1993 



220 



EDU 272A. Geography Study Tour (4) 

ENG 31010. Death, Nature & Change in Med. 

Liter. (4) (Oxford, England) 
ENG 32010. Medieval Mystery Plays (4) 

(Oxford, England) 
GER 160. German Language & Customs (4) 
HMN 241S. Arts and Sciences Tour of Europe (4) 
HMN 32010. Medieval Women (2) (Oxford, England) 
HMN 50010. Interdisciplinary Sem. Assessment (2) 

(Oxford, England) 
REL 218. Seminar in the Mediterranean World (4) 



Summer: 1995, 1994, 1993, 

1992, 1991 

Summer: 1995 

Summer: 1992 

Summer: 1992 

Summer: 1995 

Summer: 1992 

Summer: 1 995 

Summer: 1993 



MIDDLE EAST 



REL 315. Field Research in Biblical Archeology 
316. (4,4) (Caesarea, Israel) 



Summer: 1994, 1993, 1992 



CARIBBEAN 

ANT 381 A. 

382A. 
ANT 383. 

384. 
ANT 384. 



Archeological Research (4,4) 

(San Salvador, the Bahamas) 

Field Research in Cultural Anthropology 

(4,3;4,3) (Roatan Island, Honduras) 

Field Research in Cultural Anthropology 

(4,3) (Roatan Island, Honduras) 



Summer: 1995,1994,1993, 

1992, 1991 
Summer: 1995 

Summer: 1994, 1993, 1992, 
1991 



221 



Wayne Calloway School of 
Business and Accountancy 



Dana J. Johnson, Dean 

Assistant Dean Katherine S. Hoppe 

Benson-Pruitt Professor of Business John S. Dunkelberg 

Davis Professor of Business Umit Akinc 

Hylton Professor of Accountancy Thomas C. Taylor 

Professors Eddie V. Easley, Stephen Ewing, Dale R. Martin, Ralph B. Tower 

Associate Professors S. Douglas Beets, Arun P. Dewasthali, Thomas S. Goho, 

J. Kline Harrison, Jack E. Wilkerson Jr. 

Kemper Faculty Fellow and Associate Professor Helen M. Bowers 

Assistant Professors Jonathan E. Duchac, Patricia A. Graybeal, Paul E. Juras, 

Gordon E. McCray, C. Michael Thompson, G. Page West III 

Director of Student Services and Instructor Helen Akinc 

Instructor Katherine S. Hoppe 

Visiting Assistant Professors Dennis Cole, Kathryn R. Nickles 

Visiting Lecturers E. Clayton Hipp Jr., David K. Isbister, Emily Neese, 

Thomas Ogburn 

Mission 



The Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy is committed to the 
delivery of high-quality undergraduate, graduate, and non-degree programs, consis- 
tent with the values and traditions of a Wake Forest University liberal arts education. 
The Calloway School seeks to attract and develop highly qualified and moti- 
vated students from diverse cultural and demographic backgrounds, with a 
strong interest in pursuing positions of leadership in the global marketplace. The 
programs foster a high level of student and faculty interaction across a broad 
range of courses, seminars, experiential activities, and research endeavors to 
develop: 

•an understanding of business as a complex and interdependent process; 
•strong analytical and creative problem-solving capabilities; superior team 

work and communication skills; sensitivity to ethical issues; and the ability to 

use technology and to understand the leveraging effects of technological 

innovation; 
•ongoing partnerships between students, faculty, alumni, and the business 

sector that promote a lifelong learning perspective. 

The faculty is a community of dedicated teachers and scholars committed to 
excellence in academic instruction, research, and other scholarly pursuits. 

The Calloway School endeavors to achieve national recognition for its academic 
excellence by being responsive to its constituency and contributing substantially 
to the personal and professional growth and satisfaction of its students. 



222 



Programs 

Three four-year programs of study leading to the bachelor of science degree are 
offered. Students may choose a major in either business, analytical finance, or 
mathematical business (in cooperation with the Department of Mathematics and 
Computer Science). A five-year program of study leading to a bachelor of science 
and a master of science degree with a major in professional accountancy also is 
offered. 

The five-year program is an integrated BS/MS program in accountancy. Inter- 
ested students will declare an accountancy major during their sophomore year 
and will apply to the master's program during their third year. Students will 
receive both the BS and the MS degrees upon completion of the program. The 
program is designed for the student seeking a career in public accounting and 
wishing to become a CPA. 

Students who do not wish to pursue the master's degree and a career in public 
accounting will have the option of the four-year baccalaureate program in analyti- 
cal finance. The four-year program will be designed to prepare students for 
finance positions in investment banking and other financial-related fields. 

Objectives 

The primary objective of the business program is to provide a general study of 
business which will enable graduates to enter the business world with a breadth of 
understanding of relevant business problems and concepts. The general, as opposed 
to specialized, orientation of the major in business is appropriate for Wake Forest in 
light of both its strong liberal arts tradition and its small size. 

The primary objective of the analytical finance program of study is to provide 
students with a thorough understanding of the finance functions of business, 
especially as they relate to one another, preparing the students for careers in such 
fields as financial services and investment banking. 

The primary objective of the mathematical /business program is to prepare the 
students with a thorough understanding of the business functions and to equip 
them with the requisite mathematical, statistical and computer tools to deal with 
complex decision problems in these functional areas. 

The major objective of the five-year professional accountancy program is to give 
students a thorough understanding of the practice of professional accounting and 
of the theoretical framework which supports the practice of professional account- 
ing. Skills necessary to address ill-defined and /or unstructured practice problems 
are developed in a series of case-based research and analysis courses. In addition, 
opportunities exist within the program of study to enhance awareness of practice 
issues on both a domestic and international level through a professional intern- 
ship program and an international study tour program. 

Both the business and accountancy programs are accredited by the American 
Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business. 



223 



Admission 

Admission to the Calloway School is by formal application, and applicants will be 
screened by the Committee on Admission and Continuation of the Wayne Calloway 
School of Business and Accountancy. Before being considered for admission to the 
Calloway School, the applicant first must have been admitted to Wake Forest College. 
Minimum requirements for admission to the Wayne Calloway School of Business and 
Accountancy are completion of sixty-five credits with an overall grade-point average of 
2.2, completion of Economics 150, Mathematics 1 08 or 1 1 1 , Accounting 111 and 112, and 
a 2.0 average in these four courses, hi addition, students should have completed Business 
100 and Communication 110. Students who have not met fully the above requirements 
may request a one-semester provisional acceptance. 

The number of students who can be accommodated is limited. Meeting the minimum 
requirements is not a guarantee of admission. Therefore, the Calloway School reserves 
the right to grant or deny admission or readmission to any student even though he or she 
meets the minimum requirements. Readmission to the Wayne Calloway School of 
Business and Accountancy first requires readmission to Wake Forest College, require- 
ments for which are discussed on page 31. 

Transfer of Credit from Other Schools 

It is expected that most work toward degrees offered by the Wayne Calloway School of 
Business and Accountancy will be taken in the Calloway School. For students wishing to 
transfer credit from other schools, the following general guidelines apply: 

(a) Courses at another school passed with the minimum passing grade at that school 
may not be transferred. 

(b) Courses transferred in business and accountancy may be subject to validating 
examinations. 

(c) No work in courses numbered 200 and above will be accepted from two-year 
schools. 

(d) Courses taken elsewhere in subjects not offered at the Wayne Calloway School of 
Business and Accountancy will not necessarily count towards the credits required 
in the Calloway School. 

(e) Only one course so transferred may be an elective unless such course is from an 
international program approved by Wake Forest University, in which case two 
such electives may be so transferred. 

(f) Business 271 cannot be transferred from another institution; it must be taken in 
the Calloway School. 

For the BS in business, a minimum of forty credits must be earned in the Wayne 
Calloway School of Business and Accountancy at Wake Forest University; for the BS in 
analytical finance, the minimum credits earned in the Calloway School must total forty- 
eight; for the BS/MS in professional accountancy, a minimum of fifty-four credits and 
thirty graduate semester hours must be earned in the Calloway School; and for the BS 
in mathematical business, a minimum of forty credits must be earned in the Calloway 
School and/or the mathematics and computer science department at Wake Forest 
University. 



224 



Requirements for Continuation 

In addition to the requirements stated on pages 30-31, a student must be academically 
responsible and must show satisfactory progress towards completing the requirements 
for the degree. The administration of the Wayne Calloway School of Business and 
Accountancy will notify the student if satisfactory progress is not being made and, after 
consultation with the Committee on Admission and Continuation, will decide if the 
student may continue as a major in the Calloway School. 

Requirements for Graduation 

The Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy confers the bachelor of 
science degree with a major in either business, analytical finance, or mathematical 
business. The Calloway School also confers the master of science degree (concurrently 
with the bachelor of science degree) in professional accountancy. The requirements for 
completion of the degrees are those in effect at the time the student enters the 
Calloway School. For the major in business, a student must complete the following 
course work: Accounting 111 and 112; Business 100, 201, 202, 211, 221, 231, 241, 251, 252, 
261, and 271; Economics 150; Mathematics 108 or 111; Communication 110; and a 
minimum of twelve credits from Business 209, 212, 213, 215, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 232, 
233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 242, 243, 253, 254, 262, 290, or accounting courses numbered 
200 or above. One elective may be taken from economics courses numbered 200 or above. 

The analytical finance and accounting major requires the following courses: Account- 
ing 111, 112, 211, and 212; Business 100, 201, 211, 221, 231, 232, 234, 235, 237, 241, 251, 252, 
261, and 271; Economics 150; Mathematics 108 or 111; and Communication 110. 

The mathematical /business major requires the following courses: Accounting 111 
and 112; Mathematics 111; Economics 150; and Business 100. Computer Science 111 
and 112 are strongly recommended. Also required are: Mathematics 112, 253 (or 
Business 203), 256, 301, 302, 353; Business 211, 221, 231, 241, 251, 252, 292; and a 
minimum of 12 credits in appropriate electives from the Department of Mathematics 
and Computer Science or the Calloway School of Business and Accountancy. 

For the combined bachelor of science /master of science degree in professional 
accountancy, the following course work must be completed: Accounting 111, 112, 211, 
212, 313, 321, 331, 351, 414, 415, 432, 452, and 453; Business 100, 201, 211, 221, 231, 237, 241, 
251, 261, 462, and 271; Economics 150; Mathematics 108 or 111; and Communication 110. 

In addition to the courses stipulated above, the student in business and accountancy 
also must meet the following requirements for graduation: 

(a) a minimum of 144 credits for the four-year programs and 144 credits plus 30 
graduate semester hours for the five-year program, including the basic and 
divisional requirements established by Wake Forest College; 

(b) a minimum grade-point average of 2.0 on all work attempted at Wake Forest; 

(c) a minimum grade-point average of 2.0 on all work attempted at other institu- 
tions; and 

(d) an overall 2.0 grade-point average on all business and accountancy courses. 



225 



Senior Honors Program 

Students with a grade-point average of at least 3.0 on all college work and who are eligible 
for membership in Beta Gamma Sigma are invited to apply for admission to the honors 
program in business and accountancy. A project, paper, or readings, and an oral 
examination are required. Those who successfully complete the requirements specified 
by the School are graduated with the designation "Honors in Business" or "Honors in 
Accountancy." For additional information, interested students should consult a member 
of the faculty of the Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy. 

Beta Gamma Sigma, National Honor Society 

Membership in Beta Gamma Sigma is the highest national recognition a student can 
receive in an undergraduate program in accounting or business. To be eligible for 
membership, a student must rank in the upper 7 percent of the junior class or the upper 
10 percent of the senior class. 

Courses of Instruction 

Business 

100. Introduction to Computers and Business Applications. (2) Fundamentals of 
computers, related peripheral technologies and basic telecommunications concepts. 
Knowledge and basic skills of business software applications including the operating 
system and windows, spreadsheets, business presentation graphics, and databases. C — 
Accounting I'll or P — Accounting 111. 

201. Quantitative Analysis I. (4) This course emphasizes the understanding and 
application of quantitative tools used in the business decision-making process. 
Specific issues covered include collection and presentation of data, sampling, and 
inferences. P — Business 100. 

202. Quantitative Analysis II. (4) This course is a continuation of Business 201. 
Additional statistical analysis tools are covered including linear programming. P — 
Business 201. 

209. Seminar: Contemporary Issues in Business. (2,4) The course examines current 
business issues using the theory and practices covered in the core courses. Topics may 
include recent global business events and policies, corporate takeovers and restructurings, 
business aspects of health care, workplace issues, the relationship of government and 
business decisions, among others. The topics discussed will change each semester 
reflecting the important issues at that time. P — Senior status. 

211. Organizational Theory and Behavior. (4) This course focuses on the behavior, 
structure, and processes within organizations. Emphasis is on developing knowledge 
and skills regarding the role of individuals and groups within organizations, as well as the 
functions of organizational systems and dynamics. 



226 



212. Human Resource Management. (4) This course focuses on important human 
resources management (HRM) skills that are frequently used by line managers. Upon 
completion of the course, students should be literate in basic HRM concepts, 
knowledgeable of line managers' HRM responsibilities, and skilled in HRM 
applications as prospective line managers. P — Business 211. 

213. Entrepreneurship. (4) The course is designed to acquaint the student with the scope, 
current trends and elements of entrepreneurship. Students will study new business 
opportunities and will design a business plan for a new business start-up concept. Topics 
covered will include the entrepreneurship environment including entrepreneurial 
personalities, assessing new ventures including financial planning, sources of capital, 
managing entrepreneurial growth, marketing and marketing research, and legal issues of 
entrepreneurship. P — Business 211, 221, and 231. 

215. International and Comparative Management. (2,4) This course deals with the global 
issues in management. Particular emphasis is placed on the different management 
philosophies and styles employed by managers in an international context. The course is 
conducted in a seminar format and focuses on the complexities involved in operating 
in different cultures and the implications which these cultural differences have on 
managing organizations and their employees' behavior. P — Business 211. 

221. Principles of Marketing. (4) A study of the role of marketing in business and the 
economy. Emphasis is on the examination of marketing concepts, functions, institutions, 
and methods. P — Economics 150 and Business 100. 

222. Seminar in Promotion Strategy. (4) This course will emphasize the strategic 
development of the marketing communications plan, including advertising, sales force 
management, sales promotion, direct marketing, public relations, and publicity. Cases, 
industry speakers, and team projects will be used to simulate real-world experiences. P — 

Business 221. 

223. International Marketing. (4) Study of problems and opportunities in marketing 
overseas, analysis of cultural, economic, and political environment of foreign marketing 
operations, organization, and control of the multinational company. P — Business 221 and 
senior standing. 

224. Marketing Research. (4) Introduction to fundamentals of research methodology and 
use of research information in marketing decision-making. Topics include research 
design, data collection methods, scaling, sampling, and alternate methods of statistical 
data analysis. Students design and execute their own research projects. P — Business 201 
and 221. 

225. Consumer Behavior. (4) Study of interdisciplinary behavioral science findings in 
buying decision processes and application of this knowledge to the design of marketing 
strategies arid to the development of creative communication programs. P — Business 221. 

226. Retail Management. (4) This course is designed to acquaint the student with the 
scope, current trends and elements of retail management. Topics covered will include 
market structure of retailing, consumer behavior and retail strategy, changing retail 



227 



institution types, merchandising strategies, basic financial tools essential to retail 
profitability and current research in retailing. P — Business 221. 

231. Principles of Finance. (4) An introduction to the field of finance including financial 
management, investment analysis, and financial institutions and markets. Emphasis is 
placed on financial management at the level of the business entity or nonprofit organization. 
P — Business 100, Accounting 112, and Economics 150. 

232. Advanced Financial Management. (4) Management decision-making applied to the 
financial function, including investment, financing, dividend, and working capital 
decisions and their impact on the value of the firm. P — Business 231. 

233. Investment Analysis. (4) Study of investment alternatives, expected returns, and 
corresponding risks; valuation of stocks and bonds applying both fundamental and 
technical analysis; survey of past and current methods of stock selection techniques, 
including portfolio considerations. P — Business 231. 

234. Multinational Financial Management. (2,4) Analysis of the international aspects of 
managerial finance. Emphasis upon institutional and environmental factors influencing 
capital acquisition and allocation. P — Business 231. 

235. Financial Institutions & Markets. (4) A thorough examination of the role of financial 
intermediaries in a free market economy and the functions of financial institutions within 
money and capital institutions. Topics include asset, liability, and capital management, 
the regulatory environment, and special topics. Special topics may include risk management 
techniques utilizing proprietary insurance to neutralize the effects of risk inherent in daily 
life: termination or suspension of earnings, liability exposures, and potential losses of real 
and personal property values. P — Business 231. 

236. Financial Derivatives. (2) Futures, options, and swaps are the three most 
important types of financial derivatives and they are linked by a common pricing 
framework. This course emphasizes the use of these derivatives in risk management 
but includes speculative strategies that can be implemented with them. P — Business 
231. 

237. Taxes and Their Role in Business and Personal Decisions. (4) Study of basic 
concepts of federal and state income taxation with an introduction to sales, property, and 
payroll taxes. Emphasis on the impact of taxation on business and personal tax planning 
and on the importance of compliance. P or C — Accounting 21 1 or permission of instructor. 

238. Financial Statement Analysis. (2) A study of the techniques used to analyze and 
interpret the information in corporate financial statements. Emphasis is placed on (1) 
accounting methods used in the preparation of financial statements, (2) implications 
of management's accounting choices for evaluation of corporate performance by 
creditors and investors, and (3) linkages among financial statement items. P — 
Business 232 or permission of instructor. 

241. Production and Operations Management. (4) A study of the problems of the 
operations function in organizations, their interfaces with other functional areas, and the 
methods of their solutions. Topics include process selection, forecasting, aggregate 



228 



planning, job shop scheduling, project management, MRP inventory management, 
facilities location and design, quality planning and control. P — Business 201. 

242. International Operations Management. (2) This course represents a relatively new 
dimension in the field of production and operations management. It is intended to 
introduce the student to the international aspects of managing manufacturing service 
operations drawing on relatively modest amount of literature — books, articles, and cases 
that have recently accumulated. The following topics will be covered: international 
exchange rates, international logistics, international facility location decisions, international 
sourcing, joint manufacturing ventures and their strategic implications and performance 
analysis of multinational production systems. P — Business 241. 

243. Management of Innovation-Based Enterprises. (4) This course explores the 
unique challenges and opportunities of businesses which have technology or 
innovation as a driving force of the firm. Major themes of the course include: the 
development of product line and technology strategy as the basis for competition; 
evaluating the need and demand for a new product, product line extension or service; 
developing and marketing new products and services; and regulatory and ethical 
issues in innovation. P — Business 221 and 241. 

251. Management Information Systems. (2) An introduction to the business issues 
associated with information technology, designed to provide a broad perspective for 
managing an organization's information resources. The course includes an overview 
of the theoretical concepts underlying computer-based information systems in 
organizations. Topics include a review of computing technology such as hardware, 
software, data, database management systems, and an examination of 
telecommunications systems prevalent in current business environments. P — Business 
100. 

252. Management Information Technology. (2) A study of the process of designing, 
developing, and implementing information systems. Advanced applications of 
information technology also are examined, together with frameworks for 
contemplating when the use of these technologies is appropriate. The area of IT 
planning, alignment of IT strategy with business strategy, and issues uniquely 
associated with international information systems also are addressed. P — Business 
100 and 251. 

253. Advanced Topics in Information Technology. (2) The course consists of three 
distinct components. First, analysis, design, and development of a database application 
is undertaken. Second, a series of case studies relating to the management of information 
technology and its competitive uses is performed. Third, an in-depth study is made 
of selected information systems issues that are currently foremost in the profession. 
The course is predominately discussion-oriented, stresses collaborative learning, and 
includes actual use of the technologies addressed in the course. P — Business 100, 251, 
and 252. 

254. Decision Support Systems. (2) This course provides an overview of the theoretical 
and organizational aspects of decision support systems, including descriptive and 
prescriptive decision-making concepts, individual and group decision support systems, 



229 



and executive information systems. The course includes use of current decision 
support technologies. P — Business 100, 251, and 252. 

261. Legal Environment of Business. (4) A study of the legal environment in which 
business decisions are made in profit and nonprofit organizations. Emphasis is put upon 
how the law develops and how economic, political, social, international, and ethical 
considerations influence this development. Includes substantive areas such as torts and 
government regulation of the employment relationship, the competitive marketplace and 
the environment. P — Accounting 111. 

262. Business Law. (4) A study of substantive law topics applicable to business transactions 
including contracts, agency, property, the UCC and business organizations with an 
emphasis on how these subjects intersect with the functional areas of business and affect 
managerial decision-making. P — Business 261. 

271. Strategic Management. (4) This course focuses on the derivation of competitive 
advantage by organizations. The course emphasizes the activities of general managers 
who are responsible for the shape, character, and direction of the total enterprise. 
Course content includes analyzing the effects of industry and competitive environments 
on the firm, determining the basis upon which organizations compete, formulating 




Associate Professor of Business /. Kline Harrison with two participants in the International Business 
Study Tour (Bus. 290) offered during the summer. 



230 



and implementing integrative strategic action plans which enhance competitive 
performance, and strategic leadership. Emphasis is placed on applying principles of 
competitive analysis and strategic planning to case studies of domestic and international 
business situations, and in the use of computer simulations. P — Business 211, 221, 231, 
and 241. 

281. Individualized Reading and Research. (2,3, or 4) Directed study in specialized areas 
of business. P — Permission of instructor. 

290. International Business Study Tour. (4) An experiential learning course which 
provides students with an exposure to and understanding of the distinctive 
characteristics of global versus domestic operations in foreign settings. Each of the 
functional areas of business (marketing, operations, finance, human resources 
management, information systems, and strategic management) are covered through 
various site visits and presentations in selected foreign countries. Background readings 
and assignments are required prior to departure, with a subsequent paper to be 
completed upon return. P — Permission of instructor. Offered in the summer. 

292. Seminar in Mathematical Business Analysis. (4) This seminar provides 
mathematical business majors with a forum where they can actually see how the 
mathematical, statistical and computer techniques can be brought to bear on many 
business problems from a variety of business functions. Emphasis will be more on 
studying the process of modeling and implementation issues of the solutions and less 
on the algorithmic details devised for effective model solution. Critical and reflective 
thinking about models and translation of their results into management action that 
will add value to a process system will be a major objective. Another objective of the 
seminar will be to foster group work and the sharpening of presentation skills. P — 
Business 211, 221, 231, 241, 252, and Mathematics 256, 353. 

295. Summer Management Program. (8) A study of the various functions of business 
including accounting, finance, information systems, management, marketing, production, 
and strategic planning. Offered only in the summer and open only to junior and senior liberal 
arts majors. Special application and admission procedures. 

395. Seminar in Fundamentals of Business. (6) A study of the various functional 
areas of business, including finance, information systems, management, marketing, 
production, and strategic planning. Offered only in the summer. P — Admission to 
master of science in accountancy program. 

462. Business Law for Accountants. (4) A study of substantive law topics applicable to 
business transactions including contracts, agency, property, the Uniform Commercial 
Code, and business organizations, with emphasis on areas with auditing and accounting 
implications. P — Admission to MS program and Business 261. 

Accountancy 

110. Introduction to Financial and Management Accounting. (4) Basic accounting 
concepts and procedures used in the preparation of financial reports issued to stockholders, 



231 



creditors, and managers of business enterprises. Open only to juniors and seniors not 
majoring in business or accountancy. Cannot be substituted for Accounting 111. 

111. Introductory Financial Accounting. (4) An introduction to financial accounting 
and reporting, including the role of financial information in business decisions, the 
basic financial statements, and the processes used to prepare these financial statements. 
Students are introduced to the accounting and reporting issues associated with an 
organization's financing, investing, and operating activities. Sophomore standing. 

112. Introductory Management Accounting. (4) A study of the concepts fundamental to 
management accounting which aid in decision making, performance evaluation, and 
planning and control. The topics covered in the course include product costing systems, 
budgeting, differential and breakeven analysis, responsibility accounting, cost allocation, 
and management accounting reports. P — Minimum of C in Accounting 111. 

211. Financial Accounting Theory and Problems I. (5) A study of the conceptual 
framework underlying financial accounting in the U.S. as well as the financial 
accounting standards setting process and the basic corporate financial statements. 
Financial accounting and reporting issues associated with receivables, inventories, 
property, plant, and equipment, and intangible assets are also examined. P — Business 
100 and minimum of C in Accounting 112. 

212. Financial Accounting Theory and Problems II. (5) An examination of financial 
accounting and reporting issues associated with current liabilities and contingencies, 
long-term liabilities, partners' and stockholders' equity, investments in debt and 
equity securities, business combinations, and consolidated and multinational 
enterprises. P — Minimum of C in Accounting 211. 

280. Contemporary Issues in Accounting and Finance. (2) This course focuses on the role 
of management in the formulation of financial reporting policies and practices with an 
emphasis on the impact of these policies and practices on financial reports, decisions, and 
markets. Contemporary accounting and finance topics such as earnings management, 
lease capitalization, cash flow vs. earnings reporting, foreign currency translation, debt 
extinguishment, oil and gas accounting, among other issues, are analyzed in the course. 

290. International Accounting. (4) An experiential learning course that provides students 
with an opportunity to learn about international and transnational accounting standards, 
policies, and practices. Students will participate in a study tour of several selected 
countries and will gain an international accounting and business perspective through 
meetings with individuals in government, professional accounting firms, financial 
institutions, and manufacturing companies. P — Accounting 211 and permission of the 
instructor. Offered in the summer. 

313. Accounting in the Not-f or-Prof it Sector. (2) A study of the accounting practices and 
financial reporting standards of governmental and not-for-profit organizations. P — 
Accounting 211. 

321. Advanced Management Accounting. (4) Advanced study of management accounting 
topics including strategic and operational decisions, behavioral issues related to budgeting, 



>32 



transfer pricing, performance measurement, and contemporary issues in accounting for 
management planning and control. P — Business 241, minimum of C in Accounting 112. 

331. Federal Taxation of Corporations, Partnerships, Estates, and Trusts. (5) A review 
of federal taxation principles associated with the organization, operation, and dissolution 
of corporate, partnership and tax exempt organizations. Introduction to federal estate and 
gift taxes and to income taxation of trusts and estates. P — Admission to MS program or 
permission of instructor. 

351. Accounting Information Systems. (2) A study of the design and operation of 
accounting systems including the revenue, expenditure, and administrative transaction 
cycles. Emphasis is placed upon the necessary controls for reliable data. P — Accounting 
112 and Business 251. 

352. Introduction to Auditing. (5) An examination of basic auditing concepts and 
practices, and the auditor's professional responsibilities. Emphasis is placed upon auditing 
standards and the auditing procedures commonly used in public accounting. P — 
Admission to the MS program; C — Accounting 351. 

378. Individualized Reading and Research. (2,3, or 4) Directed study in specialized areas 
of accountancy. P — Permission of instructor. 

390. Professional Accounting Internship. (6) Professional accounting field work, under 
the direction of a faculty member, in a public accounting firm, corporate enterprise, or not- 
for-profit organization. Students gain relevant practical experience which builds on prior 
coursework and provides an experiential knowledge base for coursework in the fifth year. 
P — Admission to MS program and permission of the instructor. 

414. Seminar in Financial Reporting. (5) An examination of a variety of financial 
reporting topics, including revenue recognition, income taxes, pensions and 
postretirement benefits, leases, accounting changes and error analysis, interim and 
segment reporting, and the statement of cash flows. P — Admission to MS program and 
minimum of C in Accounting 212. 

415. Financial Accounting Research and Analysis. (5) An examination of contemporary 
financial accounting and reporting issues using a case approach. Students are introduced 
to available research tools and databases, examine and analyze a number of cases, prepare 
written reports, and make oral presentations. Research and analysis is conducted 
individually and in small groups. P — Admission to MS program and Accounting 414. 

432. Income Tax Research and Analysis. (5) Examination of the tax research environment, 
primary and secondary sources of tax law, and implementation of research tools. Study 
of the administration of U.S. tax laws. P — Accounting 331. 

454. Auditing Research and Analysis. (5) A study of current issues, practices, and 
techniques related to auditing. Students will utilize available research materials, databases, 
personal auditing experience, and practitioner sources to address auditing issues. Emphasis 
is placed upon analysis, teamwork, writing, and presentation skills. P — Admission to MS 
program, Accounting 452 and Accounting 390 or permission of the instructor. 



Enrollment 



233 



All Schools— Fall 1995 



Undergraduate Schools 
The Graduate School (Reynolda Campus) 
The Graduate School (Hawthorne Campus) 
The School of Law 

Babcock Graduate School of Management 
The Bowman Gray School of Medicine 
(includes Allied Health) 

University Totals 



Men 


Women 


Total 


1,910 


1,791 


3,701 


197 


239 


436 


72 


77 


149 


282 


188 


470 


406 


159 


565 


319 


252 


571 



3,186 



2,706 



5,892 





By State (1995-96 Academic Year) 




Alabama 


17 


Kansas 


4 


Ohio 


86 


Alaska 
Arizona 


4 
3 


Kentucky 
Louisiana 


38 

14 


Oklahoma 
Oregon 


16 

9 


Arkansas 


4 


Maine 


17 


Pennsylvania 


228 


California 


si 


Maryland 


166 


Rhode Island 


14 


Colorado 


15 


Massachusetts 


105 


South Carolina 


138 


Connecticut 


97 


Michigan 


16 


South Dakota 


1 


Delaware 


24 


Minnesota 


9 


Tennessee 


81 


District of Columbia 


6 


Mississippi 


15 


Territories 


3 


Florida 


234 


Missouri 


34 


Texas 


73 


Georgia 
Hawaii 


229 
4 


Montana 
Nebraska 


4 
7 


Utah 
Vermont 


1 
13 


Idaho 
Illinois 


1 

4! 


New Hampshire 
New Jersey 


12 

222 


Virginia 
Washington 


207 

7 


Indiana 


26 


New Mexico 


1 


West Virginia 


49 


Iowa 


7 


New York 


171 


Wisconsin 


15 






North Carolina 


1,104 


Wyoming 


2 




By Country (1995-96 Academic Year) 




Barbados 
Belgium 


2 
1 


Germany 
Ghana 


2 
2 


Panama 
Russia 


1 
4 


Bulgaria 


1 


India 


1 


Saudi Arabia 


1 


Canada 
Colombia 


5 
1 


Italy 
Japan 


4 

2 


Singapore 
South Africa 


1 
1 


Denmark 
Finland 


1 
1 


Kenya 
Netherlands 


1 
1 


Spain 
Switzerland 


4 
2 


France 


1 


Norway 


1 


United Arab Emerates 2 










United Kingdom 


5 



234 



Governing and Advisory Boards 



The Board of Trustees 



1992-1996 



Clifton L. Benson Jr., Raleigh 
Victor I. Flow Jr., Winston-Salem 
Jean H. Gaskin, Charlotte 
Joseph C. Hough Jr., Nashville, TN 
Hubert B. Humphrey Jr., Greensboro 



Albert R. Hunt, Washington, D.C. 

Joseph W. Luter III, Smithfield, VA 

Adelaide A. Sink, Tampa, FL 

E. Joy Vermillion, Wake Forest (student) 

J. Lanny Wadkins Jr., Dallas, TX 

Kyle A. Young, Greensboro 



1993-1997 



Ann L. Brenner, Winston-Salem 
Ronald E. Deal, Hickory 
J. William Disher, Charlotte 
Dee Hughes LeRoy, Charleston, SC 
L. Glenn Orr Jr., Winston-Salem 



Arnold D. Palmer, Orlando, FL 
Bob D. Shepherd, Morganton 
R. Jay Sigel, Berwyn, PA 
Charlotte C. Weber, New York, NY 
John C. Whitaker Jr., Winston-Salem 



Louise Broyhill, Winston-Salem 
J. Donald Cowan, Greensboro 
Marvin D. Gentry, King 
Constance F. Gray, Winston-Salem 



1994-1998 



E. Michael Howlette, Richmond, VA 
James G. Martin Jr., Charlotte 
Louis B. Meyer, Wilson 
Celeste Mason Pittman, Rockv Mount 



William B. Greene Jr., Elizabethton, TN C. Jeffrey Young, Lexington 



1995-1999 



James L. Becton, Augusta, GA 
Wayne Calloway, Greenwich, CT 
A. Doyle Early Jr., High Point 
James E. Johnson Jr., Charlotte 



Russell W. Meyer Jr., Wichita, KS 
Stephen L. Neal, McLean, VA 
Michael G. Queen, Wilmington 
Lonnie B. Williams, Wilmington 
J. Tylee Wilson, Ponte Vedra Beach, FL 



Life Trustees 



Bert L. Bennett, Winston-Salem 
Henry L. Bridges, Raleigh 
Albert L. Butler Jr., Winston-Salem 
C. C. Cameron, Charlotte 
Charles W. Cheek, Greensboro 
Egbert L. Davis Jr., Winston-Salem 
Thomas H. Davis, Winston-Salem 
Floyd Fletcher, Durham 
Weston P. Hatfield, Winston-Salem 



J. Samuel Holbrook, Southern Pines* 
Petro Kulynych, Wilkesboro 
James W. Mason, Laurinburg 
W. Boyd Owen, Waynesville 
J. Robert Philpott, Lexington 
Zachary T. Smith, Winston-Salem 
D. E. Ward Jr., Lumberton 
T. Eugene Worrell, Charlottesville, VA 
J. Smith Young Sr., Lexington 



* Died on October 12, 1995 



235 



Officers - 1995-96 

Wayne Calloway, Greenwich, CT, Chair 

Adelaide A. Sink, Tampa, FL, Vice-Chair 

Louis R. Morrell, Winston-Salem, Treasurer 

Leon H. Corbett Jr., Winston-Salem, Secretary 

J. Reid Morgan, Winston-Salem, Assistant Secretary 

Thomas P. Gilsenan, Winston-Salem, Assistant Treasurer 



The Board of Visitors 

Gillian Lindt, New York, NY 
Chair, College Board of Visitors 

Wake Forest College and Graduate School 



Terms Expiring December 31, 1996 



L. M. Baker Jr., Winston-Salem 
Thomas M. Belk, Charlotte 
William E. Bierlin Jr., Jenkintown, PA 
Sylva Billue, Winston-Salem 
Clifford H. Clarke, Redwood City, CA 
Sophia S. Cody, Winston-Salem 
Mark A. Crabtree, Martinsville, VA 
Wilbur S. Doyle Sr., Martinsville, VA 
Noel L. Dunn, Winston-Salem 
Gary L. Eckenroth, Winston-Salem 
Elaine El-Khawas, Washington, DC 
Stanley Frank, Greensboro 



Beverly J. Freeman, Atlanta, GA 
Lucy Gordon, Cambridge, MA 
Thomas C. Griscom, Winston-Salem 
O. Bruce Gupton, Stamford, CT 
James R. Helvey HI, New York, NY 
Judy Kessler, Beverly Hills, CA 
James A. Martin Jr., Winston-Salem 
Robert J. McCreary, Newton 
Bonnie McElveen-Hunter, Greensboro 
Penelope Niven, Winston-Salem 
John H. Parrish, La Jolla, CA 
Howard A. Rollins Jr., Atlanta, GA 



Terms Expiring December 31, 1997 



Germaine Bree, Winston-Salem 
F. Hudnall Christopher, Winston-Salem 
James DeRose Jr., Palos Verdes Estates, CA 
Gayle W. Dorman, Winston-Salem 



Robert H. Frehse, New York, NY 
Thomas W. Lambeth, Winston-Salem 
Gillian Lindt, New York, NY 
William D. Salter, St. Charles, IL 



Terms Expiring June 30, 1998 



Louis Bissette Jr., Asheville 
Peter J. Bondy, St. Louis, MO 
Carlyn J. Bowden, Greensboro 
Daniel G. Clodfelter, Charlotte 
Jane F. Crosthwaite, South Hadley, MA 
Robert Demsey, Rancho Sante Fe, CA 



Evelyn P. Foote, Accokeek, MD 
Michael R. Parrish, Greensboro 
Richard A. Riley, Chicago, IL 
Betty L. Siegel, Marietta, GA 
Dale R. Walker, New York, NY 
Jeanne P. Whitman, Dallas, TX 



236 



Terms Expiring June 30, 1999 



Jerry H. Baker, Atlanta, GA 
Bruce M. Babcock, Winston-Salem 
John W. Chandler, Washington, DC 
Callie Anne Clark, Hinsdale, IL 
Brenda E.B. Dunson, Washington, DC 
Karen L. Elkins, Silver Spring, MD 
Laura M. Elliott, Great Falls, VA 
Kathleen B. French, Fairfax, VA 
G. Maria Henson, Charlotte 



Sandra R. Kahle, Vero Beach, FL 
James T. Lambie. Winston-Salem 
Martin Mayer, Washington, DC 
Jasper D. Memory, Chapel Hill 
J. Donald Nichols, Nashville, TN 
Michael G. Riley, Washington, DC 
Rick Lee Tarleton, Athens, GA 
Edwin G, Wilson, Winston-Salem 
Eileen Wilson-Oyelaran, Winston-Salem 
Jonathan H. Witherspoon, Winston-Salem 



Ex Officio Members 

David J. Stefany, President, Alumni Council, Tampa, FL 
Dee Hughes LeRoy, Board of Trustees Representative, Charleston, SC 



The Board of Visitors 

Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy 



Nancy Alderman, New York, NY 
Ren L. Babcock, Raleigh 
David Barger, Greensboro 
Wendy Burden, Winston-Salem 
Paul Chapman, Charlotte 
Victor N. Daley, Charlotte 
Edwin A. Dalrymple, Charlotte 
James A. Ferency, New York, NY 
John H. Fosina, New York, NY 
Kathryn W. Garner, Winston-Salem 
Emma Graham, Winston-Salem 
Marcia E. Goldsmith, Chicago, IL 
H. Wade Gresham Jr., Durham 
C. Stanley Hamm, Atlanta, GA 
Dennis Hatchell, Winston-Salem 
A. Dale Jenkins, Raleigh 
Richard Kauffeld Jr., Switzerland 
John Keener, Greensboro 
Deborah Lambert, Washington, DC 



Timothy A. Lambeth, Shawnee Mission, KS 
Patricia Lunka, New York, NY 
Morris D. Marley, Winston-Salem 
D. Hector McEachern, Winston-Salem 
Richard A. Miners, New York, NY 
George Minnich, Hartford, CT 
Marc D. Oken, Charlotte 
William O'Neil Jr., Nashville, TN 
Jack Powell, Reston, VA 
Robert L. Reid, Nashville, TN 
Dennis R. Reigle, Chicago, IL 
Jeri Sedlar, New York, NY 
Ernest J. Sewell, Reidsville 
Larry P. Scott, New York, NY 
Patricia G. Stiles, Chicago, IL 
Peter Stiles, Chicago, IL 
Porter B. Thompson, Greensboro 
Robert S. Vaughan, Charlotte 
Michael M. Wathen, Charlotte 
Jackson D. Wilson Jr., Winston-Salem 



Associate Members 

M. Benjamin Jones, Atlanta, GA Heather Neill, Greensboro 



The Administration 



237 



Date following name indicates year of appointment 



University 

Thomas K. Hearn Jr. (1983) 

BA, Birmingham-Southern; BD, Southern 
Baptist Theo. Seminary; PhD, Vanderbilt 

John P. Anderson (1984) 

BS, MS, PhD, Georgia Tech.; 
MBA, Alabama (Birmingham) 

Russell E. Armistead Jr. (1976) 

BS, Virginia Poly. Inst, and SU; 
MBA, Wake Forest 

Sandra Combs Boyette (1981) 

BA, UNC-Charlotte; MEd, Converse 

David G. Brown (1990) 

BA, Denison; MA, PhD, Princeton 

Leon H.Corbett Jr. (1968) 
BAJD, Wake Forest 

Richard Janeway (1966) 

BA, Colgate; MD, Pennsylvania 

G. William Joyner Jr. (1969) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Louis R. Morrell (1995) 

BS, Babson College; MBA, Massachusetts 

Kenneth A. Zick (1975) 

BA, Albion; JD, Wayne State; 
MLS, Michigan 

Samuel T. Gladding (1990) 

BA, MAEd, Wake Forest; 

MAR, Yale; PhD, UNC-Greensboro 

College 



President 



Vice President for Finance and Administration 



Vice President for 
Health Services Administration 



Vice President for Public Affairs 

Provost 

Vice President and Counsel 

Executive Vice President for Health Affairs 
of Wake Forest University 

Vice President for University Relations 
Vice President for Investments and Treasurer 



Vice President for Student Life and 
Instructional Resources 



Assistant to the President 
for Special Projects 



Paul D. Escott (1988) 

BA, Harvard; MA, PhD, Duke 

Toby A. Hale (1970) 

BA, Wake Forest; MDiv, Duke; EdD, Indiana 

William S. Hamilton (1983) 
BA, MA, PhD, Yale 

Patricia Adams Johansson (1969) 
BA, Winston-Salem State; 
MA, Wake Forest 



Dean of the College 
Associate Dean 
Associate Dean 
Associate Dean 



238 



Paul N. Orser (1989) 

BS, Wake Forest; MS, PhD, Emory 

Claudia Newell Thomas (1986) 

BA, College of Notre Dame of Maryland; 
MA, Virginia; PhD, Brandeis 

W. Douglas Bland (1975) 
BA, MA, Wake Forest 

Provost 



Associate Dean and Dean of Freshmen 
Associate Dean 



Director of Academic Services and 
Assistaiit to the Dean of the College 



David G. Brown (1990) 

BA. Denison; MA, PhD, Princeton 

Lula M. Leake (1964) 

BS, Louisiana State; 

MRE, Southern Baptist Theo. Seminary 

Graduate School 



Gordon A. Melson (1991) 

BS, PhD, Sheffield (England) 

Robert N. Shorter (1958) 

BA, Union; MA, PhD, Duke 

School of Law 



Robert K. Walsh (1989) 

BA, Providence; JD, Harvard 

Ralph A. Peeples (1979) 

BA, Davidson; JD, New York University 

James Taylor Jr. (1983) 

BA, JD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

William T. Barrett (1994) 

BA, JD, Washington and Lee 

James C. Cook (1992) 

BS, South Carolina; JD, Wake Forest 

Jean K. Holmes (1985) 

Margaret C. Lankford (1990) 
BS, UNC-Greensboro 

Linda J. Michalski (1983) 
BS, UNC-Greensboro 

Melanie E. Nutt (1969) 

Robin P. Simonds (1994) 

BA, Yale; JD, Colorado 



Provost 

Associate Vice President for 
Academic Affairs 



Dean of the Graduate School 
Associate Dean of the Graduate School 



Dean of the School of Law 

Associate Dean, Academic Affairs 

Associate Dean, External Affairs, 
and Director of Clinical Programs 

Director of Placement 

Director of Continuing Legal Education 

Activities Coordinator 
Budget Officer 

Director of Professional and Public Relations 

Director of Admissions and Financial Aid 
Director of Educational Technology 



239 



LeAnn P. Steele (1977) 
BMu, Salem 

Babcock Graduate School of Management . 

Gary E. Costley (1995) 

BS, MS, PhD, Oregon State 

James M. Clapper (1975) 

BS, MS, Rensselaer Poly. Inst.; 
PhD, Massachusetts (Amherst) 

Frederick H. deB. Harris (1990) 

BA, Dartmouth; PhD, Virginia 

Charles R. Kennedy Jr. (1989) 
BA, PhD, Texas (Austin) 



Registrar 



Dean of the Babcock Graduate School 
of Management 



Mary C. Goss (1992) 

BS, Southern Illinois; MBA, Pepperdine 

Patricia B. Divine (1988) 
BS, Virginia 

Barry L. Dumbro (1992) 

BS, Vermont; MBA, Wake Forest 

Robin Roy Ganzert (1988) 
BS, MBA, Wake Forest 

Marianne M. Hill (1988) 

BS, MA, West Virginia; PhD, Georgia 

Steve Price (1995) 

BS, UNC-Chapel Hill; MBA, Wake Forest 

Bowman Gray School of Medicine .... 



Associate Dean 

Associate Dean for Faculty Affairs 

Associate Dean for Academic Affairs 

Assistant Dean of Admissions, 
Career Services, and Student Affairs 

Director of External Relations and Publications 

Director of Information Services 

Director of Finance and Administration 

Director of Institute for Executive Education 

Director of Career Services 



Richard Jane way (1966) 

AB, Colgate; MD, Pennsylvania 

James N. Thompson (1979) 

BA, DePauw; MD, Ohio State 

Russell E. Armistead Jr. (1976) 

BS, Virginia Poly. Inst, and SU; 
MBA, Wake Forest 

Timothy C. Pennell (1966) 
BS, MD, Wake Forest 

J. Scott Gibson (1991) 

BS, UNC-Chapel Hill; MBA, Duke 

Ronald L. Hoth (1992) 
BS, Loyola College 



Executive Vice President for Health Affairs 
of Wake Forest University 

Dean 

Vice President for Health Sewices Administration 
and Associate Dean for Administrative Services 

Chief of Professional Services 



Assistant Dean for Financial Planning 
and Outreach 

Assistant Dean for Human Resources 



240 



Joanne Ruhland (1988) 

BS, Gardner Webb; MBA, Appalachian 

William C. Park Jr. (1975) 

BS, The Citadel; MBA, Wake Forest 

Eugene W. Adcock III (1989) 

BS, Davidson; MD, Wake Forest 

John D. ToLmie (1970) 

BA, Hobart; MD, McGill 

Lewis H. Nelson III (1976) 

BS, North Carolina State; MD, Wake Forest 

Patricia L. Adams (1979) 

BA, Duke; MD, Wake Forest 

Michael R. Lawless (1974) 

BA, Texas (Austin); MD, Texas 
Medical Branch (Galveston) 

James C. Leist (1974) 

BS, Southeast Missouri State; 
MS, EdD, Indiana 



Assistant Dean for Planning and 
Governmental Relations 

Assistant Dean for Cluneal Services and 
Director, Wake Forest University Physicians 



Associate Dean for Professional Affairs 

Associate Dean for Academic Affairs 

Associate Dean for Admissions 

Associate Dean for Student Affairs 

Deputy Associate Dean for Student Affairs 

Associate Dean for Continuing Education 



Thomas L. Pope Jr. (1989) 

AB, MD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Cam E. Enarson (1990) 

BA, Concordia; BMS, MD, Alberta; 
MBA, Pennsylvania 

Jay Moskowitz (1995) 

BS, Queens College (CUNY); PhD, Brown 

Lawrence D. Smith (1983) 
BS, MS, Illinois 

David P. Friedman (1990) 

BS, Pittsburgh; MS, PhD, 
New York Medical College 

Julie M. Watson (1991) 

BA, Coe; MA, Johns Hopkins 

Michael J. Poston (1993) 
BS, MS, Indiana 

Edward Carter (1993) 

BS, Western Michigan; 
MS, San Diego State 

Paul M. LoRusso (1987) 

BS, Syracuse; MBA, Florida State 

Michael D. Sprinkle (1972) 

BA, MSLS, UNC-Chapel Hill 



Assistant Dean for Continuing Medical Education 
Assistant Dean for Medical Education 



Senior Associate Dean for 
Research Development 

Associate Dean for Research Development 



Assistant Dean for Basic Sciences 
Research Development 

Assistant Dean for Research Administration 

Associate Dean for Development 
and Alumni Affairs 

Associate Dean for Facilities 
Planning and Construction 

Associate Dean for Information Services 

Executive Director, Coy C. Carpenter Library 



241 



Robert E. Rose (1972) 

BS, Morehead State 

W. Roger Poston II (1991) 

AB, Mercer; BS, MS, Medical College 
of Georgia; EdD, West Virginia 

J. Dennis Hoban (1978) 

BA, Villanova; MS, EdD, Indiana 

Veln-ia G. Watts (1982) 

BS, MS, North Carolina A&T; 
MEd, UNC-Chapel Hill; PhD, Duke 



Controller and Director, Accounting 
and Resource Acquisition 

Director, Biomedical Communications 



Director, Office of Educational Research 
and Services 

Director, Office of Minority Affairs 



Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy 



Dana J. Johnson (1992) 

BBA, MA, DBA, Kent State 

Katherine S. Hoppe (1993) 

BA, Duke; MBA, Texas Christian 

Dale R. Martin (1982) 

BS, MS, Illinois State; DBA, Kentucky 

J. Kline Harrison (1990) 

BS, Virginia; PhD, Maryland 

Jack E. Wilkerson Jr. (1989) 

BS, Bob Jones University; PhD, Texas 

Thomas S. Goho (1977) 

BS, MBA, Pennsylvania State; 
PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Unit Akinc (1982) 

BS, Middle East Tech. Univ. (Ankara); 
PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Admissions and Financial Aid 



Dean of the Wayne Calloioay School 
of Business and Accountana/ 

Assistant Dean and 
Director of Information Technology/ 

Director of the MS Program in Accountana/ 

Coordinator of Business Program 

Coordinator of Accountancy Program 

Adviser, Analytical Finance Program 

Adviser, Mathematical/Business Program 



William G. Starling (1958) 
BBA, Wake Forest 

Thomas O. Phillips (1982) 
BA, MA, Wake Forest; 
PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Martha Blevins Allman (1982) 
BA, MBA, Wake Forest 

John C. Matthews (1995) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Steven Brooks (1989) 

BA, MA, EdD, UNC-Chapel Hill 



Director of Admissions and Financial Aid 

Associate Director of Admissions and 
Scholarship Officer 

Associate Director of Admissions 

Assistant Director of Admissions 

Associate Director of Financial Aid 



242 



Wayne E. Johnson (1985) 

BA, Northwestern; JD, Wake Forest 

Tara R. Cioffi (1995) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Douglas R. Fordham (1995) 
BA, Wake Forest 

T. Nathaniel French (1995) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, UNC-Chapel Hill 

J. Christopher Greenawalt (1995) 
BS, Wake Forest 

Elizabeth R. Warner (1994) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Margaret Von Stein (1995) 

BA, Davidson, MAEd, Wake Forest 

Athletics 



Ron Wellman (1992) 

BS, MS, Bowling Green State University 

Charles W. Patterson m (1984) 
AB, Davidson College 

Perk Weisenburger (1995) 

BS, Central Michigan; MSA, Ohio 

Mike Pratapas (1989) 

BA, MAEd, Wake Forest 

Joel Nielsen (1993) 

BS, MA, Mankato State 

William M. Faircloth (1978) 

BS, Wake Forest; MA, Alabama 

Charlie Davis (1971) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Maureen "Mo" Lantz (1995) 
BA, Dayton 

Career Services 



William C. Currin (1988) 
BA, Wake Forest; 
BD, Southeastern Baptist Theo. Seminary 

Jessica B. Pollard (1988) 

BS, Fisk; MA, North Carolina Central 

Shannon G. Hanson (1995) 

BS, California (Berkeley); MPH, Yale 



Assistant Director of Financial Aid 
Admissions Counselor 
Admissions Counselor 
Admissions Counselor 
Admissions Counselor 
Admissions Counselor 
Assistant Scholarships Officer 



Director of Athletics 
Associate Athletic Director 
Associate Athletic Director 
Associate Athletic Director 
Associate Athletic Director 
Assistant Athletic Director 
Assistant Athletic Director 
Assistant Athletic Director 



Director of Career Seroices 

Associate Director of Career Services 
Director of Internships 



243 



Chaplain's Office 



Edgar D. Christman (1954) 

BA, JD, Wake Forest; MDiv, Southeastern Baptist 
Theo. Seminary; STM, Union Theo. Seminary 

David L. Fouche (1982) 
BA, Furman; MDiv, 
Southeastern Baptist Theo. Seminary 

Finance and Administration 



Chaplain 



Associate Chaplain and 
Baptist Campus Minister 



John P. Anderson (1984) 

BS, MS, PhD, Georgia Tech.; 
MBA, Alabama (Birmingham) 

Louis R. Morrell (1995) 

BS, Babson College; MBA, Massachusetts 



Vice President for Finance and Administration 
Vice President for Investments and Treasurer 



G Buck Bayliff (1988) 

BA, Elon; MBA, Wake Forest 

Irene A. Comito (1986) 
BS, Kent State 



Jay L. Dominick (1991) 

BS, UNC-Chapel Hill; MA, Georgetown; 
MBA, Wake Forest 

David O. Dyer (1973) 
BA, Wake Forest 

James L. Ferrell (1975) 

BA, UNC-Chapel Hill; MS, Virginia Commonwealth 

Thomas P. Gilsenan (1985) 
BS, California (Berkeley) 

W. Derald Hagen (1978) 

BS, Virginia Poly. Inst, and SU 

James W. Kausch (1986) 
BA, Wake Forest 

F. Thomas King (1991) 

THB, Piedmont College 



Assistant Vice President for Project Management 
Assistant Treasurer 
Director of Information Systems 



Frank E. Lord (1994) 

BA, North Carolina State; MBA, UNC-Charlotte 

William C. Sides Jr. (1994) 

BS, North Carolina State 

Graylyn International Conference Center 

William E. Wellman (1993) 
DDS, Ohio State 



Director of University Stores 

Director of Human Resources 

Controller and Assistant Treasurer 

Assistant Controller 

Purclmsing Coordinator 

Assistant Director, Real Estate Management 

Assistant Controller and Endozument 



Accounting Manager 
Director of Facilities Management 



General Manager 



244 



Diana L. Wellman (1993) Director of Marketing 

RDH, New Hampshire Tech. Institute 



Information Systems 



Jay L. Dominick (1991) Director of Information Systems 

BS, UNC-Chapel Hill; MA, Georgetown; 
MBA, Wake Forest 

O'Neal Robinson (1996) Assistant Director, Systems 

BS, Grambling State 

Anne L. Yandell (1981) Assistant Director, Administrative Computing 

BA, MA, UNC-Greensboro 

Charles L. Norris (1995) Technology Manager 

BA, MA, South Carolina 

Ronald W. Rimmer Jr. (1995) Network Manager 

BS, Appalachian State 

Jim Tirrell (1995) Computer Support Service Manager 

BS, Quinnipiac University (Connecticut) 

Institutional Research 



Ross A. Griffith (1966) Director of Institutional Research 

BS, Wake Forest; MEd, UNC-Greensboro and Academic Administration 

Yihong Gu (1995) Assistant Director of Institutional Research 

BS, Xian Jiaotong University; MS, East China 
Institute of Technology, MA, Wake Forest 

Margaret R. Perry (1947) Registrar 

BS, South Carolina 

Hallie S. Arrington (1977) Associate Registrar 

BA, MAEd, Wake Forest 

Judy G. Walker (1986) Associate Registrar 

BA, Wake Forest 

Investments and Treasurer 



Louis R. Morrell (1995) Vice President for Investments and Treasurer 

BS, Babson College; MBA, Massachusetts 

Irene A. Comito (1986) Assistant Treasurer 

BS, Kent State 

James L. Ferrell (1975) Director of Human Resources 

BA, UNC-Chapel Hill; MS, Virginia Commonwealth 



245 



Legal Department 



Leon H.Corbett Jr. (1968) 
BAJD, Wake Forest 

J. Reid Morgan (1980) 

BA, JD, Wake Forest 

Donna H. Hamilton (1988) 

AB, Drury; JD, Wake Forest 

Beverly C. Moore (1989) 

BA, Mount Holyoke; JD, Wake Forest 

Libraries 



Vice President and Counsel 

University Counsel 

Assistant University Counsel 

Assistant University Counsel 



Rhoda K. Charming (1989) 

BA, Brooklyn; MS in LS, Columbia; 
MBA, Boston College 

John Via (1977) 

BA, Virginia; MS in LS, 
UNC-Chapel Hill 

Thomas M. Steele (1985) 
BA, Oklahoma State; 
MLS, Oregon; JD, Texas 

Michael D. Sprinkle (1972) 

BA, MS in LS, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Public Affairs 



Director of the Z. Smith Reynolds Libranj 

Assistant Director of the Z. Smith Reynolds Library 

Director of Worrell Professional Center Libranj 



Executive Director of the Coy C. Carpenter Library, 
Bowman Gray School of Medicine 



Sandra Combs Boyette (1981) 

BA, UNC-Charlotte; MEd, Converse; 
MBA, Wake Forest 

T. Cleve Callison (1982) 

BA, Duke; MA, PhD, Wisconsin (Madison) 

Kevin P. Cox (1990) 

BA, East Texas State; MA, Wake Forest 

David W. Fyten (1991) 

BA, Minnesota; MA, MFA, Iowa 

Melody A. Graham (1987) 
BS, Appalachian State 

Kimberly S. Griffing (1996) 

BA, Wake Forest; MS, Virginia Commonwealth 

Catherine M. Home (1992) 

BED, North Carolina State 

Adele LaBrecque (1986) 
BA, Hunter College 



Vice President for Public Affairs 

WFDD Station Manager 

Director of Media Relations 

Assistant Vice President for Public Affairs 
and University Editor 

Director of Special Events 

Media Relations Officer 

Art Director 

Assistant Editor 



246 



Cherin C. Poovey (1987) 
BA, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Lee Runion (1991) 

BFA, Rochester Inst, of Tech. 

Cheryl V. Walker (1989) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Lloyd A. Whitehead (1995) 
BA, Central Florida 

Student Life 



Director of Publications and 
Associate University Editor 

University Photographer 

Assistant Director of Media Relations 

Assistant Editor 



Kenneth A. Zick (1975) 

BA, Albion; JD, Wayne State; MLS, Michigan 

Harold R. Holmes (1987) 

BS, Hampton; MBA, Fordham 

Mary T. Gerardy (1985) 

BA, Hiram; MEd, Kent State; MBA, Wake Forest 

E.Clayton Hipp Jr. (1991) 

BA, Wofford; MBA, JD, South Carolina 

Joanna M. Iwata (1995) 

BA, University of Southern California 

(Los Angeles); MA, University of the Pacific 

James R. Buckley (1996) 
BS, MEd, Clemson 

Edgar D. Christman (1956, 1961) 

BA, JD, Wake Forest; BD, Southeastern Baptist 
Theo. Seminary; STM, Union Theo. Seminary 

William C. Currin (1988) 
BA, Wake Forest; 
BD, Southeastern Baptist Theo. Seminary 

Jessica B. Pollard (1988) 

BS, Fisk; MA, North Carolina Central 

Barbee Myers Oakes (1989) 

BS, MA, Wake Forest; PhD, Tennessee 

Connie L. Carson (1986) 

BS, MEd, North Carolina State 

Michael Ford (1981) 
BA, Wake Forest; 
MDiv, Gordon-Conwell Theo. Seminary 

Natascha L. Romeo (1990) 
BS, South Carolina; 
MEd, UNC-Greensboro 



Vice President for Student Life 
and Instructional Resources 

Associate Vice President and 
Dean of Student Services 

Assistant Vice President for Student Life 



Judicial Adviser 
Director of the Benson University Center 



Associate Director of the Benson 
University Center 

University Chaplain 



Director of Career Services 

Associate Director of Career Services 

Director of Multicultural Affairs 

Director of Residence Life and Housing 

Director of Student Development 

Health Educator 



247 



M. Paige Wilbanks (1996) 
BA, Furman 

Cecil D.Price (1991) 

BS, MD, Wake Forest 

Sylvia T.Bell (1981) 

RNC, N.C. Baptist Hosp. School of Nursing 

Regina G. Lawson (1989) 
BS, UNC-Wilmington 

Marianne A. Schubert (1977) 
BA, Dayton; 
MA, PhD, Southern Illinois 

G. Dianne Mitchell (1983) 

BA, Salem, MAEd, Wake Forest; 
PhD, Duke 

Summer Session 



Assistant Director of Student Development/ 
Coordinator of Volunteer Services 

Director of the Student Health Service 



Associate Director for Administration, 
Student Health Service 

Chief of University Police 
Director of the University Counseling Center 

Director of the Learning Assistance Program 



Lula M. Leake (1964) 

BS, Louisiana State; 

MRE, Southern Baptist Theo. Seminary 

University Relations 



Dean of the Summer Session 



G. William Joyner Jr. (1969) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Robert T. Baker (1978) 

BA, MS, George Peabody (Vanderbilt) 

Julius H. Corpening (1969) 
BA, Wake Forest; BD, 
Southern Baptist Theo. Seminary 

Robert D. Mills (1972) 

BA, MBA, Wake Forest 

Kay Doenges Lord (1985) 
BA, Wake Forest 

James R. Bullock (1985) 

BA, MBA, Wake Forest 

Minta Aycock McNally (1978) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Claudia A. Stitt (1978) 

BS, East Tennessee State 

Meda Tilman Barnes (1993) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Cathy B. Chinlund (1986) 

BS, East Carolina 



Vice President for University Relations 

Assistant Vice President and 
Director of Development 

Assistant Vice President for 
University Relations 

Assistant Vice President for University Relations 

Assistant Vice President and 
Director, Alumni Activities 

Associate Director of Development 

Director, University Relations 

Director of Records and Support Services 

Alumni Activities Officer 

Manager of Support Services 



248 



Martha Shore Edwards (1993) 

BA, MA, UNC-Chapel Hill; MBA, Vanderbilt 



Robert L. Finch (1994) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Christia Hayes Fisher (1991) 

BA, UNC-Chapel Hill; MA, Wake Forest 

John W. Gillon (1990) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Kerry M. King (1989) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Katherine Lambert (1994) 

BA, Wake Forest; MM, Colorado 

Sheila Massey (1986) 

BA, Winston-Salem State 

Sonja Harvey Murray (1990) 
BA, MBA, Wake Forest 

Joanne F. O'Brien (1989) 
BS, Wake Forest 

Allen H. Patterson Jr. (1987) 
BS, Wake Forest 

Ruth DeLapp Sartin (1989) 
BA, Wake Forest 

W. Tim Snyder (1989) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Robert Spirrks (1989) 

BA, Furman; MRE, New Orleans 
Theo. Seminary; MA, Iowa 

Wake Forest University Theater 

Harold C. Tedford (1965) 

BA, Ouachita; MA, Arkansas; 
PhD, Louisiana State 



Director of Foundation Relations 

Assistant Director of the College Fund 

Manager of Development Research 

Director ofBabcock Alumni Development 

Director of University Relations Communications 

Director of Alumni Programs 

Director of Gift Stewardship 

Director of College Fund 

Associate Director of Development 
for Corporate Relations 

Director of Planned Giving 

Development Officer 

Director of Reunion Programs 

Director of Development for Divinity School 

Director of the University Theater 



Donald H. Wolfe (1968) 

BS, MS, Southern Illinois; PhD, Cornell 

Mary R. Wayne (1980) 

BFA, Pennsylvania State; MFA, Ohio State 

Jonathan H. Christman (1983) 
AB, Franklin and Marshall; 
MFA, Massachusetts 

John E. R. Friedenberg (1988) 

BA, Wake Forest; MFA, Carnegie-Mellon 



Associate Director of Theater 

Tlieater Designer 

Technical Director/Lighting Designer 

Assistant Director of Theater 



249 



Patricia W. Toole (1990) 

AB, Smith; MA, Wake Forest 



Director of Theater Speech 



Other Administrative Offices 

Gloria C. Agard (1987) 
BA, Maryland 

James P. Barefield (1963) 

BA, MA, Rice; PhD, Johns Hopkins 

Mary Jane Berman (1986) 
BA, Harpur; MA, 
PhD, SUNY (Binghamton) 

C. Kevin Bowen (1994) 

BS, Tennessee Tech; MM, Louisville 

Julie Cole (1988) 

BS, MA, Appalachian 

Thomas M. Elmore (1962) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, George Peabody; 
PhD, Ohio State 

Victor Faccinto (1978) 

BA, MA, California State (Sacramento) 

Richard P. Faude (1986) 

BA, Wake Forest; MFA, Montana State 

Mark E. Good (1995) 
BS, Wake Forest 

Brian Gorelick (1984) 

BA, Yale; MM, Wisconsin (Madison); 
DMA, Illinois 

Peter D. Kairoff (1988) 

BA, California (San Diego); 
MM, DMA, Southern California 

Thomas E. Mullen (1957) 

BA, Rollins; MA, PhD, Emory 

Judith K. Shannon (1980) 

BA, Wake Forest and 

Martine Sherrill (1985) 

BFA, MLF, UNC-Greensboro 

Ross Smith (1984) 

BA, Wake Forest 

George William Trautwein (1983) 

BMus, Oberlin; MMus, Cleveland 
Inst, of Music; MusD, Indiana 



Director of Equal Employment Opportunity/ 
Assistant Director of Human Resources 

Coordinator of the Venice Program 
(1995-96) 

Director/Curator of the 
Museum of Anthropology 



Assistant Director of Instrumental Ensembles 
and Director of Bands 

Director of Research and Sponsored Programs 



Director of Counseling Program 
(1995-96) 

Director of the Art Gallery 

Head of Information Technology Center 
(Z. Smith Reynolds Library) 

Internal Auditor 



Director of Choral Ensembles 



Coordinator of the Venice Program 
(1996-97) 

Coordinator of the London Program 



Assistant to the Director of International Studies 
Adviser for Study Abroad/International Students 

Curator of Slides and Prints 



Debate Coach 



Director of Instrumental Ensembles 
and the Sccrest Artists Series 



250 



The Undergraduate Faculties 



Date following name indicates year of appointment. 

F. Glenn Acree (1994) Visiting Assistant Professor of Mathematics 

AB, Samford; MS, Georgia State; PhD, Emory 



Helen W. Akinc (1987) 

BA, UNC-Chapel Hill; 
MBA, SUNY (Binghamton) 

Umit Akinc (1982) 

BS, Middle East Tech. University 
(Ankara); MBA, Florida State; 
PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Gary R. Albrecht (1987, 1990) 

BA, Tulane; MA, PhD, Indiana 

Jane W. Albrecht (1987) 

BA, Wright State; MA, PhD, Indiana 

Brian Allen (1977) 

BA, East Anglia; MA, PhD, London 

Edward E. Allen (1991) 

BS, Brigham Young; MA, PhD, 
California (San Diego) 

David J. Anderson (1992) 

BA, Denison; MS, Michigan; 
PhD, Pennsylvania 

Paul R. Anderson (1990) 

BS, Wisconsin (Madison); MA, PhD, 
California (Santa Barbara) 

Sharon Andrews (1994) 

BA, UNC-Chapel Hill 

John L. Andronica (1969) 

BA, Holy Cross; MA, Boston College; 
PhD, Johns Hopkins 

Maya Angelou (1982) 

LirtD, Smith, Lawrence, Columbia College 
(Chicago), Atlanta, Wheaton; LHD, Mills, Wake 
Forest, Occidental, Arkansas, Claremont, Kean 

Andrea Atkin (1993) 

BA, Pomona; MA, PhD, Chicago 

R. Scott Baker (1994) 

BA, The Evergreen State College; 
MA, Tufts; PhD, Columbia 

Sarah E. Barbour (1985) 

BA, Marwille; MA, Paris; PhD, Cornell 



Instructor in Business 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

Davis Professor of Business 

(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

(Leave, Spring 1996) 



Adjunct Associate Professor of Economics 

Associate Professor of Romance Languages 

(Spanish) 

Lecturer in Art History (London) 
(Department of Art, Part-time) 

Assistant Professor of Mathematics 

Assistant Professor of Biology 

Assistant Professor of Physics 

Lecturer in Theater 
(Part-time) 

Professor of Classical Languages 
Reynolds Professor of American Studies 

Visiting Assistant Professor of English 
Assistant Professor of Education 



Associate Professor of Romance Languages 

(French) 



251 



James P. Barefield (1963) 

BA, MA, Rice; PhD, Johns Hopkins 

Bemad ine Barnes (1989) 

BA, Illinois (Urbana-Champaign); 
MA, Pittsburgh; PhD, Virginia 

Phillip G. Batten (1991) 

BA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill; MA, Yale 
Divinity School; MA, Wake Forest 

John V. Baxley (1968) 

BS, MS, Georgia Tech; PhD, Wisconsin 

H. Kenneth Bechtel (1981) 

BA, MA, North Dakota; PhD, Southern 
Illinois (Carbondale) 

Robert C. Beck (1959) 
BA, PhD, Illinois 

S. Douglas Beets (1987) 
BS, Tennessee; 
MAcc, PhD, Virginia Poly. Inst. & SU 

Donald B. Bergey (1978) 
BS, MA, Wake Forest 

Mary Jane Berman (1986) 
BA, Harpur; 
MA, PhD, SUNY (Binghamton) 

Michael J. Berry (1985) 

BS, Jacksonville State; MA, South- 
eastern Louisiana; PhD, Texas A&M 

Deborah L. Best (1972, 1978) 
BA, MA, Wake Forest; 
PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Zanna Beswick (1987) 

BA, Hons, Bristol (England) 

Lisa L. Blanton (1995) 
BA, Wake Forest 



Wake Forest Professor of History 
Assistant Professor of Art 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Psychology 

(Part-time) 

Professor of Mathematics 

Associate Professor of Sociology 

Professor of Psychology 

Associate Professor of Accounting 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

Instructor in Health and Exercise Science 
(Part-time) 

Director/Curator of the Museum of Anthropology 
and Associate Professor of Anthropology 

Associate Professor of Health and Exercise Science 
Professor of Psychology 



Lecturer in Theater (London) 
(Department of Theater, Part-time) 

Instructor and Director of Dance 
(Fall 1995) 



Terry D. Blumenthal (1987) 

BS, Alberta (Edmonton); MS, PhD, Florida 

Keith D. Bonin (1992) 

BS, Loyola; PhD, Maryland 

Susan Harden Borwick (1982) 

BM, BME, Baylor; PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

C. Kevin Bovven (1994) 

BS, Tennessee Tech; MM, Louisville 
PhD, Florida State 



Associate Professor of Psychology 

Associate Professor of Physics 

Professor of Music 

Assistant Director of Instrumental Ensembles 



252 



Kemper Faculty Fellow and 

Associate Professor of Business 

(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

Associate Professor of Religion 



Assista}it Professor of Romance Languages 

(French) 

Associate Professor of English 

Assistant Professor of Military Science 

Visiting Assistant Professor 
of Health and Exercise Science 

Professor of Economics 
Professor of Biology 
Professor ofBiologxj 
Professor of Politics 



Assistant Professor of 
Health and Exercise Science 



Assistant Professor of Psychology 



Helen M. Bowers (1994) 

BS, LaSalle; PhD, South Carolina 

Stephen B. Boyd (1985) 

BA, Tennessee; MDiv, ThD, Harvard 
Divinity School 

Debra S. Boyd (1989) 

BA, Iowa; MA, Rutgers; PhD, Ohio State 

Anne Boyle (1986) 

BA, Wilkes College; MA, PhD, Rochester 

James C. Brand (1995) 

BS, Roanoke College 

Robert W. Brooks (1995) 

BS, Idaho; MS, Wisconsin; PhD, Washington State 

David G. Brown (1990) 

AB, Denison; PhD, Princeton 

Carole L. Browne (1980) 

BS, Hartford; PhD, Syracuse 

Robert A. Browne (1980) 

BS, MS, Dayton; PhD, Syracuse 

David B. Broyles (1966) 

BA, Chicago; BA, Florida; MA, PhD, 
California (Los Angeles) 

Peter H. Brubaker (1994) 

BS, E. Stroudsburg University; MA, 
Wake Forest; PhD, Temple 

Christy M. Buchanan (1992) 

BA, Seattle Pacific; PhD, Michigan 

Jennifer J. Burg (1993) Visiting Assistant Professor of Computer Science 

BA, Elizabethtown College; MA (English), 
MA (French), Florida; PhD, Central Florida 



Neal E. Busch (1994) 

BA, Drake; PhD, Iowa State 

Daniel A. Cartas (1987) 

BS, Tecnologico de Monterrey (Mexico); 
MS, Georgia Tech; PhD, Texas (Austin) 

Eric D. Carlson (1995) 

BS, Michigan State; MA, PhD, Harvard 

Richard D. Carmichael (1971) 

BS, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Duke 

Christa G. Carollo (1985) 

BA, UNC-Greensboro; MA, Duke 



Visiting Assistant Professor of Chemistry 
Associate Professor of Computer Science 

Assistant Professor of Physics 

Professor of Mathematics 

Lecturer in German 
(Part-time) 



253 



Simone M. Caron (1991) 

BA, Bridgewater State; MA, Northeastern; 
PhD, Clark 

John A. Carter Jr. (1961) 

BA, Virginia; MA, PhD, Princeton 

Stewart Carter (1982) 

BME, Kansas; MS, Illinois; PhD, Stanford 

Justin Catanoso (1993) 

BA, Pennsylvania State; MA, Wake Forest 

Dorothy J. Cattle (1989) 

BA, Washington; MA, PhD, New Mexico 

Sandra Chadwick (1994) 

BA, BS, Texas (Austin); MA, Columbia; 
PhD, The Fielding Institute 

Maria A. Chiari (1981) 

Arts degree, PhD, Universita degli 
Studi di Venezia (Padova e Trieste); 
Diploma, Scuola di Archivistica, Palio- 
grafia e Diplomatica dellArchivio di 
Stato di Venezia 



Jonathan H. Christman (1983) 

AB, Franklin and Marshall; MFA, Massachusetts 



Assistant Professor of History 

Professor of English 

Associate Professor of Music 

Visiting Lecturer in Journalism 
(Department of English; Part-time) 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Anthropology 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Psychology 
(Part-time, Fall 1995) 

Assistant Lecturer in Art History (Venice) 
(Department of Art; Part-time) 



Lecturer in Theater 
(Part-time) 



Dennis Cole (1994) 

BA, Liverpool (England); 

MAcc, PhD, Virginia Poly. Inst, and SU 

John E. Collins (1970) 

BS, MS, Tennessee; MDiv, Southeastern Baptist 
Theo. Seminary; MA, PhD, Princeton 

William E. Conner (1988) 

BA, Notre Dame; MS, PhD, Cornell 

Jule M. Connolly (1985) 

BA, UNC-Chapel Hill; MEd, South Carolina 

Laurie S. Cosgriff (1996) 

BA, California (Santa Cruz); 
PhD, Chapel Hill 

Nancy J. Cotton (1977) 

BA, Texas; MA, Wisconsin; PhD, Columbia 



Allin F. Cottrell (l c 

BA, Oxford (Merton College); PhD, Edinburgh 

Monroe J. Cowan (1994) 

BS, Maryland; PhD, Duke 



Visiting Assistant Professor of Business 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

Professor of Religion 



Professor of Biology 

Instructor in Mathematics 
(Part-time) 

Visiting Assistant Professor of 

Classical Languages 

(Spring 1996) 

Professor of English 

Associate Professor of Economics 
(Leave, Fall 1995) 

Adjunct Professor of Physics 



254 



Patricia M. Cunningham (1978) 

BA, Rhode Island; MS, Florida State; 
EdS, Indiana State; PhD, Georgia 

James F. Curran (1988) 

BAAS, Delaware; MA, PhD, Rice 

George B. Cvijanovich (1989) 
PhD, Bern (Switzerland) 

Dale Dagenbach (1990) 

BA, New College; MA, PhD, Michigan State 

Mary M. Dalton (1986) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, UNC -Greensboro 

Steve W. Davis (1991) 

BA, MA, Wake Forest 

Mary K. DeShazer (1982, 1987) 
BA, Western Kentucky; 
MA, Louisville; PhD, Oregon 

Arun P. Dewasthali (1975) 

BS, Bombay; MS, PhD, Delaware 



Professor of Education 

Associate Professor of Biology 

Adjunct Professor of Physics 

Associate Professor of Psychology 

Instructor in Communication 



Adjunct Instructor in Psychology 
(Part-time) 

Professor of English 
and Women's Studies 



Constance L. Dickey (1991) 

BA, Portland State; MA, Washington 
(Seattle); PhD, California (Berkeley) 

Ronald V. Dimock Jr. (1970) 

BA, New Hampshire; MS, Florida State; 
PhD, California (Santa Barbara) 

Patricia Dixon (1986) 

BM, North Carolina School of the Arts; 
MM, UNC-Greensboro 

James H. Dodding (1979) 

Diploma, Rose Bruford College of Speech and 
Drama (London); Cert., Birmingham University; 
Cert., Westhill Training College (Birmingham); 
Diploma, Theater on the Balustrade (Prague) 

Jonathan E. Duchac (1993) 

BBA, MAc, Wisconsin (Madison); 
PhD, Georgia 



Associate Professor of Business 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

(French) 



Professor ofBiologi/ 



Part-time Instructor hi Music 



Professor of Theater 



Carol Ann Duffy (1995) 

BA, Liverpool (England) 

Robert H. Dufort (1961) 
BA, PhD, Duke 

John S. Dunkelberg (1983) 
BS, Clemson; 
MBA, PhD, South Carolina 



Assistant Professor of Accounting 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

Visiting Poet-in-Residence 
(Department of English; Spring 1996) 

Professor of Psychology 

Benson-Pruitt Professor of Business 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 



255 



Yomi Durotoye (1994) 

BS, University of Ibadan; 
MA, Georgia State; PhD, Duke 



Visiting Associate Professor of Politics 
Professor of Sociology/ 



John R. Earle (1963) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Eddie V. Easley (1984) Professor of Business 

BS, Virginia; (W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

MS, PhD, Iowa State 



Julie B. Edelson (1994) 

BA, Sarah Lawrence; PhD, Cornell 

C. Drew Edwards (1980) 

BA, Furman; MA, Wake Forest; 
PhD, Florida State 

Bashir El-Beshti (1990) 

BA, Tripoli University (Libya); MA, 
Colorado State; PhD, California (Berkeley) 

Leo Ellison Jr. (1957) 

BS, MS, Northwestern State 



Assistant Professor of English 
(Part-time; Spring 1996) 

Adjunct Associate Professor of Psychology 

(Part-time) 



Assistant Professor of English 



Thomas M. Elmore (1962) 
BA, Wake Forest; 
MA, George Peabody; PhD, Ohio State 



Associate Professor of Health and Exercise Science 
Professor of Education 



Jonathon S. Epstein (1995) 

BA, MA, UNC-Greensboro 

Gerald W. Esch (1965) 

BS, Colorado College; MS, PhD, Oklahoma 

Paul D. Escort (1988) 

BA, Harvard; MA, PhD, Duke 

Jennifer L. Etnier (1995) 

BS, Tennessee; MA, UNC-Chapel 
Hill; PhD, Arizona State 



Instructor in Sociology 

Wake Forest Professor of Biology 

Reynolds Professor of History 

Assistant Professor of Health and Exercise Science 



Andrew V. Ettin (1977) 

BA, Rutgers; MA, PhD, Washington (St. Louis) 

Herman E. Eure (1974) 

BS, Maryland State; PhD, Wake Forest 

David K. Evans (1966) 

BS, Tulane; PhD, California (Berkeley) 

Robert H. Evans (1983) 

BA, Ohio Wesleyan; MS, New Hampshire; 
PhD, Colorado ' 



Professor of English 

Professor of Biology 
(Leave, Fall 1995) 

Professor of Anthropology 
Associate Professor of Education 



Stephen Ewing (1971) 
BS, Howard Payne; 
MBA, Baylor; PhD, Texas Tech. 



Professor of Business 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 



256 



David L. Faber (1984) 

AA, Elgin; BFA, Northern Illinois; MFA, Southern Illinois 

Philippe R. Falkenberg (1969) 

BA, Queens (Ontario); PhD, Duke 



Associate Professor of Art 
Professor of Psychology 



Susan L. Faust (1992) 

BA, MA, Arkansas (Fayetteville) 

Ramiro Fernandez (1987) 

BA, Miami; MA, Middlebury College 
in Madrid; PhD, Temple 

Eric K. Findeis (1996) 

BA, Chicago; PhD, Massachusetts 

David Finn (1988, 1995) 

BS, Cornell; MFA, Massachusetts College of Art 



Adjunct Instructor in Communication 
(Part-time) 

Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 
(Spanish; Leave, Spring 1996) 



James C. Fishbein (1988) 

BA, Johns Hopkins; PhD, Brandeis 

P. Michelle Fitzsimmons (1995) 

BS, SUNY (Buffalo); PhD, Wake Forest 

Jack D. Fleer (1964) 

BA, Oklahoma Baptist; MS, Florida State; 
PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Steven Folmar (1992) 

BA, MA, PhD, Case Western Reserve 

Johnnie Foye (1995) 



Visiting Assistant Professor of Biology 

Assistant Visiting Professor of Art 

Associate Professor of Chemistry 

Visiting Assistant Professor of Chemistry 

Professor of Politics 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Anthropology 
Instructor in Health and Exercise Science 



BA, Virginia Union; MSS, US Sports Academy 

Denise Franklin (1994) 

BA, Wichita State University 

Donald E. Frey (1972) 

BA, Wesleyan; MDiv, Yale; PhD, Princeton 

John E. R. Friedenberg (1988) 

BA, Wake Forest; MFA, Carnegie-Mellon 

Mary L. Friedman (1987) 

BA, Wellesley; MA, PhD, Columbia 

Yaorong Ge (1995) 

BS, Zhejiang University (China); 
MS, PhD, Vanderbilt 

J. Whitfield Gibbons (1971) 

BS, MA, Alabama; PhD, Michigan State 

Anne W. Gilfoil (1995) Visiting Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

BA, Rhodes; MA, PhD, Tulane (Spanish) 



Adjunct Instructor in Communication 

Professor of Economics 

Lecturer in Theater 
(Part-time) 

Associate Professor of Romance Languages 

(Spanish) 

Assistant Professor of Computer Science 
Adjunct Professor of Biology 



257 



Samuel T. Gladding (1990) 

BA, MAEd, Wake Forest; MA, Yale; 
PhD, UNC-Greensboro 

Kathleen M. Glenn (1974) 
BA, MA, PhD, Stanford 

Thomas S. Goho (1977) 

BS, MBA, Pennsylvania 
State; PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Louis R. Goldstein (1979) 

BM, Oberlin; MFA, California 
Inst, of the Arts; DMA, Eastman 

Brian L. Gorelick (1984) 

BA, Yale; MM, Wisconsin (Madison); 
DMA, Illinois 

Patricia A. Graybeal (1995) 

BBA, Radford; MAcc, PhD, 
Virginia Poly. Inst. & SU 

David W. Hall (1994) 

BA, Rice; PhD, Duke 

R. Craig Hamilton (1994) 

BA, Lawrence; MS, PhD, Indiana 

William S. Hamilton (1983) 
BA, MA, PhD, Yale 

Claire Holton Hammond (1978) 

BA, Mary Washington; PhD, Virginia 



J. Daniel Hammond (1978) 

BA, Wake Forest; PhD, Virginia 

James S. Hans (1982) 

BA, MA, Southern Illinois; PhD, Washington 

Hanna M. Hardgrave (1985) 

BA, Brown; MA, PhD, Chicago 

Walter Harrelson (1994) 

AB, UNC-Chapel Hill; 

BD, ThD, Union Theo. Seminary 



Professor of Education 



Wake Forest Professor of Romance Languages 

(Spanish) 

Associate Professor of Business 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

Professor of Music 



Director of Choral Ensembles 
(Department of Music) 

Assistant Professor of Accounting 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

Visiting Assistant Professor of Biology 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Theater 

Professor of Russian 

Associate Professor of Economics 

Professor of Economics 

Professor of English 



Lecturer in Philosophy 
(Part-time) 

University Professor 



KatyJ. Harriger (1985) 

BA, Edinboro State; MA, PhD, Connecticut 

Catherine T. Harris (1980) 

BA, Lenoir-Rhyne; MA, Duke: PhD, Georgia 

J. Kline Harrison (1990) 

BS, Virginia; PhD, Maryland 



Zachary T. Smith Associate Professor of Politics 

Professor of Sociology 

Associate Professor of Business 
(W. Calloway School of Business & Accountancy) 



258 



Negley Boyd Harte (1978) 

BS, London School of Economics 

Elmer K. Hayashi (1973) 

BA, California (Davis); 

MS, San Diego State; PhD, Illinois 

Michael David Hazen (1974) 
BA, Seattle Pacific; 
MA, Wake Forest; PhD, Kansas 

Terry C. Hazen (1988) 

BS, MS, Michigan State; PhD, Wake Forest 

Thomas K. Hearnjr. (1983) 

BA, Birmingham-Southern; BD, Southern 
Baptist Theo. Seminary; PhD, Vanderbilt 

Robert A. Hedin (1980) 

BA, Luther; MFA, Alaska 

Roger A. Hegstrom (1969) 

BA, St. Olaf; AM, PhD, Harvard 

Robert M. Helm (1940) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Duke 

Paul F. Hemler (1995) 

BS, Villanova; MS, Lehigh; 
PhD, North Carolina State 

J. Edwin Hendricks (1961) 

BA, Furman; MA, PhD, Virginia 

Marcus B. Hester (1963) 

BA, Wake Forest; PhD, Vanderbilt 

Deborah M. Hill (1995) 
BS, MA, Colorado 

David A. Hills (1960) 

BA, Kansas; MA, PhD, Iowa 

Willie L. Hinze (1975) 

BS, MA, Sam Houston State; PhD, Texas A&M 



Lecturer in History (London) 
(Part-time) 

Professor of Mathematics and 
Computer Science 

Professor of Communication 



Adjunct Professor of Biology 
Professor of Philosophy 

Visiting Poet-in-Residence 
(Department of English; Fall 1995) 

Wake Forest Professor of Chemistry 

Worrell Professor of Philosophy 

Assistant Professor of Computer Science 

Professor of History 

Professor of Philosophy 

Visiting Instructor in Education 

Professor of Psychology 

Wake Forest Professor of Chemistry 



E.Clayton Hipp Jr. (1991) 
BA, Wofford; 
MBA, JD, South Carolina 

Mix Hitchcock (1989) 

BFA, UNC-Greensboro; MA, New York 

Kenneth G. Hoglund (1990) 

BA, Wheaton; MA, PhD, Duke 

J. Martin Hollis (1995) 
BA, Oxford; FBA 



Visiting Lecturer in Business 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

Visiting Instructor in Art 
(Part-time) 

Associate Professor of Religion 



A.C. Reid Visiting Professor of Philosophy 

(Fall 1995) 



259 



Marsha Holmes (1995) 

BA, Mars Hill; MA, PhD, UNC-Greensboro 

George M. Holzwarth (1983) 

BA, Wesleyan; MS, PhD, Harvard 

Natalie A. W. Holzwarth (1983) 

BS, Massachusetts Inst, of Tech.; PhD, Chicago 



Visiting Assistant Professor of English 
Professor of Physics 
Professor of Physics 



Katherine S. Hoppe (1993) 

BA, Duke; MBA, Texas Christian 

FredL. Hortonjr. (1970) 

BA, UNC-Chapel Hill; 

BD, Union Theo. Seminary; PhD, Duke 

William L. Hottinger (1970) 

BS, Slippery Rock; MS, PhD, Illinois 

Fredric T. Howard (1966) 

BA, MA, Vanderbilt; PhD, Duke 

Linda S. Howe (1993) 

BA, MA, PhD, Wisconsin 



Pamela Howland (1989) 

BM, MM, Wisconsin Conservatory of Music; 
DMA, Eastman 

Paul F. Huck (1989) 

BS, Marquette; MBA, Washington; 
MA, PhD, Northwestern 

Michael L. Hughes (1984) 

BA, Claremont McKenna; MA, PhD, 
California (Berkeley) 

Michael J. Hyde (1994) 

BS, Pittsburgh; MA, PhD, Purdue 

Simeon O. Ilesanmi (1993) 

BA, University of Ife (Nigeria); 
PhD, Southern Methodist 

Alexandra Iruela (1995) 
BS, MBA, Havana; 
MEd, UNC-Greensboro 



Instructor in Business 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

Albritton Professor of the Bible 
(Department of Religion) 

Professor of Health and Exercise Science 

Professor of Mathematics 

Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 
(Spanish; Salamanca, Spring 1996) 

Part-time Assistant Professor of Music 
Assistant Professor of Economics 



Associate Professor of History 
(Leave, 1995-96) 

University Professor of 
Communication Ethics 

Assistant Professor of Religion 



Instructor in Romance Languages 
(Spanish; Part-time, Fall 1995) 



David K. Isbister (1994) 

BS, Michigan State; MBA, Harvard 

Joanne Izbicki (1995) 

BA, Stonehill College; MA, Cornell 

Charles F. Jackels (1977) 

BChem, Minnesota; PhD, Washington 



Visiting Exec. & Lecturer in Business 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

Instructor in History 



Professor of Chemistry 
(Leave, 1995-96) 



260 



Susan C. jackels (1977) 

BA, Carleton; PhD, Washington 

MordecaiJ.Jaffe(1980) 

BS, Ciiy College (New York); PhD, Cornell 

Mark Jensen (1993) 

BA, Houston Baptist; MDiv, PhD, 
Southern Baptist Theo. Seminary 

Patricia Adams Johansson (1969) 

BA, Winston-Salem State; MA, Wake Forest 



Professor ofChemistn/ 
(Leave, 1995-96) 

Babcock Professor of Botany 
(Department of Biology) 

Adjunct Associate Professor of Religion 



David J. John (1982) 

BS, Emory and Henry; MS, PhD, Emory 

Dana J. Johnson (1992) 

BBA, MA, DBA, Kent State 



Lecturer in English 

Associate Professor of Mathematics and 
Computer Science 

Professor of Business 
(W. Calloway School of Business & Accountancy) 



W. Dillon Johnston (1973) 

BA, Vanderbilt; MA, Columbia; PhD, Virginia 

Bradley T. Jones (1989) 

BS, Wake Forest; PhD, Florida 

Jane Joseph (1993) 

BS, Coastal Carolina College; 
PhD, South Carolina 

Paul E.Juras (1991) 

BBA, MBA, Pace; PhD, Syracuse 

Peter D. Kairoff (1988) 

BA, California (San Diego); 
MM, DMA, Southern California 

Jay R. Kaplan (1981) 

BA, Swarthmore; MA, PhD, Northwestern 

Darra Keeton (1992) 

BFA, Miami (Ohio); MFA, Queens College 



Professor of English 

Associate Professor ofChemistn/ 

Visiting Associate Professor of Chemistnj 



Assistant Professor of Accounting 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

Associate Professor of Music 



Professor of Anthropologi/ and 
Adjunct Professor of Psychology 

Visiting Assistant Professor of Art 



^Horace O. Kelly Jr. (1987) 
BA, MA, Baylor 

Judy K. Kem (1987) 

BA, Western Kentucky; MA, Louisville; 
PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Charles H. Kennedy (1985) 

BA, Eckerd; AM, MPP, PhD, Duke 

Ralph C. Kennedy HI (1976) 

BA, PhD, California (Berkeley) 

William C. Kerr (1970) 

BS, Wooster; PhD, Cornell 



Lecturer in Business 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

Fall 1995 

Associate Professor of Romance Languages 

(French) 

Professor of Politics 

Associate Professor of Philosophy 

Professor of Physics 
(Leave," 1995-96) 



*Died on February 6, 1996 



261 



Charles A. Kimball (1996) 

BS, Oklahoma State; MDiv, Southern 
Baptist Theo. Seminary; ThD, Harvard 

Angela Glisan King (1995) 

BA, Pennsylvania; PhD, Cornell 

S. Bruce King (1995) 

BS, West Virginia; PhD, Cornell 

Wayne King (1993) 

BA, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Ellen E. Kirkman (1975) 

BA, Wooster; MA, MS, PhD, Michigan State 

Wade A. Kit (1994) 

BA, MA, Saskatchewan (Canada) 

Scott W.Klein (1991) 

AB, Harvard; BA, MA, Cambridge; 
MA, MPhil., PhD, Yale 

Kimberly L. Klose (1996) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Robert Knott (1975) 

BA, Stanford; MA, Illinois; PhD, Pennsylvania 

Dilip K. Kondepudi (1987) 

BS, Madras (India); MS, Indian Institute 
of Technology (Bombay); PhD, Texas 

Kathleen A. Kron (1991) 

BS, MS, Michigan State; PhD, Florida 

Philip F. Kuberski (1989) 

BA, MA, PhD, California (Irvine) 

Raymond E. Kuhn (1968) 

BS, Carson-Newman; PhD, Tennessee 

James Kuzmanovich (1972) 

BS, Rose Polytechnic; PhD, Wisconsin 

Abdessadek Lachgar (1991) 

BS, MS, PhD, University of Nantes (France) 

Joshua M. Landis (1994) 

BA, Swarthmore; MA, Harvard 

Hugo C. Lane (1973) 

Licenciate of the Biological Sciences, 
Doctorate of the Biological Sciences, Geneva 

Page H. Laughlin (1987) 

BA, Virginia; MFA, Rhode Island School of Design 



Professor of Religion 

Visiting Assistant Professor of Chemistry 

Assistant Professor of Chemistry 

Lecturer in journalism 
(Department of English) 

Professor of Ma {hematics 

Visiting Instructor in History 

Assistant Professor of English 

Instructor and interim Director of Dance 
(Spring 1996) 

Professor of Art 
Associate Professor of Chemistry 

Assistant Professor of Biology 
(Leave, Fall 1995) 

Associate Professor of English 

Wake Forest Professor of Biology 

Professor of Mathematics 
(Leave, Fall 1995) 

Assistant Professor of Chemistry 
(Leave, Spring 1996) 

Instructor in History 
Professor of Biology 

Associate Professor of Art 



262 



Michael S. Lawlor (1986) 

BA, Texas (Austin); PhD, Iowa State 

Jeffrey K. Lawson (1994) 

BS, Georgia Tech; MS, Colorado; 
PhD, North Carolina State 



Associate Professor of Economics 
Visiting Assistant Professor of Mathematics 



Mark R. Leary (1985) 

BA, West Virginia Wesleyan; MA, PhD, Florida 

Wei-chin Lee (1987) 

BA, National Taiwan University; 
MA, PhD, Oregon 

Win-chiat Lee (1983) 

BA, Cornell; PhD, Princeton 

Cheryl B. Leggon (1993) 

BA, Columbia; MA, PhD, Chicago 

Jeffrey D. Lerner (1994) 

BA, MA, PhD, Wisconsin (Madison) 

David B. Levy (1976) 

BM, MA, Eastman; PhD, Rochester 

Kathryn Levy (1988) 
BM, Eastman 

Charles M. Lewis (1968) 

BA, Wake Forest; ThM, Harvard; PhD, Vanderbilt 

John H. Litcher (1973) 

BS, Winona State; MA, PhD, Minnesota 

John T. Llewellyn (1990) 

AB, UNC-Chapel Hill; MA, Arkansas; 
PhD, Texas 



Professor of Psychology 

Associate Professor of Politics 
(Leave, Spring 1996) 

Associate Professor of Philosophy 

Associate Professor of Sociology 

Visiting Assistant Professor of History 

Associate Professor of Music 

Part-time Instructor in Music 

Professor of Philosophy 

Professor of Education 

Assistant Professor of Communication 
(Leave, Spring 1996) 



Melissa A. Lockhart (1995) 

BA, MA, PhD, Arizona State 

Dan S. Locklair (1982) 

BM, Mars Hill; SMM, Union 
Theo. Seminary; DMA, Eastman 

Charles F. Longino Jr. (1991) 

BA, Mississippi; MA, Colorado; 
PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Sabine Loucif (1992) 

Licence de Lettres, Maitrise de Letrres Modernes, 
Sorbonne Nouvelle; MA, Carthage College 

Allan D. Louden (1985) 

BA, Montana State; MA, Montana; 
PhD, Southern California 



Visiting Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

(Spanish) 

Associate Professor of Music 
and Composer-in-Residence 

Wake Forest Professor of Sociology/ 



Instructor in Romance Languages 
(French) 



Associate Professor of Communication 



263 



Robert W. Lovett (1962, 1968) 

BA, Oglethorpe; MAT, PhD, Emory 

Barry G.Maine (1981) 

BA, Virginia; MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Allen Mandelbaum (1989) 

BA, Yeshiva; MA, PhD, Columbia 

Richard A. Manderville (1995) 

BS, PhD, Queens's University (Canada) 

Milorad R. Margitic' (1978) 

MA, Leiden (Netherlands); PhD, Wayne State 

Jeffrey A. Marquez (1993) 

BA, Metropolitan State College of Denver 

Dale R. Martin (1982) 

BS, MS, Illinois State; (W. 

DBA, Kentucky 

James A. Martin Jr. (1983) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, Duke; PhD, Columbia 

Carolyn L. Mathews (1995) 

BS, Radford; MS, Virginia Tech. Inst. & SU 

George E. Matthews Jr. (1979) 
BS, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

J. Gaylord May (1961) 

BS, Wofford; MA, PhD, Virginia 

Jo WhittenMay(1972) 

BS, Virginia; MA, PhD, UNC-Greensboro 

*VV. Graham May (1961) 

BS, Wofford; MA, PhD, Virginia 

Leah P. McCoy (1990) 

BS, West Virginia Inst, of Tech.; MA, 
Maryland; EdD, Virginia Poly. Inst. & SU 

Gordon E. McCray (1994) 

BS, Wake Forest; (W. 

MS, Stetson; PhD, Florida State 

Patricia A. McEachern (1995) 

BA, Central Florida; MA, Florida State 
PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Thomas W. McGohey (1990) 
BA, MA, Michigan State; 
MFA, UNC-Greensboro 



Professor of English 

Associate Professor of English 

W.R. Kenan jr. Professor of Humanities 

Assistant Professor of Chemistry 

Professor of Romance Languages 
(French; Dijon, Fall 1995) 

Assistant Professor of Military Science 

Professor of Accounting 
Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

University Professor 

Visiting Instructor in English 

Professor of Physics 

Professor of Mathematics 



Adjunct Professor of Communication 
(Part-time) 

Professor of Mathematics 
Fall 1995 

Associate Professor of Education 



Assistant Professor of Business 
Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

Visiting Assistant Professor 

of Romance Languages 

(French) 

Instructor in English 



'Died on March 1,1996 



264 



Jill Jordan McMillan (1983) 

BA, Baylor; MA, Arkansas; PhD, Texas 

Dolly A. McPherson (1974) 

BA, Southern; MA, Boston University; 
PhD, Iowa 

Gordon A. Melson (1991) 

BS, PhD, Sheffield (England) 

Stephen P. Messier (1981) 

BS, MS, Rhode Island; PhD, Temple 

William K. Meyers (1988) 

BA, Washington; MA, PhD, Chicago 

Soledad Miguel-Prendes (1993) 
Licenciatura, Oviedo; 
MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Joseph O. Milner (1969) 

BA, Davidson; MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

G. Dianne Mitchell (1983) 

BA, Salem; MAEd, Wake Forest; PhD, Duke 

Ananda Mitra (1994) 

B Tech, Indian Inst, of Technology (Kharagpur); 
MA, Wake Forest; PhD, Illinois (Urbana) 

John C. Moorhouse (1969) 

BA, Wabash; PhD, Northwestern 

Patrick E. Moran (1989) 

BA, MA, Stanford; MA, National 
Taiwan University; PhD, Pennsylvania 

Mardene G. Morykwas (1992) 
AB, MA, Michigan 

Donald J. Moser (1995) 

BS, U.S. Military Academy; MBA, Long Island 

William M. Moss (1971) 

BA, Davidson; PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Gloria K. Muday (1991) 

BS, Virginia Poly. Inst, and SU; PhD, Purdue 

Thomas E. Mullen (1957) 

BA, Rollins; MA, PhD, Emory 

Margaret Mulvey (1986) 

BA, MS, Connecticut; PhD, Rutgers 



Associate Professor of Communication 

Professor of English 

Professor of Chemistry 

Professor of Health and Exercise Science 
(Venice, Fall 1995; Leave, Spring 1996) 

Associate Professor of History 

Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

(Spanish) 



Professor of Education 

Visiting Assistant Professor of Education 
(Part-time) 

Assistant Professor of Communication 



Professor of Economics 

Associate Professor of Chinese 
(East Asian Languages and Literatures) 

Adjunct Instructor in Communication 
(Part-time) 

Professor of Miliary Science 

Professor of English 

Assistant Professor of Biology 

Professor of History 
(London, Fall 1995; Leave, Spring 1996) 

Adjunct Associate Professor of Biology 



Stephen Murphy (1987) 

BA, Canisius; MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 



Associate Professor of Romance Languages 
(French; Leave, Fall 1995) 



265 



Rebecca Myers (1981) 
BS, MA, Ball State 



Josefine C. Nauckhoff (1994) 

BA, Stanford; PhD, Pennsylvania 

Emily G. Neese (1991, 1996) 
BS, Wake Forest 

Nancy L. Nelson (1994) 

BA, Minnesota; MA, PhD, New Mexico 



Instructor in Dance and Director of 

Dance Programs (Department of Theater) 

(Leave, 1995-96) 

Assistant Professor of Philosophy 



Visiting Lecturer in Accounting 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

Visiting Assistant Professor of Anthropology 



Candelas M. Newton (1978) 

BA, Salamanca (Spain); MA, PhD, Pittsburgh 



Professor of Romance Languages 
(Spanish) 



Kathryn Rigerod Nickles (1995) 
BSE, MA, Arkansas; 
PhD, Minnesota 

Linda N. Nielsen (1974) 

BA, MS, EdD, Tennessee 

Jerry W. Noble (1995) 

BA, UNC-Chapel Hill; MS, PhD, Ohio 

Ronald E. Noftle (1967) 

BS, New Hampshire; PhD, Washington 

Tomoaki Nomi (1996) 

BA, Sophia University; MA, UNC-Chapel Hill 

James L. Norris m (1989) 

BS, MS (Science), MS (Statistics), 
North Carolina State; PhD, Florida State 



Visiting Assistant Professor of Business 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 



Professor of Education 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Psychology 

(Part-time) 

Professor of Chemistry 

Instructor in Politics 
(Spring 1996; Part-time) 

Assistant Professor of Mathematics 



Phillip Novak (1994) 

BA, Colorado; MA, Virginia 

Barbee Myers Oakes (1989) 

BS, MA, Wake Forest; PhD, Tennessee 

Thomas Ogburn (1995) 

BA, Davidson; MBA, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Juan Orbe (1987) 

Universidad Nacional de la Plata 
(Argentina); MA, PhD, Michigan State 

Dee Oseroff-Varnell (1992) 

BA, MA, PhD, Washington 

Gillian Rose Overing (1979) 
BA, Lancaster (England); 
MA, PhD, SUNY (Buffalo) 

H. Lee Overton (1995) 

BA, Houston; MA, Washington 
(Seattle); MA, PhD, Princeton 



Visiting Instructor in English 

Assistant Professor of Health and Exercise Science 

Visiting Lecturer in Business 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

(Spanish) 

Adjunct Instructor in Communication 
(Part-time) 



Professor of English 



Visiting Assistant Professor of Philosophy 



266 



Karen L. Oxendine (1986) 
BS, Wayne State; MEd, 
UNC-Greensboro 

Anthony S. Parent Jr. (1989) 

BA, Loyola; MA, PhD, California (Los An : 

Perry L. Patterson (1986) 

BA, Indiana; MA, PhD, Northwestern 

Darwin R. Payne (1984) 

BS, MFA, Southern Illinois 

Willie Pearson Jr. (1980) 

BA, Wiley; MA, Atlanta; 

PhD, Southern Illinois (Carbondale) 

Mary L. B. Pendergraft (1988) 
BA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Philip J. Perricone (1967) 

BS, MA, Florida; PhD, Kentucky 

Elizabeth A. Petrino (1991) 

BA, SUNY (Buffalo); MA, PhD, Cornell 

Mark V. Pezzo (1995) 

BS, SUNY (Fredonia); MS, Ohio 

David P. Phillips (1994) 

BA, Cornell; M.Arch., Washington; 
MA, Pennsylvania 

TerisioPignatti(1971) 
PhD, Padua 

Robert J. Plemmons (1990) 

BS, Wake Forest; PhD, Auburn 

Alton B. Pollard m (1988) 

BA, Fisk; MDiv Harvard; PhD, Duke 

James T. Powell (1988) 

BA, Emory; M Phil, MA, PhD, Yale 

Jeryl J. Prescott (1994) 

BS, Clemson; MA, North Carolina A&T 

Martin R. Province (1982) 

BA, Wake Forest; MM, Colorado 

Jerry Pubantz (1992) 

BSFS, Georgetown (School of 
Foreign Service); MA, PhD, Duke 

Jenny Puckett (1995) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, Middlebury 



geles) 



Adjunct Instructor in Communication 
(Part-time) 

Associate Professor of History 



Associate Professor of Economics 
and Lecturer in Russian 

Adjunct Professor of Theater 
(Part-time) 

Professor of Sociology 

Associate Professor of Classical Languages 

Professor of Sociology 

Assistant Professor of English 

Visiting Instructor in Psychology 

Lecturer in Japanese 
(East Asian Languages and Literatures) 

Reynolds Professor of Art History (Venice) 
(Department of Art, Part-time) 

Reynolds Professor of Mathematics 
and Computer Science 

Associate Professor of Religion 
(Leave, Fall 1995) 

Assistant Professor of Classical Languages 

Visiting Instructor in English 

Assistant Director of Instrumental Ensembles 
(Department of Music; Leave, 1994-96) 

Visiting Professor of Politics 
(Sprng 1996; Part-time) 

Instructor in Romance Languages 
(Spanish) 



267 



Sara A. Quandt (1994) 

BA, Lawrence; MA, PhD, Michigan State 

Teresa Radomski (1977) 

BM, Eastman; MM, Colorado 

Mary Lynn B. Redmond (1989) 
BA, EdD, UNC-Greensboro; 
MEd, UNC-Chapel Hill 

W. Jack Rejeski Jr. (1978) 

BS, Norwich; MA, PhD, Connecticut 

Paul M. Ribisl (1973) 

BS, Pittsburgh; MA, Kent State; PhD, Illinois 

Steven K. Rice (1995) 

BS, Yale; PhD, Duke 

Stephen H. Richardson (1963) 

BA, California; MS, PhD, Southern California 

Charles L. Richman (1968) 

BA, Virginia; MA, Yeshiva; PhD, Cincinnati 

Patrick L. Rimron (1995) 
BS, Wake Forest 



Leonard P. Rotierge (1974) 

BA, New Hampshire; MA, Atlanta; EdD, Maine 

Stephen B. Robinson (1991) 

BA, PhD, California (Santa Cruz) 

Catherine Rodgers (1993) 

BA, Rollins; MA, Middlebury 

Eva Marie Rodtwitt (1966) 

Cand Philol, Oslo (Norway) 

Randall G. Rogan (1990) 

BA, St. John Fisher College; 
MS, PhD, Michigan State 

Susan Z. Rupp (1993) 

BA, Grinnell; AM, Harvard; MA, PhD, Stanford 

Nelson Sanchez (1995) 

BA, Amherst; MA, Texas 

Peter Santago (1989) 

BS, Virginia Poly. Inst, and SU; 
PhD, North Carolina State 

Jennifer Sault (1984) 

BA, Wake Forest; MFA, UNC-Greensboro 



Adjunct Associate Professor of Anthropologi/ 
Associate Professor of Music 



Associate Professor of Education 
(Leave, Fall 1995) 



Professor of Health and Exercise Science; 
Adjunct Professor of Psychology 

Professor of Health and Exercise Science 

Visiting Assistant Professor of Biology 

Adjunct Professor of Biology 

Professor of Psychology 

Assistant Professor of Military Science 

Professor of Education 

Assistant Professor of Mathematics 



Instructor in Romance Languages 
(Spanish) 

Lecturer in Romance Languages 
(French) 

Assistant Professor of Communication 



Assistant Professor of History 

Instructor in Romance Languages 
(Spanish) 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Physics 



Instructor in Romance Languages 
(Italian, Part-time) 



268 



Marianne A. Schubert (1977) 
BA, Dayton; 
MA, PhD, Southern Illinois 

Katie Scott (1985) 

BA Hons., London 

N. Dane Scott (1995) 

BS, California (Riverside) 

MA, Graduate Theological Union (Berkeley) 

Richard D. Sears (1964) 

BA, Clark; MA, PhD, Indiana 

Timothy F. Sellner (1970) 

BA, Michigan; MA, Wayne State; 
PhD, Michigan 

Catherine E. Seta (1987) 

BA, MA, PhD, UNC-Greensboro 

Mark S. Sexton (1992) 

BA, MA, Wake Forest; 
PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Dudley Shapere (1984) 

BA, MA, PhD, Harvard 

Kurt C. Shaw (1987) 

AB, Missouri; MA, PhD, Kansas 

Howard W. Shields (1958) 

BS, UNC-Chapel Hill; MS, 
Pennsylvania State; PhD, Duke 

Robert N. Shorter (1958) 

BA, Union; MA, PhD, Duke 

Gale Sigal (1987) 

BA, City College (New York); MA, Fordham; 
PhD, CUNY (Graduate Center) 

Wayne L. Silver (1985) 

BA, Pennsylvania; PhD, Florida State 

Michael L. Sinclair (1968) 

BA, Wake Forest; AM, PhD, Stanford 

William W. Sloan Jr. (1994) 

BA, Davidson; MA, Wake Forest; 
PhD, Miami (Ohio) 

Michael H. Slotkin (1995) 

BA, Rollins; PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 



Earl Smith (1996) 

BA, SUNY (Stony Brook); 
MA, PhD, Connecticut 



Adjunct Assistant Professor of Psychology 

and Lecturer in Education 

(Part-time) 

Assistant Lecturer in Art History (London) 
(Department of Art; Part-time) 

Instructor in Philosophy 
(Part-time) 

Professor of Politics 

Professor of German 

Associate Professor of Psychology 

Visiting Assistant Professor of English 

Reynolds Professor of Philosophy and 
History of Science 

Associate Professor of German and Russian 
Professor of Physics 

Professor of English 
Associate Professor of English 

Associate Professor of Biology 

Professor of History 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Psychology 

(Part-time) 



Visiting Assistant Professor of Economics 

(Fall 1995) 

Rubin Professor of American Ethnic Studies 



269 



J. Howell Smith (1965) 

BA, Baylor; MA, Tulane; PhD, Wisconsin 

Kathleen B.Smith (1981) 

BA, Baldwin-Wallace; MA, PhD, Purdue 



Teresa R. Smith (1993) 
BS, MA, Florida 

Margaret Supplee Smith (1979) 

BS, Missouri; MA, Case Western Reserve; 
PhD, Brown 

Thomas W. Smith (1996) 

BA, William and Mary; MA, Virginia 

Cecilia H, Solano (1977) 

BA, Harvard; MA, PhD, Johns Hopkins 

Rosanne Spolski (1993) 

BA, Bryn Mawr; PhD, Brandeis 

Kathrin F. Stanger (1995) 

BS, MS, PhD, Universitat Tubingen (Germany) 

Loraine Moses Stewart (1991) 

BA, MA, North Carolina Central; 
EdD, UNC-Greensboro 

Eric R. Stone (1994) 

BA, Delaware; MA, PhD, Michigan 

David H. Stroupe (1990) 

BS, Wake Forest; MA, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Anna-Vera Sullam (1972) 
BA, Padua 

Robert L. Swofford (1993) 

BS, Furman; PhD, California (Berkeley) 

Brian Tague (1995) 

ScB, AB, Brown; PhD, California (San Diego) 

Charles H. Talbert (1963) 

BA, Howard; BD, Southern Baptist Theo. 
Seminary; PhD, Vanderbilt; DL, Samford 

Stefanie H. Tanis (1986) 

Ian M. Taplin (1985) 

The College of Architecture, Oxford (England); 
BA, York (England); MPhil, Leicester 
(England); PhD, Brown 



Professor ofHiston/ 

Professor of Politics 

Visiting Instructor in Sociology/ 

Professor of Art 

Instructor in Politics 
(Spring 1996; Part-time) 

Associate Professor of Psychology 

Assistant Professor ofBiologi/ 

Visiting Assistant Professor of Biology 

Assistant Professor of Education 
(Leave, Spring 1996) 

Assistant Professor of Psychology 

Instructor in Health and Exercise Science 

Instructor in Romance Languages 
(Italian; Part-time, Venice) 

Professor of Chemistn/ 

Assistant Professor of Biology 

Wake Forest Professor of Religion 



Lecturer in German 
(Part-time) 

Associate Professor of Sociologi/ 
(London, Spring 1996) 



270 



Thomas C. Taylor (1971) 

BS, MA, UNC-Chapel Hill; 
PhD, Louisiana State 

Harold C. Tedford (1965) 

BA, Ouachita; MA, Arkansas; 
PhD, Louisiana State 

Stanton K. Tefft (1964) 

BA, Michigan State; MS, Wisconsin; 
PhD, Minnesota 

Claudia Newel Thomas (1986) 

BA, College of Notre Dame of Maryland; 
MA, Virginia; PhD, Brandeis 

Rebecca Thomas (1993) 

BA, MA, California (Los Angeles); PhD, Ohio State 

Stan J. Thomas (1983) 

BS, Davidson; PhD, Vanderbilt 



Hylton Professor of Accountancy 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

Professor of Theater 



Professor of Anthropology 



Associate Professor of English 



Assistant Professor of German 



Associate Professor of Computer Science 
(Leave, 1995-96) 



C. Michael Thompson (1991) 
BA, JD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Harry B.Titus Jr. (1981) 

BA, Wisconsin (Milwaukee); MFA, 
PhD, Princeton 

Patricia W. Toole (1990) 

AB, Smith; MA, Wake Forest 

Todd C. Torgersen (1989) 

BS, MS, Syracuse; PhD, Delaware 

Ralph B. Tower (1980) 

BA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill; 
MBA, Cornell 

George W. Trautwein (1983) 

BMus, Oberlin; MMus, Cleveland 
Institute; MusD, Indiana 

Robert W.Ulery Jr. (1971) 
BA, MA, PhD, Yale 

Kathy A. Underwood (1994) 
BS, Michigan State 

Robert L.Utley Jr. (1978) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Duke 

Antonio Carlo Vitti (1986) 
BA, MA, Wayne State; 
PhD, Michigan 

Marcellus E. Waddill (1962) 

BA, Hampden-Sydney; MA, PhD, Pittsburgh 



Assistant Professor of Business 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

Associate Professor of Art 



Lecturer in Theater 
(Part-time) 

Dana Faculty Fellow and Associate 
Professor of Computer Science 

Professor of Accounting 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

Director of Instrumental Ensembles 

(Department of Music) 

(Tokai, Fall 1995) 

Professor of Classical Languages 
(Venice, Spring 1996) 

Assistant Professor of Military Science 

Associate Professor of Humanities 

Dana Faculty Fellozo and Associate 

Professor of Romance Languages 

(Italian) 

Professor of Mathematics 



271 



Kenneth M. Walker (1992) 

BS, Chaminade University of Honolulu; 
MA, Central Michigan 

Michele S. Ware (1994) 

BA, New Orleans; MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Sarah L. Watts (1987) 

BA, Oklahoma College of Liberal Arts; 
MA, PhD, Oklahoma 

Mary R. Wayne-Thomas (1980) 

BFA, Pennsylvania State; MFA, Ohio State 

David S. Weaver (1977) 

BA, MA, Arizona; PhD, New Mexico 

Peter D. Weigl (1968) 

BA, Williams; PhD, Duke 

Kari Weil (1985) 

BA, Cornell; MA, PhD, Princeton 

David P. Weinstein (1989) 

BA, Colorado College; MA, Connecticut; 
PhD, Johns Hopkins 

Mark E. Welker (1987) 

BS, UNC-Chapel Hill; PhD, Florida State 

Byron R. Wells (1981) 

BA, MA, Georgia; PhD, Columbia 

Helga A. Welsh (1993) 

MA, PhD, University of Munich 

G. Page West III (1995) 

BA, Hamilton; MBA, Dartmouth; 
PhD, Colorado (Boulder) 



Adjunct Professor of Military Science 

Visiting Assistant Professor of English 
Associate Professor ofHiston/ 



Lecturer in Theater 
(Part-time) 

Professor ofAnth rortology 



Professor of Biology 
(Leave, Fall 1995) 

Associate Professor of Romance Languages 

(French) 

Associate Professor of Politics 



Professor of Chemistry 

Professor of Romance Languages 
(French) 

Assistant Professor of Politics 

Assistant Professor of Business 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 



Larry E. West (1969) 

BA, Berea; PhD, Vanderbilt 

Eric J. Wetzel (1995) 

BS, Millersville University; PhD, Wake Forest 

Robert M. Whaples (1991) 

BA, Maryland; PhD, Pennsylvania 

M. Stanley Whitley (1990) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Cornell 

UlrikeWiethaus(1991) 

Colloquium at Kirchliche Hochschule 
(Berlin, Germany); MA, PhD, Temple 

Jack E. Wilkerson Jr. (1989) 
BS, Bob Jones University; 
PhD, Texas 



Professor of German 

Visiting Assistant Professor ofBiologx/ 

Assistant Professor of Economics 

Associate Professor of Romance Languages 

(Spanish) 

Associate Professor of Humanities 



Associate Professor of Accounting 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 



272 



Alan J. Williams (1974) 

BA, Stanford; PhD, Yale 

George P. Williams Jr. (1958) 

BS, Richmond; MS, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

John E. Williams (1959) 

BA, Richmond; MA, PhD, Iowa 

Richard T. Williams (1985) 

BS, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Princeton 

David C. Wilson (1984, 1987) 

BS, Wake Forest; MAT, Emory 

Edwin G. Wilson (1946, 1951) 

BA, Wake Forest; AM, PhD, Harvard 

Donald H. Wolfe (1968) 

BS, MS, Southern Dlinois; PhD, Cornell 

Frank B. Wood (1971) 

BA, MA, Wake Forest; MDiv, South- 
eastern Baptist Theo. Seminary; PhD, Duke 

John H. Wood (1985) 

BS, Ohio; MA, Michigan State; PhD, Purdue 

Ralph C.Wood Jr. (1971) 

BA, MA, East Texas State; MA, PhD, Chicago 

J. Ned WoodaU (1969) 

BA, MA, Texas; PhD, Southern Methodist 

Andrew J. Yates (1993) 

BS, Washington; MS, PhD, Stanford 

Timothy J. Zehnder (1995) 

BS, Eastern Michigan; MS, PhD, Wake Forest 

Richard L. Zuber (1962) 

BS, Appalachian; MA, Emory; PhD, Duke 

Margaret D. Zulick (1991) 

BM, Westminster Choir College; 
MA, Earlham School of Religion; 
MTS, Garrett-Evangelical Theo. Seminary 
PhD, Northwestern 



Professor ofHiston/ 

Professor of Physics 

Wake Forest Professor of Psychology 

Reynolds Professor of Physics 

Instructor in Mathematics 
(Part-time) 

Professor of English 

Professor of Theater 

Adjunct Associate Professor of Psychology 

(Part-time) 

Reynolds Professor of Economics 

Easley Professor of Religion 

Professor of Anthropology 

Assistant Professor of Economics 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
Health and Exercise Science 

Professor of History 
Assistant Professor of Communication 



273 



Emeriti 



Dates following names indicate period of service. 



Charles M. Allen (1941-1989) 

BS, MS, Wake Forest; PhD, Duke 

Ralph D. Amen (1962-1993) 

BA, MA, Northern Colorado; 
MBS, PhD, Colorado 

John William Angell (1955-1990) 

BA, Wake Forest; STM, Andover Newton; 
ThM, PhD, Southern Baptist Theo. Seminary 

Richard C. Barnett (1961-1994) 

BA, Wake Forest; MEd, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Harold M. Barrow (1948-1977) 

BA, Westminster; MA, Missouri; PED, Indiana 

Merrill G. Berthrong (1964-1989) 

BA, Tufts; MA, Fletcher; PhD, Pennsylvania 

Russell H. Brantley Jr. (1953-1987) 
BA, Wake Forest 



Germaine Bree (1973-1985) 

Licence, EES, Agregation, Paris; LittD, Smith, 
Mount Holyoke, Alleghany, Duke, Oberlin, 
Dickinson, Rutgers, Wake Forest, Brown, 
Wisconsin (Milwaukee), New York, Massachusetts, 
Kalamazoo, Washington (St. Louis), University of the 
South, Boston, Wisconsin (Madison); LHD, Wilson, 
Colby, Michigan,Davis and Elkins; LLD, Middlebury 



Professor Emeritus of Biology 
Professor Emeritus of Biology 

Easley Professor Emeritus of Religion 

Professor Emeritus of History 

Professor Emeritus of Physical Education 

Director of Libraries Emeritus 

Director Emeritus of Communication 

Kenan Professor Emerita of Humanities 



Robert W. Brehme (1959-1995) 

BS, Roanoke; MS, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

George McLeod Bryan (1956-1987) 

BA, MA, Wake Forest; BD, PhD, Yale 

Shasta M. Bryant (1966-1987) 

BA, MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Julian C. Burroughs Jr. (1958-1994) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Michigan 

Ruth F. Campbell (1962-1974) 
BA, UNC-Greensboro; 
MA, UNC-Chapel Hill; PhD, Duke 



Professor Emeritus of Physics 

Professor Emeritus of Religion 

Professor Emeritus of Romance Languages 

Professor Emeritus of Speech Communication 

Professor Emerita of Spanish 



274 



Robert L. Carlson (1969-1987) 

BS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; 
MBA, PhD, Stanford 

Dorothy Casey (1949-1988) 
BS, UNC-Greensboro; 
MA, UNC-Chapel Hill 

David W. Catron (1963-1994) 

BA, Furman; PhD, George Peabody 

Leon P. Cook Jr. (1957-1993) 

BS, Virginia Poly. Inst. & Su; 
MS, Tennessee 

Cyclone Covey (1968-1988) 
BA, PhD, Stanford 



Professor Emeritus of Management 



Associate Professor Emerita of Health 
and Sport Science 



Professor Emeritus of Psychology 



Associate Professor Emeritus of Accounting 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 



Professor Emeritus of History 



Marjorie Crisp (1947-1977) 

BS, Appalachian; MA, George Peabody 

Hugh William Divine (1954-1979) 

BS, Georgia; MA, Louisiana State; 
JD, Emory; LLM, SJD, Michigan 

Robert Allen Dyer (1956-1983) 
BA, Louisiana State; 
ThM, PhD, Southern Baptist Theo. Seminary 

Walter S. Flory (1963-1980) 

BA, Bridgewater; MA, PhD, Virginia; 
ScD, Bridgewater 

Doyle R. Fosso (1964-1995) 

AB, PhD, Harvard; MA, Michigan 

Ralph S. Fraser (1962-1988) 

BA, Boston University; MA, Syracuse; 
PhD, Illinois 

Caroline Sandlin Fullerton (1969-1990) 
BA, Rollins; MFA, Texas Christian 

Ivey C. Gentry (1949-1989) 

BS, Wake Forest; BS, New York; 
MA, PhD, Duke 

Christopher Giles (1951-1988) 

BS, Florida Southern; MA, George Peabody 



Associate Professor Emerita 
of Physical Education 

Professor Emeritus of haw 



Professor Emeritus of Religion 



Babcock Professor Emeritus of Biology 



Professor Emeritus of English 



Professor Emeritus of German 



Lecturer Emerita in SCTA 
(Theater Arts) 

Professor Emeritus of Mathematics 



Associate Professor Emeritus of Music 



275 



Balkrishna G. Gokhale (1960-1990) 
BA, MA, PhD, Bombay 

Thomas F. Gossett (1967-1987) 

BA, MA, Southern Methodist; PhD, Minnesota 

Paul M. Gross Jr. (1959-1987) 
BS, Duke; PhD, Brown 

William H. Gulley (1966-1987) 

BA, MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Emmett Willard Hamrick (1952-1988) 
BA, UNC-Chapel Hill; PhD, Duke 

Phillip J. Hamrick Jr. (1956-1995) 
BS, Morris Harvey; PhD, Duke 

Carl V. Harris (1956-1989) 

BA, Wake Forest; BD, SFM, Yale; PhD, Duke 

Lucille S. Harris (1957-1991) 
BA, BM, Meredith 

Delmer P. Hylton (1949-1991) 
BS, MBA, Indiana 

Alonzo W. Kenion (1956-1983) 
BA, MA, PhD, Duke 

Harry L. King Jr. (1960-1981) 
BA, Richmond; MA, PhD, 
UNC-Chapel Hill 

Robert E. Lee (1946-1977) 
BS, LLD, Wake Forest; 
MA, Columbia; LLM, SJD, Duke 

Harry B. Miller (1947-1983) 

BS, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Carlton T. Mitchell (1961-1991) 

BA, Wake Forest; BD, Yale; STM, 
Union Theo. Seminary; PhD, New York 

Carl C.Moses (1964-1991) 

AB, William and Mary; MA, PhD, 
UNC-Chapel Hill 

John W. Nowell (1945-1987) 

BS, Wake Forest; PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 



Professor Emeritus of History 
and Asian Studies 

Professor Emeritus of English 



Professor Emeritus of Chemistry 



Professor Emeritus of Sociology/ 



Albritton Professor Emeritus of Religion 



Professor Emeritus of Chemistry 



Professor Emeritus of Classical Languages 



Instructor Emerita in Music 



Professor Emeritus of Accounting 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 

Professor Emeritus of English 



Professor Emeritus of Romance Languages 



Professor Emeritus of Law and 
Dean Emeritus of the School of Law 



Professor Emeritus of Chemistry 



Professor Emeritus of Religion 



Professor Emeritus of Politics 



Professor Emeritus of Chemistry 



276 



James C. O'Flaherty (1947-1984) 

BA, Georgetown; MA, Kentucky; PhD, Chicago 

A. Thomas Olive (1961-1988) 
BS, Wake Forest; MS, PhD, 
North Carolina State 



Professor Emeritus of German 



Associate Professor Emeritus of Biology 



F. Jeanne Owen (1956-1991) 
BS, UNC-Greensboro; 
MCS, Indiana; JD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

John E. Parker Jr. (1950-1987) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Syracuse 

Clarence H. Patrick (1946-1978) 

BA, Wake Forest; BD, Andover Newton; 
PhD, Duke 

Percival Perry (1939, 1947-1987) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, Rutgers; PhD, Duke 

Elizabeth Phillips (1957-1989) 

BA, UNC-Greensboro; MA, Iowa; 
PhD, Pennsylvania 

Lee Harris Potter (1965-1989) 

BA, MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Herman J. Preseren (1953-1983) 

BS, California State (Pennsylvania); 
MA, Columbia; PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Gregory D. Pritchard (1968-1994) 

BA, Oklahoma Baptist; BD, Southern 
Baptist Theo. Seminary; PhD, Columbia 

Beulah L. Raynor (1946-1979) 

BA, East Carolina; MA, Wake Forest 

Mark H. Reece (1956-1988) 
BS, Wake Forest 

J. Don Reeves (1967-1994) 

BA, Mercer; BD, ThM, Southern Baptist 
Theo. Seminary; EdD, Columbia 

C. H. Richards Jr. (1952-1985) 

BA, Texas Christian; MA, PhD, Duke 

Mary Frances Robinson (1952-1989) 
BA, Wilson; MA, PhD, Syracuse 



Professor Emerita of Business Law 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 



Professor Emeritus of Education 
and Romance Languages 

Professor Emeritus of Sociology 



Professor Emeritus of History 



Professor Emerita of English 



Professor Emeritus of English 



Professor Emeritus of Education 



Professor Emeritus of Philosophy 



Associate Professor Emerita of English 



Dean of Students Emeritus 



Professor Emeritus of Education 



Professor Emeritus of Politics 



Professor Emerita of Romance Languages 



277 



Paul S. Robinson (1952-1977) 

BA, Westminster; BM, Curtis; 
MSM, DSM, Union Seminary 

Wilmer D. Sanders (1954-1957, 1964-1992) 
BA, Muhlenberg; MA, PhD, Indiana 

John W. Sawyer (1956-1988) 

BA, MA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Missouri 

James Ralph Scales (1967-1983; 1984-1988) 

BA, Oklahoma Baptist; MA, PhD, Oklahoma; 
LittD, Northern Michigan, Belmont Abbey; 
LLD, Alderson-Broaddus; LLD, Duke 

John D. Scarlett (1955-1994; 1979-1989) 
BA, Catawba; LLB, Harvard 

Ben M. Seelbinder (1959-1988) 
BA, Mississippi Delta State; 
MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Bynum G. Shaw (1965-1993) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Richard L. Shoemaker (1950-1982) 
BA, Colgate; MA, Syracuse; 
PhD, Virginia 

David L. Smiley (1950-1991) 

BA, MA, Baylor; PhD, Wisconsin 

Blanche C. Speer (1972-1984) 

BA, Howard Payne; MA, PhD, Colorado 

Henry Smith Stroupe (1937-1984) 

BS, MA, Wake Forest; PhD, Duke 

Anne S. Tillett (1956-1986) 

BA, Carson-Newman; MA, Vanderbilt; 
PhD, Northwestern 

J. Van Wagstaff (1964-1992) 

BA, Randolph-Macon; MBA, Rutgers; 
PhD, Virginia 

Raymond L. Wyatt (1956-1992) 

BS, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

W. Buck Yearns Jr. (1945-1988) 

BA, Duke; MA, Georgia; PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 



Professor Emeritus of Music 



Professor Emeritus of German 



Professor Emeritus of Mathematics 
and Computer Science 

President Emeritus and 

Worrell Professor Emeritus of 

Anglo-American Studies 



Professor Emeritus of Law and 
Dean Emeritus of the School of Law 

Professor Emeritus of Mathematics 



Professor Emeritus of journalism 
(Department of English) 

Professor Emeritus of Romance Languages 



Professor Emeritus of History 
Associate Professor Emerita of Linguistics 

Professor Emeritus of History 
Professor Emerita of Romance Languages 

Professor Emeritus of Economics 

Professor Emeritus of Biology 
Professor Emeritus of History 



278 



The Committees of the Faculty 



The committees listed represent those in effect during the academic year 1995-1996. Each committee 
selects its own chair except where the chair is designated. 

Executive Committees 



The Committee on Academic Affairs 



Non-voting. Dean of student services, associate deans of the College, and one undergradu- 
ate student. Voting. Dean of the College; 1998 Gillian R. Overing, Kathy B. Smith; 1997 
Stephen P. Messier, Richard D. Sears; 1996 Robert A. Browne, John C. Moorhouse; and 
one undergraduate student. 

The Committee on Admissions 



Non-voting. Director of admissions and financial aid, two members from the administra- 
tive staff of the Office of the Dean of the College, and one undergraduate student. Voting. 
Dean of the College; 1998 Fredric T. Howard, Jill J. McMillan; 1997 Rebecca Thomas, 
Michael L. Sinclair; 1996 Patricia M. Cunningham David K. Evans; and one undergradu- 
ate student. 

The Committee on Scholarships and Student Aid 



Non-voting. One undergraduate student. Voting. Dean of the College, director of admis- 
sions and financial aid, two members from the administrative staff of the Office of the 
Dean of the College; 1998 Jane W. Albrecht, Larry E. West; 1997 Cheryl B. Leggon, Kari 
Weil; 1996 Bernadine Barnes, Philippe Falkenberg; and one undergraduate student. 



The Committee on Curriculum 



Voting. Provost, dean of the College, dean of the School of Business and Accountancy, 
registrar, and the chairs of each department of the College as follows: Division I. Classical 
Languages, English, German and Russian, Romance Languages. Division II. Biology, 
Chemistry, Health and Exercise Science, Mathematics and Computer Science, Physics. 
Division III. Education, History, Military Science, Philosophy, Religion. Division IV. 
Anthropology, Communication, Economics, Politics, Psychology, Sociology . Division V. 
Art, Music, Theater. (The Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy is 
included in Division IV.) 



279 




280 



Advison/ Committees 



The Committee on Academic Planning 



Non-voting. Provost, dean of the School of Business and Accountancy, and one 
undergraduate student. Voting. Dean of the College, director of the Z. Smith 
Reynolds Library, one undergraduate student, and 1999 Leah P. McCoy, Willie 
Pearson Jr.; 1998 Natalie A.W. Holzwarth, Kurt Shaw; 1997 Terry D. Blumenthal, 
Ralph C. Wood Jr.; 1996 Herman E. Eure, David L. Faber. 

The Committee on Athletics 



Non-voting. Director of athletics. Voting. Vice president for investments and 
treasurer, dean of the College, faculty representative to the Atlantic Coast Confer- 
ence; and 2000 Donald E. Frey, Robert J. Plemmons; 1999 Charles L. Richman, 
Margaret S. Smith; 1998 Anne Boyle, Alan J. Williams; 1997 Robert C. Beck, Susan 
H. Borwick; 1996 Eddie V. Easley, Sarah L. Watts. 

The Committee on Institutional Planning 



Non-voting. Provost, vice president for investments and treasurer, vice president 
for finance and administration, and one undergraduate student. Voting. Dean of 
the College, dean of the Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy, 
one undergraduate student; and 1999 S. Douglas Beets, John R. Earle, Robert H. 
Evans; 1998 Phillip J. Hamrick Jr., Judy K. Kern; 1997 Ralph C. Kennedy, David P. 
Weinstein; 1996 Harold C. Tedford, Mark E. Welker. 

The Committee on Nominations 



Voting. 1998 John S. Dunkelberg, Jack D. Fleer, Ronald E. Noftle; 1997 Harry B. 
Titus Jr., Marcellus E. Waddill; 1996 Robert Knott, Teresa Radomski. 

The Committee on Library Planning 



Non-voting. Provost, dean of the Graduate School, one faculty representative from 
the Committee on Academic Planning, and one undergraduate student. Voting. 
One faculty representative from each academic department of the College, dean 
of the College, one faculty representative from the Wayne Calloway School of 
Business and Accountancy, the director of the Z. Smith Reynolds Library, and one 
undergraduate student. 



281 



The Committee on Information Technology 



Non-voting. Provost, dean of the Graduate School, vice president for student life 
and instructional resources, vice president for finance and administration. Voting. 
Dean of the College, dean of the Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accoun- 
tancy, the director of the Z. Smith Reynolds Library, the director of Information 
Systems; and 1998 Umit Akinc, Wayne L. Silver; 1997 Bernadine Barnes, Catherine 
T. Harris; 1996 William K. Meyers, Robert W. Ulery Jr. 

The Committee on First-Year Seminars 



Non-voting. Dean of freshmen. Voting. Dean of the College, and 1998 Anne Boyle, 
Sarah L. Watts; 1997 Willie L. Hinze, Thomas C. Taylor; 1996 John V. Baxley, Ian 
M. Taplin. 



Special Committees 



The Committee on Publications 



Voting. Dean of the College, vice president for investments and treasurer, univer- 
sity editor, three faculty advisers of Old Gold and Black, The Student, and the Howler; 
and 1998 Philip F. Kuberski; 1997 James S. Hans; 1996 W. Dillon Johnston. 

The Committee for Teacher Education 



Voting. Dean of the College, dean of the Graduate School, chair of the Department 
of Education; and 1998 Carole L. Browne, Kenneth G. Hoglund; 1997 Susan C. 
Jackels, Mary L.B. Pendergraft; 1996 Sarah Barbour, Allin Cottrell. 

The Committee on Honors 



Non-voting. One student from the College. Voting. Dean of the College, the 
coordinator of the Honors Program, one student from the College, and 1999 
Ronald V. Dimock Jr.; 1998 Charles H. Kennedy; 1997 Peter Kairoff; 1996 Anthony 
S. Parent. 

The Committee of Lower Division Advisers 



Dean of the College, chair of the lower division advisers, and members of the 
faculty who are appointed as advisers to the Lower Division. 

The Committee on Orientation 



Dean of the College, chair of the lower division advisers, who shall serve as chair, 
dean of freshmen, dean of student services, a designated member of the adminis- 



282 



trative staff, president of the Student Government or a representative., and other 
persons from the administration and student body whom the chair shall invite to 
serve. 

The Committee on Records and Information 



Non-voting. Registrar. Voting. Dean of the College, archivist, who shall be secre- 
tary, vice-chair of the faculty, secretary of the faculty, and 1998 Leonard P. 
Roberge; 1997 Stan J. Thomas; 1996 Marcellus E. Waddill. 

The Committee on Open Curriculum 



Dean of the College, 1999 Scott W. Klein, Helga A. Welsh; 1998 William L. 
Hottinger, Susan Z. Rupp; 1997 Cecilia H. Solano, Brian L. Gorelick; 1996 Dilip K. 
Kondepudi, Linda N. Nielsen. 

The Committee for the AROTC 



Voting. Dean of the College, AROTC coordinator, professor of military science; 
and 1998 Thomas S. Goho; 1997 J. Edwin Hendricks; 1996 Allan D. Louden. 

Joint Faculty/Administration Committees 

The Joint Admissions Committee 



Dean of the College, director of admissions and financial aid, provost, and three 
faculty members of the Committee on Admissions. 

The Judicial Council 

Administration. 2000 William S. Hamilton; 1996 Kenneth A. Zick. Alternate. 2000 
Paul N. Orser. Facility. 1999 Robert W. Lovett; 1998 Katy Harriger; 1997 Mary L. 
Friedman, M. Stanley Whitley; 1996 Fred L. Horton Jr. Alternate. 2000 S. Douglas 
Beets, J. Daniel Hammond; two students from the College and one student 
alternate. 

The Committee on Student Life 



Dean of the College or his designate, dean of student services, a designated 
member of the administration; 1998 Deborah L. Best; 1997 Richard T. Williams; 
1996 Jack E. Wilkerson Jr.; and three undergraduate students. 



283 

Other Faculty Assignments 

Faculty Advisers to the Honor Council 

1998 Jane W. Albrecht, Charles M. Lewis, James L. Norris III; 1997 Doug Bland; 
1996 Donald B. Bergey, Dale Dagenbach, Peter D. Kairoff. 

Faculty Advisers to the Student Judicial Board 

1998 Philip F. Kuberski; 1997 Steven Ewing, Susan L. Faust, David H. Stroupe; 
1996 Louis R. Goldstein. 

Faculty Marshals 

John V. Baxley, Richard D. Carmichael, Barbee M. Oakes, Catherine T. Harris. 

University Senate 

President, provost, treasurer, the deans of the several schools, the associate dean 
of the Bowman Gray School of Medicine, the director of the Z. Smith Reynolds 
Library, the secretary of the University, and, with the consent of the Senate, any 
person holding the position of vice president of the University or equivalent rank, 
and the following: 

Representatives of the College: 1999 Herman E. Eure, James S. Hans, Sarah L. Watts; 1998 
Roger A. Hegstrom, Page H. Laughlin, Alton B. Pollard III; 1997 Stephen B. Boyd, 
Kathleen M. Glenn, Claudia N. Thomas; 1996 Katy Harriger, Ellen K. Kirkman, Peter D. 
Weigl. 

Representatives of the Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy: 1998 Stephen 
Ewing; 1997 E. Clayton Hipp Jr.; 1996 S. Douglas Beets. 

Representatives of the Graduate School: 1996 Gale Sigal. 

Representatives of the School of Law: 1998 George Walker; 1997 Suzanne Reynolds; 1996 
J. Wilson Parker. 

Representatives of the Babcock Graduate School of Management: 1996 Jack Verner. 

Representatives of the Bowman Gray School of Medicine: 1998 Judy Brunso-Bechtold; 1997 
Louis Kucera; 1996 Carolyn R. Ferree. 

Institutional Review Board 

Director of research and sponsored programs, Robert Jones, Daniel Frankel, 
Richard Vance; and 1998 Gary Costley, Cecil D. Price, Randall Rogan; 1997 Leah 
P. McCoy, Willie Pearson, Jack Rejeski; 1996 Dale Dagenbach. 



284 



Index 



Academic Calendar, 2, 25 
Accountancy Courses, 230 
Accounting, Master's Degree, 8, 55, 222 
Accreditation, 12 
Administration, 237 
Admission, College, 18, 241 
Admission, Wayne Calloway School of 

Business & Accountancy, 223 
Admission Application Fee, 19, 22 
Admission Deposit, 19, 21 
Admission of Handicapped Students, 19 
Admission of Transfer Students, 20 
Admission Requirements, 18 
Advanced Placement, 20 
Advising, 25 

Advisory Committees (Faculty), 280 
Africa, Courses on Other Sites, 219 
American Ethnic Studies, 64 
Analytical Finance, 8, 55, 222 
Anthropology, 65 
Application for Admission, 18 
Archeological Research, Bahamas, 220 
AROTC Scholarships, 35 
Art, 68 

Art History, 69 

Asia, Pacific Rim Courses, 219 
Asian Studies (interdisciplinary minor), 72 
Athletics, 242 
Auditing Courses, 27 
Austria, Vienna, 217 
Babcock Grad. School of Management, 7, 

239 
Bachelor of Arts Degree, 55 
Bachelor of Science Degree, 55 
Basic Requirements, 56, 58 
Beijing (China), 53, 211 
Berlin, Germany, 211 
Biology, 74 

Board of Trustees, 234 
Board of Visitors, 235 
Board of Visitors, Calloway School, 236 
Bogota, Colombia, Study in, 47, 21 1 
Bowman Gray School of Medicine, 7, 239 
Bradford Fund Awards, 34 



Brown Scholarships, 35 

Buildings and Grounds, 8 

Bulletins of WFU, 288 

Burgundy, University of, 46, 53 

Business Courses, 225 

Business and Accountancy, W. Calloway 

School of, 7,221,241 
Caldwell Scholarships, 35 
Calendar, Academic, 2, 25 
Calloway (Wayne) School of Business & 

Accountancy, 221, 241 
Career Services, 242 
Caribbean, Courses in, 220 
Carswell Scholarships, 34 
Chaplain's Office, 243 
Charges, 20-21 
Chemistry, 81 
China, Study in, 53, 21 1 
Chinese, 73, 94, 95 
Chronological History of WFU, 16 
Class Attendance, 26 
Classical Languages, 84 
Classics, 86 
Classification, 26 
CLEP, 20 

College, Administration, 237 
College History and Development, 16 
Combined Degrees in Medical 

Technology, 61 
Committees of the Faculty, 279 
Communication, 88 
Composition Condition (cc), 20, 58 
Computer Center — see Information 

Systems 
Computer Science Courses, 144 
Concessions, 48 
Corequisites for courses, 64 
Course Numbers, 64 
Course Repetition, 30 
Courses of Instruction, 64 
Courses on Other (Overseas) Sites, 219 
Courses, Overseas, 211 
Cultural Resource Preservation 

(interdisciplinary minor), 92 



285 



Dance, 207 

Dean's List, 29 

Declaring a Major, 58 

Degree Requirements, 55 

Degrees Offered, 55 

Dentistry Degree, 63 

Dijon Semester (University of 

Burgundy), 47, 53, 212 
Distribution Requirements (Refunds), 24 
Divisional Requirements, 56, 58 
Double Majors, 60 
Dropping a Course, 27 
Early Christian Studies (interdisciplinary 

minor), 93 
Early Decision, 19 
East Asian Languages and 

Literatures, 94 
East Asian Studies (foreign area), 95 
East European Studies (foreign area), 96 
Economics, 96 
Education, 101 
Education Minor (teacher education 

program), 103 
Elementary Certificate, Teaching, 103 
Emeriti, 273 
Engineering Degree,, 62 
England, Study in, 52, 214 
English, 108 

English, Proficiency in the Use of, 58 
Enrollment Statistics, 233 
Ensemble (music), 159 
Environmental Studies, 113 
Europe, Other Courses in, 219 
Examinations, 28 
Exchange Scholarships, 47 
Executive Committees (faculty) 279 
Expenses, 20 

Experiment in International Living, 54 
Faculties, Undergraduate, 250 
Faculty Adviser, 25 
Faculty, Committees of, 279 
Fees, 20 

Federal Financial Aid Programs, 46 
Federal Refund Calculation, 24 
Fields of Study, 55 
Finance and Administration, 243 



Financial Aid, 33-49, 241 

Five-Yr. Program, Accountancy, 8, 55, 222 

Food Services, 21 

Foreign Area Studies, 52, 61 

Forestry and Environmental Studies 
Degree, 63 

France, Study in, 47, 53, 191, 212 

Freiburg-im-Breisgau, Germany, 212 

French, 188 

French Exchange Scholarship, 47 

General Requirements for Degrees, 55 

Geographical Enrollment (undergrad- 
uates), 233 

German, 114 

German Exchange Scholarship, 47 

German Studies (foreign area), 118 

Germany, Berlin, 47, 211 

Gordon & Wake Forest Black Student 
Scholarships, 34 

Governing and Advisory Boards, 234 

Grade Points, 29 

Grade Reports, 29 

Grading, 28 

Graduate School, 7, 238 

Graduation Distinctions, 29 

Graylyn Inter. Conf . Center, 243 

Graylyn Scholarship, 33 

Greek, 85 

Gymnasium, 9 

Handicapped Students, Admission, 19 

Hankins Scholarships, 34 

Health and Exercise Science, 118 

Health and Exercise Science Require- 
ment, 58, 118 

Hebrew, 186 

Higher Education Act of 1965, 23 

Hiratsuka (Japan), 53, 214 

History, 123 

History and Development, WFU, 16 

History of WFU, Chronological, 16 

Holding Scholarship, 35 

Honor System, 14 

Honors Study, 50 

Hospital Charges, 22 

Hospital Insurance, 22 

Housing, 9, 25 



286 



Humanities, 129 

Immunization, 18 

Incomplete Grades, 28 

Individual Instruction, Music Fees, 22, 

160 
Information Systems, 9, 244 
Institute of European Studies, 53 
Institutional Research, 244 
Institutional Review Board, 283 
Interdisciplinary Honors, 134 
Interdisciplinary Minors, 60 
International Students, 51 
International Studies (interdisciplinary 

minor), 136 
International Studies House, 52 
International Studies, Office of, 51 
Investments and Treasurer, 244 
Italian, 196 

Italian Studies (foreign area), 137 
Italy, Study in, 52, 216 
Japan, Study in, 53, 214 
Japanese, 73, 94, 95 
Joint Majors, 60 
Journalism (minor), 139 
Kiev, Ukraine, 214 
Late Registration Fee, 22 
Latin, 85 
Latin American Studies (interdisciplinary 

minor), 140 
Law School, 7, 238 
Legal Department, 245 
Libraries, 11, 245 
Library Fines, 22 

Linguistics (interdisciplinaiy minor), 141 
Loans, 33, 47 
London Semester, 52, 214 
Major, Declaring a, 58 
Major Requirements, Options for 

Meeting, 59 
Majors, 55 

Master's Degree in Accounting, 8, 55, 222 
Mathematical Business, 144, 222 
Mathematical Economics, 97, 143 
Mathematics Courses, 147 
Mathematics and Computer Science, 143 
Max. Number of Courses in Dept, 59 



Medical School, 7 

Medical Technology, Combined Degrees, 

61 
Medieval Studies (interdisciplinary 

minor), 150 
Middle East, Courses in, 220 
Military Science, 151 
Ministerial Concessions, 48 
Minors, 60 

Moscow, Russia, Study in, 54, 215 
Motor Vehicle Registration, 22 
Music, 154 
Music Ensemble, 159 
Music Fees, Indiv. Instruction, 22 
Music, Individual Instruction, 160 
National Achievement Scholarships, 35 
National Merit Scholarships, 35 
Natural Sciences, 162 
Near Eastern Languages and 

Literature, 186 
Non-WFU Programs, Study Abroad, 54 
N. C. Legislative Tuition Grants, 48 
Open Curriculum, 50 
Opportunities for Study Abroad, 52 
Options for Meeting Major Req., 59 
Orientation and Advising, 25 
Other Charges, 22 
Other Financial Aid, 49 
Outside Assistance, Financial Aid, 49 
Overseas Courses, 211 
Parking Management Office, 22 
Part-Time Students, 26 
Pass/Fail Grades, 29 
Philosophy, 163 

Physician Assistant Program, 62 
Physics, 167 
Politics, 171 

Poteat Scholarships, 34 
Prerequisites for Courses, 64 
Presidential Scholarships, 34 
Presidents of WFU, 17 
Pro-Rata Refund, 23 
Probation, 30 
Procedures, 18 

Proficiency in the Use of English, 58 
Provost Office, 238 



287 



Psychology, 177 

Public Affairs, 245 

Purpose, Statement of, 13 

Readmission Requirements, 31 

Recognition and Accreditation, 12 

Refunds, 22 

Registration, 26 

Religion, 181 

Repetition of Courses, 30 

Req. for Continuation in the College, 30 

Requirements for Degrees, 55 

Requirements for Readmission, 31 

Residence Hall Charges, 21, 25 

Residential Language Centers, 51 

Reynolda Campus, 8 

Reynolda Hall, 8 

Reynolds Scholarships, 33 

Reynolds, Z. Smith, Library, 11 

Romance Languages, 187 

Room Change Fee, 22 

Room Charges, 21 

Russia, Study in, 54, 215 

Russian, 114 

Salamanca Semester, 53, 195, 216 

Salem College, Study at, 50 

Salem Hall, 8 

Scales Fine Arts Center, 9 

Scholarships, 33 

School of Business & Accountancy, 

Wayne Calloway, 221 
School of Business & Accountancy, 

W. Calloway, Board of Visitors, 236 
School of Law, 7, 238 
Secondary Certificate, Teaching, 102 
Senior Testing, 61 
Sociology, 198 

Spain, Study in, 47, 53, 195, 216 
Spanish, 192 

Spanish Exchange Scholarship, 47 
Spanish Studies (foreign area), 202 
Special Committees, Faculty, 281 
Special Programs, 50 
Sports Medicine, 122 
Statement of Purpose, WFU, 13 
Student Complaints, 15 



Student Health Service, 18, 22 

Student Life, 246 

Student/Stud. Spouse Employment, 49 

Studio Art, 71 

Study Abroad Opportunities, 52 

Study Abroad in Non-WF Programs, 54 

Summer Session, 247 

Summer Study, 32 

Teaching Certificate/Requirements, 102 

Telecommunication Services, 10 

Theater, 203 

Tokai University (Hiratsuka), Japan, 214 

Traffic Fines, 22 

Transcripts, 22, 29 

Transfer Credit, 20, 32 

Transfer Students, Admission of, 20 

Tribble Hall, 8 

Trustees, 234 

Tuition, 21 

Tuition Deposit, 22 

Undergraduate Faculties, 250 

Undergraduate Schools, 12 

University, 7 

University, Administration, 237 

University Relations, 247 

University Senate, 283 

Urban Studies (interdisciplinary minor), 208 

Vehicle Registration, 22 

Venice, Semester in, 52, 197, 216 

Veterans' Benefits, 49 

Vienna, Austria, 217 

Visitors, Board of, 235 

Wait Chapel, 8 

Wake Forest College, 13 

Wake Forest Honor Scholarships, 34 

Wake Forest Programs, Study Abroad, 

52 
Wake Forest University Theater, 248 
Wilson Scholarships, 34 
Winston Hall, 8 
Withdrawal from the College, 28 
Women's Studies (interdisciplinan/ minor), 

208 
Worrell Professional Center, 9 
Writing Center, 58 



288 



Bulletins of Wake Forest University 



The Undergraduate Schools 

Director of Admissions and Financial Aid 

P.O. Box 7305 Reynolda Station 

Winston-Salem, NC 27109-7305 

(910) 759-5201 

The Graduate School 

Dean of the Graduate School 

P.O. Box 7487 Reynolda Station 

Winston-Salem, NC 27109-7487 

(910) 759-5301 

The School of Law 

Director of Admissions 

P.O. Box 7206 Reynolda Station 

Winston-Salem, NC 27109-7206 

(910) 759-5437 

The Babcock Graduate School of Management 

Director of Admissions 

P.O. Box 7659 Reynolda Station 

Winston-Salem, NC 27109-7659 

(910) 759-5422 

The Bowman Gray School of Medicine 

Associate Dean for Admissions 

Medical Center Blvd. 

Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1090 

(910) 716-4265 

The Summer Session 

Dean of the Summer Session 

P.O. Box 7249 Reynolda Station 

Winston-Salem, NC 27109-7293 

(910) 759-5664 

The undergraduate bulletin is published by the University Editor's Office, Room 220 
Reynolda Hall, Reynolda Campus. Adele LaBrecque, bulletin editor. Telephone: (910) 
759-5960 



Wake Forest University is committed to administer all educational and employment activities 
without discrimination because of race, color, religion, national origin, age, sex, veteran 
status, handicapped status or disability as required by law. The University has adopted a 
procedure for the purpose of resolving discrimination complaints. Inquiries or concerns should 
be directed to Harold Holmes, dean of student services, at (910) 759-5226 or Paul N. Orser, 
associate dean of the College, at (910) 759-5311 or Gloria C. Agard, assistant director of 
human resources and director of equal employment opportunity, at (910) 759-4814.